muscimol

Summary

Summary: A neurotoxic isoxazole isolated from species of AMANITA. It is obtained by decarboxylation of IBOTENIC ACID. Muscimol is a potent agonist of GABA-A RECEPTORS and is used mainly as an experimental tool in animal and tissue studies.

Top Publications

  1. Halverson H, Freeman J. Medial auditory thalamic input to the lateral pontine nuclei is necessary for auditory eyeblink conditioning. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2010;93:92-8 pubmed publisher
    ..An additional session was given with a muscimol (0.5muL, 10mM) or saline infusion targeting the LPN followed by a recovery session with no infusions...
  2. Lee I, Lim E. Intracisternal or intrathecal glycine, taurine, or muscimol inhibit bicuculline-induced allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in mice. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2010;31:907-14 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the effects of GABA and glycine on analgesia in the central nervous system. Glycine, taurine, or muscimol was injected with bicuculline into the cistern magna or the lumbar subarachnoidal space in ICR mice...
  3. Wirtshafter D, Stratford T. Evidence for motivational effects elicited by activation of GABA-A or dopamine receptors in the nucleus accumbens shell. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2010;96:342-6 pubmed publisher
    Microinjections of the inhibitory GABA-A receptor agonist muscimol into the shell region of the nucleus accumbens (AcbSh) have been reported to induce large increases in food intake, but the effect of these injections on motivational ..
  4. Hu B, Chen H, Feng H, Zeng Y, Yang L, Fan Z, et al. Disrupted topography of the acquired trace-conditioned eyeblink responses in guinea pigs after suppression of cerebellar cortical inhibition to the interpositus nucleus. Brain Res. 2010;1337:41-55 pubmed publisher
    ..In the same animals, the acquired trace CRs were abolished by microinjections of the GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol and were unaffected by microinjections of the artificial cerebrospinal fluid...
  5. Noudoost B, Moore T. A reliable microinjectrode system for use in behaving monkeys. J Neurosci Methods. 2011;194:218-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The system is inexpensive, reusable and easy to fabricate; it minimizes neural tissue damage and achieves reliable single-neuron recordings at the injection site. ..
  6. Faure A, Richard J, Berridge K. Desire and dread from the nucleus accumbens: cortical glutamate and subcortical GABA differentially generate motivation and hedonic impact in the rat. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11223 pubmed publisher
    ..Microinjections of a GABA(A) agonist (muscimol), or of a glutamate AMPA antagonist (DNQX) in medial shell of rats were assessed for generation of hedonic "..
  7. Winters B, Bartko S, Saksida L, Bussey T. Muscimol, AP5, or scopolamine infused into perirhinal cortex impairs two-choice visual discrimination learning in rats. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2010;93:221-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In Experiment 1, daily pre-training inactivation of PRh with the GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol (0.5 microg/hemisphere) significantly impaired acquisition of the two-choice visual discrimination...
  8. Stratford T, Wirtshafter D. Effects of muscimol, amphetamine, and DAMGO injected into the nucleus accumbens shell on food-reinforced lever pressing by undeprived rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2012;101:499-503 pubmed publisher
    ..large increases in food intake in nondeprived animals can be induced by injections of both the GABA(A) agonist muscimol and the ?-opioid agonist DAMGO into the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh), while injections of the catecholamine ..
  9. Ludvig N, Switzer R, Tang H, Kuzniecky R. Autoradiographic evidence for the transmeningeal diffusion of muscimol into the neocortex in rats. Brain Res. 2012;1441:1-8 pubmed publisher
    Electrophysiological and behavioral studies have demonstrated that muscimol administered through the cranial meninges can prevent focal neocortical seizures...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Gilmartin M, Helmstetter F. Trace and contextual fear conditioning require neural activity and NMDA receptor-dependent transmission in the medial prefrontal cortex. Learn Mem. 2010;17:289-96 pubmed publisher
    ..of trace fear conditioning using microinfusions of the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptor agonist muscimol. We also investigated the role of prefrontal N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated signaling in trace ..
