Summary: Porphyrins with four methyl, two vinyl, and two propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings. Protoporphyrin IX occurs in hemoglobin, myoglobin, and most of the cytochromes.

Top Publications

  1. Sakamoto F, Doukas A, Farinelli W, Tannous Z, Su Y, Smith N, et al. Intracutaneous ALA photodynamic therapy: dose-dependent targeting of skin structures. Lasers Surg Med. 2011;43:621-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Potentially, intradermal ALA-PDT using various ALA concentrations may be useful for treating vascular lesions (malformations, hemangiomas, tumors), EG/AG disorders, fat or deep targets in skin. ..
  2. Saager R, Cuccia D, Saggese S, Kelly K, Durkin A. Quantitative fluorescence imaging of protoporphyrin IX through determination of tissue optical properties in the spatial frequency domain. J Biomed Opt. 2011;16:126013 pubmed publisher
    ..This method was subsequently applied to the determination of PpIX concentration from in vivo normal skin where the model-based correction determined a concentration of 1.6 ?g/ml, which is in agreement with literature. ..
  3. Liu B, Farrell T, Patterson M. Comparison of noninvasive photodynamic therapy dosimetry methods using a dynamic model of ALA-PDT of human skin. Phys Med Biol. 2012;57:825-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The AFBM was less sensitive to treatment conditions but CSOL demonstrated the best overall performance...
  4. Lee S, Jeong S, Yang H, Park C, Jin Y, Park Y. Fisetin induces Nrf2-mediated HO-1 expression through PKC-? and p38 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. J Cell Biochem. 2011;112:2352-60 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, these findings suggest that induction of HO-1 expression via Nrf2 activation may contribute to the cytoprotection exerted by fisetin against H(2)O(2) -induced oxidative stress in HUVECs. ..
  5. Valdes P, Kim A, Brantsch M, Niu C, Moses Z, Tosteson T, et al. ?-aminolevulinic acid-induced protoporphyrin IX concentration correlates with histopathologic markers of malignancy in human gliomas: the need for quantitative fluorescence-guided resection to identify regions of increasing malignancy. Neuro Oncol. 2011;13:846-56 pubmed publisher
    ..This work suggests a need for improved PpIX fluorescence detection technologies to achieve better sensitivity and quantification of PpIX in tissue during surgery. ..
  6. Luz N, Andrade B, Feijó D, Araújo Santos T, Carvalho G, Andrade D, et al. Heme oxygenase-1 promotes the persistence of Leishmania chagasi infection. J Immunol. 2012;188:4460-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data argue that HO-1 has a critical role in the L. chagasi infection and is strongly associated with the inflammatory imbalance during VL. Manipulation of HO-1 pathways during VL could serve as an adjunctive therapeutic approach. ..
  7. Ziegler V, Knaup J, Stahl D, Krammer B, Plaetzer K. Fluorescence detection and depletion of T47D breast cancer cells from human mononuclear cell-enriched blood preparations by photodynamic treatment: Basic in vitro experiments towards the removal of circulating tumor cells. Lasers Surg Med. 2011;43:548-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Breast cancer cells are efficiently killed by PDT with minor depletion of MNCs. Our findings provide a basis for the PDT of blood samples for a future depletion of CTCs. ..
  8. Li Y, Wang P, Zhao P, Zhu S, Wang X, Liu Q. Apoptosis induced by sonodynamic treatment by protoporphyrin IX on MDA-MB-231 cells. Ultrasonics. 2012;52:490-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings primarily indicate a Caspase-depended apoptosis could be induced by PpIX-SDT in MDA-MB-231 cells, and the intracellular ROS was involved during the apoptotic process. ..
  9. Chung C, Kim C, Choi K, Yoo J, Kim D, Chung K, et al. Effect of surfactant on 5-aminolevulinic acid uptake and PpIX generation in human cholangiocarcinoma cell. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2012;80:453-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Cotreatment with the surfactant resulted in an increased intracellular ALA level, PpIX formation, and phototoxicity...

