sterigmatocystin

Summary

Summary: A carcinogenic mycotoxin produced in high yields by strains of the common molds, Aspergillus versicolor, A. nidulans, and an unidentified species of Bipolaris. It causes necrosis of the liver and kidney and has an inhibitory effect on orotic acid incorporation into nuclear RNA.

Top Publications

  1. Ramamoorthy V, Shantappa S, Dhingra S, Calvo A. veA-dependent RNA-pol II transcription elongation factor-like protein, RtfA, is associated with secondary metabolism and morphological development in Aspergillus nidulans. Mol Microbiol. 2012;85:795-814 pubmed publisher
    ..gene veA is necessary for the biosynthesis of several secondary metabolites, including the mycotoxin sterigmatocystin (ST)...
  2. Rank C, Nielsen K, Larsen T, Varga J, Samson R, Frisvad J. Distribution of sterigmatocystin in filamentous fungi. Fungal Biol. 2011;115:406-20 pubmed publisher
    During the last 50y, the carcinogenic mycotoxin sterigmatocystin (ST) has been reported in several phylogenetically and phenotypically different genera: Aschersonia, Aspergillus, Bipolaris, Botryotrichum, Chaetomium, Emericella, Eurotium, ..
  3. Calvo A, Wilson R, Bok J, Keller N. Relationship between secondary metabolism and fungal development. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2002;66:447-59, table of contents pubmed
    ..of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, we review the only described work that genetically links the sporulation of this fungus to the production of the mycotoxin sterigmatocystin through a shared G-protein signaling pathway.
  4. Xing X, Wang J, Xing L, Li Y, Yan X, Zhang X. Involvement of MAPK and PI3K signaling pathway in sterigmatocystin-induced G2 phase arrest in human gastric epithelium cells. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2011;55:749-60 pubmed publisher
    b>Sterigmatocystin (ST), a mycotoxin commonly found in foodstuff and feedstuff, has been shown to be a carcinogenic mycotoxin in animal models...
  5. Bayram Ö, Krappmann S, Ni M, Bok J, Helmstaedt K, Valerius O, et al. VelB/VeA/LaeA complex coordinates light signal with fungal development and secondary metabolism. Science. 2008;320:1504-6 pubmed publisher
    ..VeA bridges VelB to the nuclear master regulator of secondary metabolism, LaeA. Deletion of either velB or veA results in defects in both sexual fruiting-body formation and the production of secondary metabolites. ..
  6. Cary J, Ehrlich K, Beltz S, Harris Coward P, Klich M. Characterization of the Aspergillus ochraceoroseus aflatoxin/sterigmatocystin biosynthetic gene cluster. Mycologia. 2009;101:352-62 pubmed
    ..rambellii have been shown to accumulate both aflatoxin (AF) and the aflatoxin precursor sterigmatocystin (ST). Alhough morphologically distinct from A. nidulans, molecular characterization of A...
  7. Jurjevic Z, Peterson S, Solfrizzo M, Peraica M. Sterigmatocystin production by nine newly described Aspergillus species in section Versicolores grown on two different media. Mycotoxin Res. 2013;29:141-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Aspergillus species and four known species in section Versicolores were tested for their ability to produce sterigmatocystin on two liquid media, Czapek w/20% Sucrose Broth and Yeast Extract Broth grown in the dark for 1 week at 25 °..
  8. Guzmán de Peña D, Aguirre J, Ruiz Herrera J. Correlation between the regulation of sterigmatocystin biosynthesis and asexual and sexual sporulation in Emericella nidulans. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 1998;73:199-205 pubmed
    We analyzed the regulation of sterigmatocystin biosynthesis in wild type and mutant strains of Emericella nidulans (= Aspergillus nidulans)...
  9. Cabaret O, Puel O, Botterel F, Pean M, Bretagne S, Delaforge M. Contribution of uniformly 13C-enriched sterigmatocystin to the study of its pulmonary metabolism. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2011;25:2704-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Among these mycotoxins, sterigmatocystin is one of the most prevalent...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Kusunoki M, Misumi J, Shimada T, Aoki K, Matsuo N, Sumiyoshi H, et al. Long-term administration of the fungus toxin, sterigmatocystin, induces intestinal metaplasia and increases the proliferative activity of PCNA, p53, and MDM2 in the gastric mucosa of aged Mongolian gerbils. Environ Health Prev Med. 2011;16:224-31 pubmed publisher
    The causal agents of gastric cancer could include fungus toxins. Sterigmatocystin (ST), a fungus toxin, is a risk factor of gastric cancer. We investigated the effects of ST on the stomach tissues of Mongolian gerbils...