  2. Hu B, Yang L, Huang L, Chen H, Zeng Y, Feng H, et al. Effect of cerebellar reversible inactivations on the acquisition of trace conditioned eyeblink responses in guinea pigs: comparison of short and long trace intervals. Neurosci Lett. 2009;459:41-5 pubmed publisher
    ..It was found that inactivations of the left intermediate cerebellum with a GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol during training completely prevented the acquisition of TEBC using a relatively short (50 ms) TI, instead of the ..
  3. Corbit L, Janak P. Posterior dorsomedial striatum is critical for both selective instrumental and Pavlovian reward learning. Eur J Neurosci. 2010;31:1312-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we demonstrate that both S-O and R-O associations are required for selective Pavlovian-instrumental transfer. ..
  4. Das V, Leigh R, Swann M, Thurtell M. Muscimol inactivation caudal to the interstitial nucleus of Cajal induces hemi-seesaw nystagmus. Exp Brain Res. 2010;205:405-13 pubmed publisher
    ..in Exp Brain Res 119(4):436-452 (1998), who inactivated INC in monkeys with muscimol (a GABA(A) agonist) and induced failure of vertical gaze-holding (neural integrator) function but not hemi-SSN...
  5. Shichinohe N, Akao T, Kurkin S, Fukushima J, Kaneko C, Fukushima K. Memory and decision making in the frontal cortex during visual motion processing for smooth pursuit eye movements. Neuron. 2009;62:717-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Bilateral muscimol injection into SEF resulted in directional errors in smooth pursuit, errors of whether to pursue, and impairment ..
  6. Mahler S, Berridge K. Which cue to "want?" Central amygdala opioid activation enhances and focuses incentive salience on a prepotent reward cue. J Neurosci. 2009;29:6500-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Conversely, inactivation of CeA by muscimol microinjection (0.25 microg) suppressed approach, nibbles, and sniffs of the prepotent CS...
  7. Zendehdel M, Baghbanzadeh A, Babapour V, Cheraghi J. The effects of bicuculline and muscimol on glutamate-induced feeding behavior in broiler cockerels. J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol. 2009;195:715-20 pubmed publisher
    ..examine the effects of intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of bicuculline (GABA(A) receptor antagonist) and muscimol (GABA(A) receptor agonist) on glutamate-induced eating response in 24-h food-deprived (FD24) broiler cockerels...
  8. Verdurand M, Fillman S, Weickert C, Zavitsanou K. Increases in [3H]muscimol and [3H]flumazenil binding in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia are linked to ?4 and ?2S mRNA levels respectively. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e52724 pubmed publisher
    ..GABA orthosteric and the benzodiazepine allosteric binding sites were assessed autoradiographically using [(3)H]Muscimol and [(3)H]Flumazenil, respectively, in a large cohort of individuals with schizophrenia (n?=?37) and their ..
  9. Baptiste S, Tang H, Kuzniecky R, Devinsky O, French J, Ludvig N. Comparison of the antiepileptic properties of transmeningeally delivered muscimol, lidocaine, midazolam, pentobarbital and GABA, in rats. Neurosci Lett. 2010;469:421-4 pubmed publisher
    This study compared the potencies of epidurally delivered muscimol, lidocaine, midazolam, pentobarbital and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) to prevent focal neocortical seizures induced by locally applied acetylcholine (Ach), in rats (n=5)...
  10. Desmurget M, Turner R. Motor sequences and the basal ganglia: kinematics, not habits. J Neurosci. 2010;30:7685-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Infusion of muscimol (a GABA(A) agonist) into sGPi caused dysmetria and slowing of individual movements, but these impairments were ..
  11. Rusyniak D, Zaretsky D, Zaretskaia M, DiMicco J. The role of orexin-1 receptors in physiologic responses evoked by microinjection of PgE2 or muscimol into the medial preoptic area. Neurosci Lett. 2011;498:162-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Microinjections of prostaglandin E2 (PgE2) or the GABA(A) agonist muscimol into the mPOA cause similar increases in body temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure...