More Information


  1. Kim C, Chung C, Choi K, Yoo J, Kim D, Jeong Y, et al. Effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid-based photodynamic therapy via reactive oxygen species in human cholangiocarcinoma cells. Int J Nanomedicine. 2011;6:1357-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, an increased amount of PpIX in HuCC-T1 cells induced increased production of ROS by irradiation, resulting in increased phototoxicity. ..
  2. Schauder A, Feuerstein T, Malik Z. The centrality of PBGD expression levels on ALA-PDT efficacy. Photochem Photobiol Sci. 2011;10:1310-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This enables efficient ALA-PDT, even when PBGD is not fully active. Conversely, ALAD loss resulted in reduced PpIX synthesis and consequently failure in ALA-PDT, due to the absence of compensation mechanism for ALAD. ..
  3. Paiva C, Feijó D, Dutra F, Carneiro V, Freitas G, Alves L, et al. Oxidative stress fuels Trypanosoma cruzi infection in mice. J Clin Invest. 2012;122:2531-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that oxidative stress contributes to parasite persistence in host tissues and open a new avenue for the development of anti-T. cruzi drugs...
  4. Lv Y, Fang M, Zheng J, Yang B, Li H, Xiuzigao Z, et al. Low-intensity ultrasound combined with 5-aminolevulinic acid administration in the treatment of human tongue squamous carcinoma. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2012;30:321-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The process initially damaged mitochondria, activated pro-apoptotic factors Bax and cytochrome c and suppressed the anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-2, activated caspase-3 to executed apoptosis through mitochondrial signaling pathway. ..
  5. Cai C, Teng L, Vu D, He J, Guo Y, Li Q, et al. The heme oxygenase 1 inducer (CoPP) protects human cardiac stem cells against apoptosis through activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/NRF2 signaling pathway and cytokine release. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:33720-32 pubmed
    ..These results potentially provide a simple and effective strategy to enhance survival of CSCs after transplantation and, therefore, their efficacy in repairing infarcted myocardium. ..
  6. Hiser C, Buhrow L, Liu J, Kuhn L, Ferguson Miller S. A conserved amphipathic ligand binding region influences k-path-dependent activity of cytochrome C oxidase. Biochemistry. 2013;52:1385-96 pubmed publisher
    ..The high affinity and specificity of a number of compounds for this region, and its conservation and impact on CcO activity, support its physiological significance. ..
  7. Ogino T, Kobuchi H, Munetomo K, Fujita H, Yamamoto M, Utsumi T, et al. Serum-dependent export of protoporphyrin IX by ATP-binding cassette transporter G2 in T24 cells. Mol Cell Biochem. 2011;358:297-307 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibition of ABCG2 transporter system could be a new target for the improvement of photodynamic therapy...
  8. Valdes P, Leblond F, Kim A, Harris B, Wilson B, Fan X, et al. Quantitative fluorescence in intracranial tumor: implications for ALA-induced PpIX as an intraoperative biomarker. J Neurosurg. 2011;115:11-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This study is the first to measure quantitative ALA-induced PpIX concentrations in vivo, and the results have broad implications for guidance during resection of intracranial tumors. ..
  9. Koizumi N, Harada Y, Murayama Y, Harada K, Beika M, Yamaoka Y, et al. Detection of metastatic lymph nodes using 5-aminolevulinic acid in patients with gastric cancer. Ann Surg Oncol. 2013;20:3541-8 pubmed publisher
  10. De Coster G, de Neve L, Lens L. Intraclutch variation in avian eggshell pigmentation: the anaemia hypothesis. Oecologia. 2012;170:297-304 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the overall increase in pigment darkness along the laying sequence suggests that pigments also accumulate by enhanced red blood cell production caused by anaemia due to egg production itself...
  11. Grant F, Martorell R, Flores Ayala R, Cole C, Ruth L, Ramakrishnan U, et al. Comparison of indicators of iron deficiency in Kenyan children. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;95:1231-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This trial was registered at as NCT101088958. ..
  12. Yoo J, Kim C, Chung C, Jeong Y, Kang D. 5-aminolevulinic acid-incorporated poly(vinyl alcohol) nanofiber-coated metal stent for application in photodynamic therapy. Int J Nanomedicine. 2012;7:1997-2005 pubmed publisher
    ..Necrosis and apoptosis of tumor cells occurred similarly for ALA and ALA- PVA nanofiber treatments. The ALA-PVA nanofiber-coated stent is a promising candidate for therapeutic use with cholangiocarcinoma. ..