  2. Ma F, Misumi J, Zhao W, Aoki K, Kudo M. Long-term treatment with sterigmatocystin, a fungus toxin, enhances the development of intestinal metaplasia of gastric mucosa in Helicobacter pylori-infected Mongolian gerbils. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2003;38:360-9 pubmed
    Helicobacter pylori is a human gastric carcinogen. Sterigmatocystin (ST), a fungus toxin, is a risk factor of gastric cancer. Cytotoxin-vacuolation toxin A (VacA) present in supernatants of H...
  3. Versilovskis A, De Saeger S. Sterigmatocystin: occurrence in foodstuffs and analytical methods--an overview. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2010;54:136-47 pubmed publisher
    b>Sterigmatocystin (STC) is a mycotoxin produced by fungi of many different Aspergillus species. Other species such as Bipolaris, Chaetomium, Emiricella are also able to produce STC...
  4. Bok J, Noordermeer D, Kale S, Keller N. Secondary metabolic gene cluster silencing in Aspergillus nidulans. Mol Microbiol. 2006;61:1636-45 pubmed
    ..e. aflR) and biosynthetic genes required for biosynthesis of sterigmatocystin (ST), a carcinogenic toxin...
  5. Frisvad J, Samson R. Emericella venezuelensis, a new species with stellate ascospores producing sterigmatocystin and aflatoxin B1. Syst Appl Microbiol. 2004;27:672-80 pubmed
    ..Emericella venezuelensis produces aflatoxin B1, sterigmatocystin, and terrein and compounds with chromophores of the shamixanthone, emerin and desertorin type of compounds. E...
  6. Bok J, Keller N. LaeA, a regulator of secondary metabolism in Aspergillus spp. Eukaryot Cell. 2004;3:527-35 pubmed
    ..Deletion of laeA (DeltalaeA) blocks the expression of metabolic gene clusters, including the sterigmatocystin (carcinogen), penicillin (antibiotic), and lovastatin (antihypercholesterolemic agent) gene clusters...
  7. Frisvad J, Samson R, Smedsgaard J. Emericella astellata, a new producer of aflatoxin B, B and sterigmatocystin. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2004;38:440-5 pubmed
    ..To report on aflatoxin B(1) and B(2) production from a species of Emericella...
  8. Atoui A, Kastner C, Larey C, Thokala R, Etxebeste O, Espeso E, et al. Cross-talk between light and glucose regulation controls toxin production and morphogenesis in Aspergillus nidulans. Fungal Genet Biol. 2010;47:962-72 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study we show that in Aspergillus nidulans the effect of light on the production of the sterigmatocystin (ST) toxin depends on the glucose concentration...
  9. Zhang Y, Yao Z, Wang J, Xing L, Xia Y, Zhang X. Effects of sterigmatocystin on TNF-?, IL-6 and IL-12 expression in murine peripheral blood mononuclear cells and peritoneal macrophages in vivo. Mol Med Rep. 2012;5:1318-22 pubmed publisher
    b>Sterigmatocystin (ST) is a toxic metabolite mainly produced by the fungi Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus versicolor. ST is considered a potent carcinogen, mutagen and teratogen...
  10. Adams T, Yu J. Coordinate control of secondary metabolite production and asexual sporulation in Aspergillus nidulans. Curr Opin Microbiol. 1998;1:674-7 pubmed
    ..has provided new insights into the mechanisms coordinating production of the toxic secondary metabolite sterigmatocystin with asexual sporulation...
  11. Kato N, Brooks W, Calvo A. The expression of sterigmatocystin and penicillin genes in Aspergillus nidulans is controlled by veA, a gene required for sexual development. Eukaryot Cell. 2003;2:1178-86 pubmed
    ..Specifically, veA regulates the expression of genes implicated in the synthesis of the mycotoxin sterigmatocystin and the antibiotic penicillin...