  12. Gussin H, Tomlinson I, Cao D, Qian H, Rosenthal S, Pepperberg D. Quantum dot conjugates of GABA and muscimol: binding to ?1?2?2 and ?1 GABA(A) receptors. ACS Chem Neurosci. 2013;4:435-43 pubmed publisher
    ..nanocrystal (quantum dot; qdot) conjugated to pegylated derivatives of the GABA receptor agonists GABA and muscimol (GABA-qdots and muscimol-qdots, respectively)...
  13. Stratford T, Wirtshafter D. Injections of muscimol into the paraventricular thalamic nucleus, but not mediodorsal thalamic nuclei, induce feeding in rats. Brain Res. 2013;1490:128-33 pubmed publisher
    ..In the current study, we examined whether inhibition of cells in the PVT with the GABA(A) agonist muscimol could alter food intake in non-deprived rats...
  14. Monosov I, Thompson K. Frontal eye field activity enhances object identification during covert visual search. J Neurophysiol. 2009;102:3656-72 pubmed publisher
    ..A minimum level of selectivity was necessary for target detection and a higher level for target identification. Muscimol inactivation of FEF produced spatially selective perceptual deficits in the covert search task that were ..
  15. McLeod M, Scarr E, Dean B. Effects of benzodiazepine treatment on cortical GABA(A) and muscarinic receptors: studies in schizophrenia and rats. Psychiatry Res. 2010;179:139-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, the benzodiazepine binding site, but not the muscimol binding site, was decreased in the parietal cortex of subjects with schizophrenia independent of benzodiazepine ..
  16. Heiss J, Walbridge S, Asthagiri A, Lonser R. Image-guided convection-enhanced delivery of muscimol to the primate brain. J Neurosurg. 2010;112:790-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Muscimol is a potent gamma-aminobutyric acid-A receptor agonist that temporarily and selectively suppresses neurons...
  17. Jafari Sabet M, Jannat Dastjerdi I. Muscimol state-dependent memory: involvement of dorsal hippocampal mu-opioid receptors. Behav Brain Res. 2009;202:5-10 pubmed publisher
    ..agonist and intra-dorsal hippocampal (intra-CA1) injections of naloxone, a mu-opioid receptor antagonist on muscimol state-dependent memory were examined in mice...
  18. Wu G, Yao J, Zhang L, Li X, Fan Z, Yang Y, et al. Reevaluating the role of the medial prefrontal cortex in delay eyeblink conditioning. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2012;97:277-88 pubmed publisher
    ..of the mPFC in DEC with a soft or loud tone as the conditioned stimulus (CS) by using electrolytic lesions or muscimol inactivation of guinea pig mPFC...
  19. Pulman K, Somerville E, Clifton P. Intra-accumbens baclofen, but not muscimol, mimics the effects of food withdrawal on feeding behaviour. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2010;97:156-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we compare the effects of the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen and GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol, infused into the nucleus accumbens shell, on food intake and related behavior patterns...
  20. Travers J, Herman K, Travers S. Suppression of third ventricular NPY-elicited feeding following medullary reticular formation infusions of muscimol. Behav Neurosci. 2010;124:225-33 pubmed publisher
    ..neuropeptide Y 3-36 in awake, freely moving rats and determined whether focal RF infusions of the GABAA agonist muscimol suppressed eating...
  21. Blum S, Hebert A, Dash P. A role for the prefrontal cortex in recall of recent and remote memories. Neuroreport. 2006;17:341-4 pubmed
  22. Kotz C, Wang C, Teske J, Thorpe A, Novak C, Kiwaki K, et al. Orexin A mediation of time spent moving in rats: neural mechanisms. Neuroscience. 2006;142:29-36 pubmed
    ..Orexin A affects local GABA release and we co-injected orexin A with a GABA agonist, muscimol, in each brain site...