  13. Valdes P, Leblond F, Kim A, Wilson B, Paulsen K, Roberts D. A spectrally constrained dual-band normalization technique for protoporphyrin IX quantification in fluorescence-guided surgery. Opt Lett. 2012;37:1817-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The simplicity of the method lends itself to the enticing prospect that the method could be applicable to wide-field applications in quantitative fluorescence imaging and dosimetry in photodynamic therapy. ..
  14. Park H, Jeon B, Kim H, Roh G, Shin J, Sung N, et al. Aged red garlic extract reduces lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 macrophages and acute pulmonary inflammation through haeme oxygenase-1 induction. Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2012;205:61-70 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that ARGE reduces LPS-induced nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 macrophages through HO-1 induction and suggest that ARGE may have potential effects on prevention and treatment of acute inflammatory lung injury. ..
  15. Grimm S, Mvondo D, Grune T, Breusing N. The outcome of 5-ALA-mediated photodynamic treatment in melanoma cells is influenced by vitamin C and heme oxygenase-1. Biofactors. 2011;37:17-24 pubmed publisher
    ..However, further studies are necessary to investigate more antioxidants and other substances, which might affect the outcome of photodynamic treatment in cancer therapy. ..
  16. Mochizuki N, Tanaka R, Tanaka A, Masuda T, Nagatani A. The steady-state level of Mg-protoporphyrin IX is not a determinant of plastid-to-nucleus signaling in Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:15184-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Taking these results together, we propose that the current model on plastid signaling must be revised. ..
  17. Murayama Y, Harada Y, Imaizumi K, Dai P, Nakano K, Okamoto K, et al. Precise detection of lymph node metastases in mouse rectal cancer by using 5-aminolevulinic acid. Int J Cancer. 2009;125:2256-63 pubmed publisher
    ..c) 2009 uicc. ..
  18. Giris M, Erbil Y, Depboylu B, Mete O, Turkoglu U, Abbasoglu S, et al. Heme oxygenase-1 prevents hyperthyroidism induced hepatic damage via an antioxidant and antiapoptotic pathway. J Surg Res. 2010;164:266-75 pubmed publisher
    ..We aimed to investigate the pathogenesis of liver dysfunction caused by hyperthyroidism through inducing heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression, which has antioxidant and anti-apoptotic properties...
  19. Chen R, Huang Z, Chen G, Li Y, Chen X, Chen J, et al. Kinetics and subcellular localization of 5-ALA-induced PpIX in DHL cells via two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy. Int J Oncol. 2008;32:861-7 pubmed
    ..Two-photon excitation fluorescence microscope is a useful tool for studying 5-ALA-induced PpIX subcellular localization. ..
  20. Morrow D, McCarron P, Woolfson A, Juzenas P, Juzeniene A, Iani V, et al. Novel patch-based systems for the localised delivery of ALA-esters. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2010;101:59-69 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, owing to the relatively low loadings of h-ALA required in PSA patches, the costs of clinical PDT may potentially be reduced. ..
  21. Nakonieczna J, Michta E, Rybicka M, Grinholc M, Gwizdek Wisniewska A, Bielawski K. Superoxide dismutase is upregulated in Staphylococcus aureus following protoporphyrin-mediated photodynamic inactivation and does not directly influence the response to photodynamic treatment. BMC Microbiol. 2010;10:323 pubmed publisher
    ..The fact that Sod activity increase is observed only in PDI-susceptible cells emphasizes that this is probably not a direct factor affecting S. aureus vulnerability to porphyrin-based PDI. ..
  22. Hefti M, von Campe G, Moschopulos M, Siegner A, Looser H, Landolt H. 5-aminolevulinic acid induced protoporphyrin IX fluorescence in high-grade glioma surgery: a one-year experience at a single institutuion. Swiss Med Wkly. 2008;138:180-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In these cases the additional use of intra-operatively updated imaging-based neuronavigational methods (MR, ultrasound) is needed. ..