  12. Pepeljnjak S, Slobodnjak Z, Segvic M, Peraica M, Pavlovic M. The ability of fungal isolates from human lung aspergilloma to produce mycotoxins. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2004;23:15-9 pubmed
    ..A. versicolor strains produced AFB1 and sterigmatocystin. Neither isolated Aspergillus strain produced aflatoxin G2 or ochratoxin A...
  13. Applebaum R, Marth E. Biogenesis of the C20 polyketide, aflatoxin. A review. Mycopathologia. 1981;76:103-14 pubmed
    ..The steps involved in the polyketide pathway, the six identified intermediated compounds, and the experimental techniques and analytical instrumentation used to procure information on aflatoxin biogenesis are included in this review. ..
  14. Narasaiah K, Sashidhar R, Subramanyam C. Biochemical analysis of oxidative stress in the production of aflatoxin and its precursor intermediates. Mycopathologia. 2006;162:179-89 pubmed
    ..aflatoxin precursors such as norsolorinic acid (by SRRC 162) or versicolorin (by NRRL 6196) or O-methyl sterigmatocystin (by SRRC 2043) had greater oxygen requirements and higher contents of reactive oxygen species...
  15. Sakai K, Ohte S, Ohshiro T, Matsuda D, Masuma R, Rudel L, et al. Selective inhibition of acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase 2 isozyme by flavasperone and sterigmatocystin from Aspergillus species. J Antibiot (Tokyo). 2008;61:568-72 pubmed publisher
    Five known fungal metabolites, aurasperone A, aurasperone D, averufanin, flavasperone and sterigmatocystin, were isolated from the culture broths of Aspergillus species as inhibitors of acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) in the ..
  16. Yoshinari T, Akiyama T, Nakamura K, Kondo T, Takahashi Y, Muraoka Y, et al. Dioctatin A is a strong inhibitor of aflatoxin production by Aspergillus parasiticus. Microbiology. 2007;153:2774-80 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, DotA inhibited production of sterigmatocystin, which is a toxic aflatoxin biosynthetic intermediate, and it also inhibited conidiation in Aspergillus ..
  17. Aly S, Elewa N. The effect of Egyptian honeybee propolis on the growth of Aspergillus versicolor and sterigmatocystin biosynthesis in Ras cheese. J Dairy Res. 2007;74:74-8 pubmed
    ..was tested for its antifungal effect against Aspergillus versicolor ATCC 12996 as well as biosynthesis of sterigmatocystin during ripening of Egyptian Ras cheese...
  18. Le T, Oki A, Goto M, Shimizu K. Protein O-mannosyltransferases are required for sterigmatocystin production and developmental processes in Aspergillus nidulans. Curr Genet. 2018;64:1043-1056 pubmed publisher
    Aspergillus nidulans produces sterigmatocystin (ST), a precursor of a carcinogenic secondary metabolite aflatoxin (AF), during its developmental process. ST biosynthesis has been shown to be affected by various regulatory factors...
  19. Kononenko G, Burkin A, Soboleva N. [Comparative characteristics of immunoreagents based on aflatoxin B1 hemiacetals and sterigmatocystine]. Prikl Biokhim Mikrobiol. 2002;38:571-7 pubmed
    ..The possible mechanism of hemiacetal interaction with proteins is discussed. Based on immune reagents to sterigmatocystine hemiacetal, a test system was developed for determination of sterigmatocystine at the sensitivity of 0.1 ng/ml. ..
  20. Prieto R, Yousibova G, Woloshuk C. Identification of aflatoxin biosynthesis genes by genetic complementation in an Aspergillus flavus mutant lacking the aflatoxin gene cluster. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1996;62:3567-71 pubmed
    ..The analysis of transformants containing deletions of 8B9 led to the localization of ord1 on a 3.3-kb A. flavus genomic DNA fragment of the cosmid. ..
  21. Jin Y, Bok J, Guzmán de Peña D, Keller N. Requirement of spermidine for developmental transitions in Aspergillus nidulans. Mol Microbiol. 2002;46:801-12 pubmed
    ..Vegetative growth but not sporulation or sterigmatocystin production is observed when deltaspdA is grown on media supplemented with 0.05-0.10 mM exogenous spermidine...