  23. Koya E, Uejima J, Wihbey K, Bossert J, Hope B, Shaham Y. Role of ventral medial prefrontal cortex in incubation of cocaine craving. Neuropharmacology. 2009;56 Suppl 1:177-85 pubmed publisher
    ..After 30 withdrawal days, ventral but not dorsal injections of muscimol+baclofen (GABAa+GABAb receptor agonists that inhibit neuronal activity) decreased extinction responding...
  24. Lewis M, Gould T. Reversible inactivation of the entorhinal cortex disrupts the establishment and expression of latent inhibition of cued fear conditioning in C57BL/6 mice. Hippocampus. 2007;17:462-70 pubmed
    ..The present study used reversible inactivation of the EC to address this issue. The GABA agonist muscimol (0.5 microg/side) was directly infused into the EC of mice prior to CS preexposure, training, or testing...
  25. Kasamatsu T, Mizobe K, Sutter E. Muscimol and baclofen differentially suppress retinotopic and nonretinotopic responses in visual cortex. Vis Neurosci. 2005;22:839-58 pubmed
    ..e. long-range coupling). We compared the suppressive effects of a GABA(A)-receptor agonist, muscimol, on the FLC and SDC with those of a GABA(B)-receptor agonist, baclofen, and found that muscimol more strongly ..
  26. Condy C, Wattiez N, Rivaud Pechoux S, Tremblay L, Gaymard B. Antisaccade deficit after inactivation of the principal sulcus in monkeys. Cereb Cortex. 2007;17:221-9 pubmed
    ..Our results are compatible with a partitioning of the principal sulcus into functional subregions, in which a well-delineated area is critically involved in RS suppression. ..
  27. Nunez J, McCarthy M. Evidence for an extended duration of GABA-mediated excitation in the developing male versus female hippocampus. Dev Neurobiol. 2007;67:1879-90 pubmed
    ..This converging evidence infers that sex affects the duration of GABA(A) receptor-mediated excitation during normal hippocampal development, and provides a mechanism by which the effect is mediated. ..
  28. Newell K, Zavitsanou K, Jew S, Huang X. Alterations of muscarinic and GABA receptor binding in the posterior cingulate cortex in schizophrenia. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2007;31:225-33 pubmed
    ..we used quantitative autoradiography to investigate the binding of [(3)H]pirenzepine, [(3)H]AF-DX 384 and [(3)H]muscimol, which respectively label M1/4 and M2/4 muscarinic and GABA(A) receptors, in the PCC of schizophrenia and control ..
  29. Gavello Baudy S, Le Merrer J, Decorte L, David V, Cazala P. Self-administration of the GABAA agonist muscimol into the medial septum: dependence on dopaminergic mechanisms. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2008;201:219-28 pubmed publisher
    ..We used intracranial self-administration to determine whether the GABAA agonist muscimol or antagonist bicuculline might have rewarding effects when infused into the MSDB...
  30. Crochet S, Onoe H, Sakai K. A potent non-monoaminergic paradoxical sleep inhibitory system: a reverse microdialysis and single-unit recording study. Eur J Neurosci. 2006;24:1404-12 pubmed
    ..We found that muscimol, a GABAA receptor agonist, induced a significant increase in paradoxical sleep (PS) only when applied to a ..
  31. Haruta M, Hata Y. Experience-driven axon retraction without binocular imbalance in developing visual cortex. Curr Biol. 2007;17:37-42 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that a homosynaptic associative mechanism, rather than a heterosynaptic competition between inputs, may play an important role in experience-driven axon retraction. ..
  32. Vanini G, Torterolo P, McGregor R, Chase M, Morales F. GABAergic processes in the mesencephalic tegmentum modulate the occurrence of active (rapid eye movement) sleep in guinea pigs. Neuroscience. 2007;145:1157-67 pubmed
    ..In order to determine the effects on AS of the suppression of neuronal activity in these regions, muscimol, a GABA receptor A (GABA(A)) receptor agonist, and bicuculline, a GABA(A) receptor antagonist, were microinjected ..