  23. Ohnishi M, Katsuki H, Unemura K, Izumi Y, Kume T, Takada Takatori Y, et al. Heme oxygenase-1 contributes to pathology associated with thrombin-induced striatal and cortical injury in organotypic slice culture. Brain Res. 2010;1347:170-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Thrombin-induced cortical injury may be also regulated by the expression of HO-1 and the resultant production of heme degradation products such as carbon monoxide. ..
  24. Nicolai A, Li M, Kim D, Peterson S, Vanella L, Positano V, et al. Heme oxygenase-1 induction remodels adipose tissue and improves insulin sensitivity in obesity-induced diabetic rats. Hypertension. 2009;53:508-15 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest HO-1 as a potential therapeutic target for obesity and its associated health risks. ..
  25. Mi N, Liu Q, Wang X, Zhao X, Tang W, Wang P, et al. Induction of sonodynamic effect with protoporphyrin IX on isolate hepatoma-22 cells. Ultrasound Med Biol. 2009;35:680-6 pubmed publisher
    ..16% in SDT-treated group). These results indicated that the ultrasonically-induced cell killing effect could be enhanced by PpIX, and that the mitochondrial pathway might be involved in the cell damage process. ..
  26. Létoffé S, Heuck G, Delepelaire P, Lange N, Wandersman C. Bacteria capture iron from heme by keeping tetrapyrrol skeleton intact. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:11719-24 pubmed publisher
    ..YfeX and EfeB are widespread and highly conserved in bacteria. We propose that their physiological function is to retrieve iron from heme. ..
  27. Cottrell W, Paquette A, Keymel K, Foster T, Oseroff A. Irradiance-dependent photobleaching and pain in delta-aminolevulinic acid-photodynamic therapy of superficial basal cell carcinomas. Clin Cancer Res. 2008;14:4475-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Once PpIX is largely photobleached, higher irradiances allow efficient, rapid delivery of additional light. Optimal fluence at a single low irradiance is yet to be determined. ..
  28. Sharma S, Jajoo A, Dube A. 5-Aminolevulinic acid-induced protoporphyrin-IX accumulation and associated phototoxicity in macrophages and oral cancer cell lines. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2007;88:156-62 pubmed
    ..Since macrophages are responsible for production and secretion of various tumor growth mediators, the effect of selective macrophage killing on the outcome of PDT would be significant. ..
  29. Kemmner W, Wan K, Rüttinger S, Ebert B, Macdonald R, Klamm U, et al. Silencing of human ferrochelatase causes abundant protoporphyrin-IX accumulation in colon cancer. FASEB J. 2008;22:500-9 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, accumulation of intracellular PpIX because of FECH siRNA silencing provides a small-molecule-based approach to molecular imaging and molecular therapy. ..
  30. Kepshire D, Davis S, Dehghani H, Paulsen K, Pogue B. Fluorescence tomography characterization for sub-surface imaging with protoporphyrin IX. Opt Express. 2008;16:8581-93 pubmed
  31. Pogue B, Sheng C, Benevides J, Forcione D, Puricelli B, Nishioka N, et al. Protoporphyrin IX fluorescence photobleaching increases with the use of fractionated irradiation in the esophagus. J Biomed Opt. 2008;13:034009 pubmed publisher
  32. de Bruijn H, Kruijt B, van der Ploeg van den Heuvel A, Sterenborg H, Robinson D. Increase in protoporphyrin IX after 5-aminolevulinic acid based photodynamic therapy is due to local re-synthesis. Photochem Photobiol Sci. 2007;6:857-64 pubmed
    ..Therefore we conclude that the increase in PpIX fluorescence after illumination is due to local cellular re-synthesis. ..
  33. Peng C, Li Y, Liang H, Cheng J, Li Q, Sun X, et al. Detection and photodynamic therapy of inflamed atherosclerotic plaques in the carotid artery of rabbits. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2011;102:26-31 pubmed publisher
    ..ALA mediated PDT could reduce macrophage content and inhibit plaque progression, indicating a promising approach to treat inflamed atherosclerotic plaques. ..