  22. Jakšić D, Puel O, Canlet C, Kopjar N, Kosalec I, Klarić M. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of versicolorins and 5-methoxysterigmatocystin in A549 cells. Arch Toxicol. 2012;86:1583-91 pubmed publisher
    Aspergillus versicolor and A. flavus are primary colonizers in damp dwellings, and they produce sterigmatocystin (ST) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB(1)), respectively...
  23. Kocić Tanackov S, Dimić G, Lević J, Tanackov I, Tepić A, Vujičić B, et al. Effects of onion (Allium cepa L.) and garlic (Allium sativum L.) essential oils on the Aspergillus versicolor growth and sterigmatocystin production. J Food Sci. 2012;77:M278-84 pubmed publisher
    ..bulb and garlic (Allium sativum L.) clove on the growth of Aspergillus versicolor and sterigmatocystin (STC) production were investigated. The EOs obtained by hydrodistillation were analyzed by GC/MS...
  24. Dezotti N, Zucchi T. Identification of Aspergillus nidulans genes essential for the accumulation of sterigmatocystin. Fungal Genet Biol. 2001;34:93-105 pubmed
    ..nidulans) was used as a genetic model for the identification of genes required for efficient accumulation of sterigmatocystin (ST)...
  25. Yin W, Amaike S, Wohlbach D, Gasch A, Chiang Y, Wang C, et al. An Aspergillus nidulans bZIP response pathway hardwired for defensive secondary metabolism operates through aflR. Mol Microbiol. 2012;83:1024-34 pubmed publisher
    ..region, a C6 transcription factor known for activating production of the carcinogenic and anti-predation SM, sterigmatocystin. Deletion of aflR in an overexpression rsmA (OE:rsmA) background not only eliminates sterigmatocystin ..
  26. Ma F, Zhao W, Kudo M, Aoki K, Misumi J. Inhibition of vacuolation toxin activity of Helicobacter pylori by iodine, nitrite and potentiation by sodium chloride, sterigmatocystin and fluoride. Toxicol In Vitro. 2002;16:531-7 pubmed
    ..Iodine, nitrite, sodium chloride, thiocyanate and fungus toxin sterigmatocystin are universally present in nature and could possibly be related to carcinogenesis of the stomach...
  27. Lee L, Chiou C, Linz J. Function of native OmtA in vivo and expression and distribution of this protein in colonies of Aspergillus parasiticus. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2002;68:5718-27 pubmed
    ..the filamentous fungus Aspergillus parasiticus were reported to convert the aflatoxin pathway intermediate sterigmatocystin to O-methylsterigmatocystin in vitro...
  28. Ten Bosch L, Pfohl K, Avramidis G, Wieneke S, Viöl W, Karlovsky P. Plasma-Based Degradation of Mycotoxins Produced by Fusarium, Aspergillus and Alternaria Species. Toxins (Basel). 2017;9: pubmed publisher
    ..Deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, enniatins, fumonisin B1, and T2 toxin produced by Fusarium spp., sterigmatocystin produced by Aspergillus spp. and AAL toxin produced by Alternaria alternata were used...
  29. Klich M, Yu J, Chang P, Mullaney E, Bhatnagar D, Cleveland T. Hybridization of genes involved in aflatoxin biosynthesis to DNA of aflatoxigenic and non-aflatoxigenic aspergilli. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 1995;44:439-43 pubmed
    ..flavus, A. parasiticus and A. sojae strains either lack a gene we did not examine or have genes that are not being expressed. ..
  30. Cuero R, Ouellet T, Yu J, Mogongwa N. Metal ion enhancement of fungal growth, gene expression and aflatoxin synthesis in Aspergillus flavus: RT-PCR characterization. J Appl Microbiol. 2003;94:953-61 pubmed
    ..Demonstrates at the cellular and molecular level, the significant effects of metal ions on both fungal growth and production of aflatoxin. ..
  31. Reyes Dominguez Y, Bok J, Berger H, Shwab E, Basheer A, Gallmetzer A, et al. Heterochromatic marks are associated with the repression of secondary metabolism clusters in Aspergillus nidulans. Mol Microbiol. 2010;76:1376-86 pubmed publisher
    ..components involved in heterochromatin formation show de-repression of genes involved in biosynthesis of sterigmatocystin (ST), penicillin and terrequinone A...