  33. Bizley J, Nodal F, Parsons C, King A. Role of auditory cortex in sound localization in the midsagittal plane. J Neurophysiol. 2007;98:1763-74 pubmed
    ..This was achieved either by subdural placement of Elvax implants containing the GABA A receptor agonist muscimol or by making aspiration lesions after determining the approximate location of A1 electrophysiologically...
  34. Desmurget M, Turner R. Testing basal ganglia motor functions through reversible inactivations in the posterior internal globus pallidus. J Neurophysiol. 2008;99:1057-76 pubmed
    ..current hypotheses on the contribution of the basal ganglia (BG) to motor control, we examined the effects of muscimol-induced inactivations in the skeletomotor region of the internal globus pallidus (sGPi) on visually directed ..
  35. Halverson H, Poremba A, Freeman J. Medial auditory thalamus inactivation prevents acquisition and retention of eyeblink conditioning. Learn Mem. 2008;15:532-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Rats were given saline or muscimol infusions into the MATN contralateral to the trained eye before each of four conditioning sessions with an ..
  36. de Menezes R, Zaretsky D, Sarkar S, Fontes M, DiMicco J. Microinjection of muscimol into the periaqueductal gray suppresses cardiovascular and neuroendocrine response to air jet stress in conscious rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2008;295:R881-90 pubmed publisher
    Microinjection of the neuronal inhibitor muscimol into the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) suppresses increases in heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and circulating levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) evoked in air ..
  37. Kalmbach B, Ohyama T, Kreider J, Riusech F, Mauk M. Interactions between prefrontal cortex and cerebellum revealed by trace eyelid conditioning. Learn Mem. 2009;16:86-95 pubmed publisher
  38. Farrar A, Font L, Pereira M, Mingote S, Bunce J, Chrobak J, et al. Forebrain circuitry involved in effort-related choice: Injections of the GABAA agonist muscimol into ventral pallidum alter response allocation in food-seeking behavior. Neuroscience. 2008;152:321-30 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present experiments, infusions of the GABA(A) agonist muscimol (5.0-10...
  39. Ponnusamy R, Poulos A, Fanselow M. Amygdala-dependent and amygdala-independent pathways for contextual fear conditioning. Neuroscience. 2007;147:919-27 pubmed
    ..Normally, learning is dominated by the more efficient primary pathway, which prevents learning in the alternate pathway. However, alternate pathways compensate when the dominant pathway is compromised. ..
  40. Kuramoto S, Yasuhara T, Agari T, Kondo A, Matsui T, Miyoshi Y, et al. Injection of muscimol, a GABAa agonist into the anterior thalamic nucleus, suppresses hippocampal neurogenesis in amygdala-kindled rats. Neurol Res. 2009;31:407-13 pubmed publisher
    ..in the subgranular zone of the hippocampus were explored using unilateral amygdala-kindled rats with or without muscimol, a gamma-aminobutyric acid a (GABAa) agonist injection into the bilateral anterior thalamic nuclei (AN)...
  41. Gleason N, Gallos G, Zhang Y, Emala C. The GABAA agonist muscimol attenuates induced airway constriction in guinea pigs in vivo. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2009;106:1257-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Airway smooth muscle cell membrane hyperpolarization contributes to relaxation. We hypothesized that muscimol, a selective GABA(A) agonist, could act on endogenous GABA(A) channels expressed on airway smooth muscle to ..
  42. Allen T, Narayanan N, Kholodar Smith D, Zhao Y, Laubach M, Brown T. Imaging the spread of reversible brain inactivations using fluorescent muscimol. J Neurosci Methods. 2008;171:30-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Muscimol is a GABA A-agonist that causes rapid and reversible suppression of neurophysiological activity...
  43. Chowdhury S, DeAngelis G. Fine discrimination training alters the causal contribution of macaque area MT to depth perception. Neuron. 2008;60:367-77 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings show that the contribution of particular brain area to task performance can change dramatically as a result of learning new tasks. ..