  34. Ohgari Y, Miyata Y, Chau T, Kitajima S, Adachi Y, Taketani S. Quinolone compounds enhance delta-aminolevulinic acid-induced accumulation of protoporphyrin IX and photosensitivity of tumour cells. J Biochem. 2011;149:153-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, we now propose that the use of quinolones in combination with ALA may be an extremely effective approach for the treatment modalities for PDT of various tumour tissues in clinical practice. ..
  35. Tsoyi K, Lee T, Lee Y, Kim H, Seo H, Lee J, et al. Heme-oxygenase-1 induction and carbon monoxide-releasing molecule inhibit lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced high-mobility group box 1 release in vitro and improve survival of mice in LPS- and cecal ligation and puncture-induced sepsis model in vivo. Mol Pharmacol. 2009;76:173-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, we concluded that HO-1-derived CO reduces HMGB1 release in LPS-activated cells and LPS- or CLP-induced animal model of sepsis. ..
  36. Kim Y, Pi S, Lee Y, Lee S, Kim E. The anti-inflammatory role of heme oxygenase-1 in lipopolysaccharide and cytokine-stimulated inducible nitric oxide synthase and nitric oxide production in human periodontal ligament cells. J Periodontol. 2009;80:2045-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the regulation of HO-1 activity may be a therapeutic strategy for periodontal disease. ..
  37. Xia Z, Xu L, Zhong W, Wei J, Li N, Shao J, et al. Heme oxygenase-1 attenuates ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation by up-regulation of foxp3 T-regulatory cells, interleukin-10, and membrane-bound transforming growth factor- 1. Am J Pathol. 2007;171:1904-14 pubmed
    ..Our study indicates that HO-1 exerts its protective effect on asthma through a mechanism mediated by foxp3+CD4+CD25+ Treg cells, IL-10, and membrane-bound TGF-beta1. ..
  38. Wang X, Liu Q, Wang P, Tang W, Hao Q. Study of cell killing effect on S180 by ultrasound activating protoporphyrin IX. Ultrasonics. 2008;48:135-40 pubmed
    ..This biological mechanism might be involved in mediating the effects on S180 cells and resulting in the cell damage seen with SDT. ..
  39. Grinholc M, Kawiak A, Kurlenda J, Graczyk A, Bielawski K. Photodynamic effect of protoporphyrin diarginate (PPArg2) on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and human dermal fibroblasts. Acta Biochim Pol. 2008;55:85-90 pubmed
    ..aureus or fibroblasts when not irradiated. These results suggest that the protoporphyrin diarginate exerts a high bactericidal effect against methicillin-resistant S. aureus strain without harming eukaryotic cells. ..
  40. Zhao X, Liu Q, Tang W, Wang X, Wang P, Gong L, et al. Damage effects of protoporphyrin IX - sonodynamic therapy on the cytoskeletal F-actin of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells. Ultrason Sonochem. 2009;16:50-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results showed that cytoskeletal F-actin might represent an important target for the SDT treatment and the observed effect on F-actin and the subsequent bleb formation mainly due to apoptosis formation due to the treatment. ..
  41. Kirino M, Kirino Y, Takeno M, Nagashima Y, Takahashi K, Kobayashi M, et al. Heme oxygenase 1 attenuates the development of atopic dermatitis-like lesions in mice: implications for human disease. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008;122:290-7, 297.e1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..HO-1 levels were increased in sera and skin lesions of patients with AD. Enhancement of HO-1 attenuated the development of skin lesions in mice, suggesting that HO-1 induction offers a promising therapeutic strategy for AD. ..
  42. Bourre L, Giuntini F, Eggleston I, Wilson M, MacRobert A. 5-Aminolaevulinic acid peptide prodrugs enhance photosensitization for photodynamic therapy. Mol Cancer Ther. 2008;7:1720-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The derivatives are comparable in efficacy with 5-aminolaevulinic hexyl ester but less toxic and more stable at physiologic pH. ..
  43. von Gromoff E, Alawady A, Meinecke L, Grimm B, Beck C. Heme, a plastid-derived regulator of nuclear gene expression in Chlamydomonas. Plant Cell. 2008;20:552-67 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that Mg-protoporphyrin IX and heme may serve as plastid signals that regulate the expression of nuclear genes. ..