  32. Toda K, Kokushi E, Uno S, Shiiba A, Hasunuma H, Fushimi Y, et al. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry for Metabolite Profiling of Japanese Black Cattle Naturally Contaminated with Zearalenone and Sterigmatocystin. Toxins (Basel). 2017;9: pubmed publisher
    ..of this study was to evaluate the metabolic profile of cattle fed with or without zearalenone (ZEN) and sterigmatocystin (STC)-contaminated diets using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry metabolomics approach...
  33. Wieser J, Yu J, Adams T. Dominant mutations affecting both sporulation and sterigmatocystin biosynthesis in Aspergillus nidulans. Curr Genet. 1997;32:218-24 pubmed
    ..are not only developmentally altered but also fail to produce the toxic, carcinogenic, secondary metabolite sterigmatocystin. At least three of the mutants isolated result from dominant activating mutations in fadA which encodes the G ..
  34. Yoshinari T, Yaguchi A, Takahashi Ando N, Kimura M, Takahashi H, Nakajima T, et al. Spiroethers of German chamomile inhibit production of aflatoxin G and trichothecene mycotoxin by inhibiting cytochrome P450 monooxygenases involved in their biosynthesis. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2008;284:184-90 pubmed publisher
    ..1 and 103 microM, respectively. Our results suggest that the spiroethers inhibited AFG(1) and 3-ADON production by inhibiting CYPA and TRI4, respectively. ..
  35. Abdel Wahhab M, Hasan A, Aly S, Mahrous K. Adsorption of sterigmatocystin by montmorillonite and inhibition of its genotoxicity in the Nile tilapia fish (Oreachromis nilaticus). Mutat Res. 2005;582:20-7 pubmed
    b>Sterigmatocystin (Stg) is closely related to the mycotoxin aflatoxin as a precursor in aflatoxin biosynthesis and classified as an IARC Group-2B carcinogen...
  36. Yao D, Cao H, Wen S, Liu D, Bai Y, Zheng W. A novel biosensor for sterigmatocystin constructed by multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) modified with aflatoxin-detoxifizyme (ADTZ). Bioelectrochemistry. 2006;68:126-33 pubmed
    b>Sterigmatocystin, ST, is carcinogenic mycotoxin with toxicity second to aflatoxins, contaminated in foods- and feeds-stuff widely...
  37. Zinedine A, Fernandez Franzón M, Manes J, Manyes L. Multi-mycotoxin contamination of couscous semolina commercialized in Morocco. Food Chem. 2017;214:440-446 pubmed publisher
    ..deoxynivalenol (DON), 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (15-ADON), 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (3-ADON), nivalenol (NIV), sterigmatocystin (STG), zearalenone (ZEA), four enniatins, T-2 and HT-2 toxins)...
  38. Nützmann H, Fischer J, Scherlach K, Hertweck C, Brakhage A. Distinct amino acids of histone H3 control secondary metabolism in Aspergillus nidulans. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2013;79:6102-9 pubmed publisher
    ..major changes in the expression patterns at both the transcriptional and metabolite levels of the penicillin, sterigmatocystin, and orsellinic acid biosynthesis gene clusters were detected...
  39. Aleksic B, Draghi M, Ritoux S, Bailly S, Lacroix M, Oswald I, et al. Aerosolization of mycotoxins after growth of toxinogenic fungi on wallpaper. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrated that mycophenolic acid, sterigmatocystin and macrocyclic trichothecenes (sum of 4 major compounds) could be produced at levels of 1.8, 112.1 and 27...
  40. Jiao P, Mudur S, Gloer J, Wicklow D. Kipukasins, nucleoside derivatives from Aspergillus versicolor. J Nat Prod. 2007;70:1308-11 pubmed
    ..The bioactivity of the original A. versicolor extracts was accounted for mainly by the presence of the known metabolite sterigmatocystin, but kipukasins A and B showed modest activity in assays against Gram-positive bacteria.
  41. Cai S, Zhu T, Du L, Zhao B, Li D, Gu Q. Sterigmatocystins from the deep-sea-derived fungus Aspergillus versicolor. J Antibiot (Tokyo). 2011;64:193-6 pubmed publisher
    Three new sterigmatocystin derivatives, oxisterigmatocystin A (1), oxisterigmatocystin B (2) and oxisterigmatocystin C (3), together with one known compound, 5-methoxysterigmatocystin (4), were isolated from the deep-sea-derived fungus ..