  44. de Menezes R, Zaretsky D, Fontes M, DiMicco J. Microinjection of muscimol into caudal periaqueductal gray lowers body temperature and attenuates increases in temperature and activity evoked from the dorsomedial hypothalamus. Brain Res. 2006;1092:129-37 pubmed
    Microinjection of the neuronal inhibitor muscimol into the midbrain lateral/dorsolateral periaqueductal gray (l/dlPAG) suppresses increases in heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) evoked by microinjection of the GABA(A) ..
  45. Pakaprot N, Kim S, Thompson R. The role of the cerebellar interpositus nucleus in short and long term memory for trace eyeblink conditioning. Behav Neurosci. 2009;123:54-61 pubmed publisher
    ..the IP nucleus in both initial learning and retention, and in long-term retention of the trace eyeblink CR, using muscimol infusion to reversibly inactivate the IP nucleus...
  46. Hu B, Lin X, Huang L, Yang L, Feng H, Sui J. Involvement of the ipsilateral and contralateral cerebellum in the acquisition of unilateral classical eyeblink conditioning in guinea pigs. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2009;30:141-52 pubmed publisher
    ..received one CS-US session followed by three CS-US sessions (sessions 2 to 4), during which microinjections of muscimol, a GABA(A) receptor agonist, were performed to reversibly inactivate the cerebellum unilaterally prior to ..
  47. Raccuglia D, Mueller U. Focal uncaging of GABA reveals a temporally defined role for GABAergic inhibition during appetitive associative olfactory conditioning in honeybees. Learn Mem. 2013;20:410-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Injection of GABA-A receptor agonist muscimol 20 min before but not 20 min after associative conditioning affects memory performance...
  48. Cárdenas J, Reyes Pérez V, Hernández Navarro M, Dorantes Barrón A, Almazán S, Estrada Reyes R. Anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects of an aqueous extract of Tanacetum parthenium L. Schultz-Bip (Asteraceae) in mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2017;200:22-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Employing the behavioral tests, synergism and antagonism experiments with Alprazolam, Muscimol, and Picrotoxin were carried out in the PMT...
  49. Barbosa F, Pontes I, Ribeiro S, Ribeiro A, Silva R. Differential roles of the dorsal hippocampal regions in the acquisition of spatial and temporal aspects of episodic-like memory. Behav Brain Res. 2012;232:269-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Rats treated with muscimol in CA1 explored all the objects equally well, irrespective of place or presentation time...
  50. Rakotomamonjy J, Levenes C, Baulieu E, Schumacher M, Ghoumari A. Novel protective effect of mifepristone on detrimental GABAA receptor activity to immature Purkinje neurons. FASEB J. 2011;25:3999-4010 pubmed publisher
    ..Neuroprotection by mifepristone is dose-dependently decreased by the agonist of GABA(A) receptors muscimol and by caffeine, an agonist of internal calcium store release...
  51. Will M, Pritchett C, Parker K, Sawani A, Ma H, Lai A. Behavioral characterization of amygdala involvement in mediating intra-accumbens opioid-driven feeding behavior. Behav Neurosci. 2009;123:781-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Confirming previous findings, temporary inactivation of the CeA with the GABAA agonist muscimol reduced DAMGO (D-Ala2-NMe-Phe4-Glyol5-enkephalin)-induced and baseline food intake, whereas intra-BLA muscimol ..
  52. Nelson S, Kong L, Liu X, Yan J. Auditory cortex directs the input-specific remodeling of thalamus. Hear Res. 2015;328:1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..the input-specific remodeling of MGBv was eliminated when the AI was inactivated using cortical application of muscimol. For the MGBv neurons tuned to the same frequency as the stimulated ICc neurons, their tunings were kept but ..
  53. Yoon S, Kim J, Lee B, Choi K, Shim I, Choi S, et al. Role for GABA agonists in the nucleus accumbens in regulating morphine self-administration. Neurosci Lett. 2009;462:289-93 pubmed publisher
    ..After establishing stable baseline responses, rats were given microinjections of the GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol (0, 250 and 500 ng/microl, bilateral) or the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen (0, 100 and 250 ng/microl, ..