  44. Li M, Kim D, Tsenovoy P, Peterson S, Rezzani R, Rodella L, et al. Treatment of obese diabetic mice with a heme oxygenase inducer reduces visceral and subcutaneous adiposity, increases adiponectin levels, and improves insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. Diabetes. 2008;57:1526-35 pubmed publisher
  45. La P, Fernando A, Wang Z, Salahudeen A, Yang G, Lin Q, et al. Zinc protoporphyrin regulates cyclin D1 expression independent of heme oxygenase inhibition. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:36302-11 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations show HO independent effects of ZnPP on cyclin D1 expression and tumorigenesis. ..
  46. Nowis D, Bugajski M, Winiarska M, Bil J, Szokalska A, Salwa P, et al. Zinc protoporphyrin IX, a heme oxygenase-1 inhibitor, demonstrates potent antitumor effects but is unable to potentiate antitumor effects of chemotherapeutics in mice. BMC Cancer. 2008;8:197 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibition of HO-1 exerts antitumor effects but should not be used to potentiate antitumor effects of cancer chemotherapeutics unless procedures of selective tumor targeting of HO-1 inhibitors are developed. ..
  47. Wang X, Wang P, Tong W, Liu Q. Comparison of pharmacokinetics, intracellular localizations and sonodynamic efficacy of endogenous and exogenous protoporphyrin IX in sarcoma 180 cells. Ultrasonics. 2010;50:803-10 pubmed publisher
  48. Ding H, Sumer B, Kessinger C, Dong Y, Huang G, Boothman D, et al. Nanoscopic micelle delivery improves the photophysical properties and efficacy of photodynamic therapy of protoporphyrin IX. J Control Release. 2011;151:271-7 pubmed publisher
    ..e. 4% PpIX-conjugated micelles) for in vivo evaluation of antitumor efficacy. ..
  49. Kantelhardt S, Diddens H, Leppert J, Rohde V, Huttmann G, Giese A. Multiphoton excitation fluorescence microscopy of 5-aminolevulinic acid induced fluorescence in experimental gliomas. Lasers Surg Med. 2008;40:273-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Multiphoton microscopy of 5-ALA induced PpIX fluorescence in brain tumor tissue conceptually provides a high resolution diagnostic tool, which in addition to structural information may also provide photochemical/functional information. ..
  50. Warren C, Lohser S, Wene L, Pogue B, Bailin P, Maytin E. Noninvasive fluorescence monitoring of protoporphyrin IX production and clinical outcomes in actinic keratoses following short-contact application of 5-aminolevulinate. J Biomed Opt. 2010;15:051607 pubmed publisher
    ..Noninvasive fluorescence monitoring of PpIX may be useful to delineate areas of high PpIX accumulation within precancerous areas of the skin. ..
  51. Susanto J, Lin Y, Chen Y, Shen C, Yan Y, Tsai S, et al. Porphyrin homeostasis maintained by ABCG2 regulates self-renewal of embryonic stem cells. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e4023 pubmed publisher
    ..The ATP binding cassette transporter ABCG2 is expressed in a wide variety of somatic and embryonic stem cells. However, whether it plays an important role in stem cell maintenance remains to be defined...
  52. Peng T, Jan W, Tsai P, Huang C. Heme oxygenase-1 mediates the protective effects of ischemic preconditioning on mitigating lung injury induced by lower limb ischemia-reperfusion in rats. J Surg Res. 2011;167:e245-53 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the protective effects of IP were counteracted by SnPP. The protective effects of IP on mitigating acute lung injury induced by lower limb I/R are mediated by HO-1. ..
  53. Moon Y, Park J, Kim S, Lee J, Ahn S, Yoon J. Anticancer effect of photodynamic therapy with hexenyl ester of 5-aminolevulinic acid in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Head Neck. 2010;32:1136-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Growth inhibition by ALA-hx PDT was due to mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis. Our results suggest that ALA-hx PDT effectively induced apoptosis of YD-10B cells and can be considered as a therapeutic alternative for oral cancer. ..