  42. Versilovskis A, Van Peteghem C, De Saeger S. Determination of sterigmatocystin in cheese by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2009;26:127-33 pubmed publisher
    Different cheese samples produced in Latvia (eight) and Belgium (13) were analysed for their sterigmatocystin (STC) content. Only two (9.5%) of the samples were positive for STC with concentration levels of 1.23 and 0...
  43. Yabe K, Nakajima H. Enzyme reactions and genes in aflatoxin biosynthesis. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2004;64:745-55 pubmed
    ..b>Sterigmatocystin is a penultimate precursor of aflatoxins and also a toxic and carcinogenic substance produced by many species,..
  44. Udwary D, Casillas L, Townsend C. Synthesis of 11-hydroxyl O-methylsterigmatocystin and the role of a cytochrome P-450 in the final step of aflatoxin biosynthesis. J Am Chem Soc. 2002;124:5294-303 pubmed
    ..Having secured the role of HOMST in aflatoxin formation, the mechanism of the second oxidative cycle of this P-450 is considered. ..
  45. Moore G, Mack B, Beltz S. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Closely Related Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus Species Obtained from the Ivory Coast. Genome Biol Evol. 2015;8:729-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Both species secrete copious amounts of aflatoxin B1 and sterigmatocystin, because each of their genomes contains clustered genes for biosynthesis of these mycotoxins...
  46. Itoh E, Odakura R, Oinuma K, Shimizu M, Masuo S, Takaya N. Sirtuin E is a fungal global transcriptional regulator that determines the transition from the primary growth to the stationary phase. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:11043-11054 pubmed publisher
    ..SirE? exhibited decreased mycelial autolysis, conidiophore development, sterigmatocystin biosynthesis, and production of extracellular hydrolases...
  47. Seo J, Guan Y, Yu J. Suppressor mutations bypass the requirement of fluG for asexual sporulation and sterigmatocystin production in Aspergillus nidulans. Genetics. 2003;165:1083-93 pubmed
    ..Loss of fluG results in the blockage of both conidiation and production of the mycotoxin sterigmatocystin (ST)...
  48. Cui J, Wang J, Huang S, Jiang X, Li Y, Wu W, et al. Sterigmatocystin induced apoptosis in human pulmonary cells in vitro. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2017;69:695-699 pubmed publisher
    b>Sterigmatocystin (ST) is generally recognized as a potential carcinogen, mutagen and teratogen...
  49. Tanaka K, Sagou Y, Nakagawa H, Naito S, Kushiro M. Preparation of a reference material containing sterigmatocystin. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2008;25:1141-6 pubmed publisher
    To assure the homogeneity of a reference material for the mycotoxin sterigmatocystin (STE), a study was first conducted to prepare a reference material of rice containing the colouring Food Red 106...
  50. Cabaret O, Puel O, Botterel F, Pean M, Khoufache K, Costa J, et al. Metabolic detoxication pathways for sterigmatocystin in primary tracheal epithelial cells. Chem Res Toxicol. 2010;23:1673-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Among these mycotoxins, sterigmatocystin is one of the most prevalent...
  51. Bayram Ã, Feussner K, Dumkow M, Herrfurth C, Feussner I, Braus G. Changes of global gene expression and secondary metabolite accumulation during light-dependent Aspergillus nidulans development. Fungal Genet Biol. 2016;87:30-53 pubmed publisher
    ..like antitumoral terrequinone A or like emericellamide start under light conditions, whereas the mycotoxin sterigmatocystin or asperthecin and emodin appear under dark conditions during sexual development...
  52. Zhao Y, Huang J, Ma L, Wang F. Development and validation of a simple and fast method for simultaneous determination of aflatoxin B1 and sterigmatocystin in grains. Food Chem. 2017;221:11-17 pubmed publisher
    ..method was developed for the simultaneous determination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and sterigmatocystin (STC) in rice, wheat, maize, oat, rye and barley grains based on a modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, ..
  53. Fog Nielsen K. Mycotoxin production by indoor molds. Fungal Genet Biol. 2003;39:103-17 pubmed
    ..The worst-case scenario for homeowners is produced by consecutive episodes of water damage that promote fungal growth and mycotoxin synthesis, followed by drier conditions that facilitate the liberation of spores and hyphal fragments. ..