marine toxins


Summary: Toxic or poisonous substances elaborated by marine flora or fauna. They include also specific, characterized poisons or toxins for which there is no more specific heading, like those from poisonous FISHES.

Top Publications

  1. McCarron P, Giddings S, Quilliam M. A mussel tissue certified reference material for multiple phycotoxins. Part 2: liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, sample extraction and quantitation procedures. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2011;400:835-46 pubmed publisher
    ..The developed methods also have excellent potential for application in routine regulatory monitoring of shellfish toxins. ..
  2. Turner A, Hatfield R. Refinement of AOAC Official Method 2005.06 liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection method to improve performance characteristics for the determination of paralytic shellfish toxins in king and queen scallops. J AOAC Int. 2012;95:129-42 pubmed
    ..It is, therefore, recommended as a more appropriate option for the routine monitoring of PSP toxins in these species. ..
  3. Trainer V, Moore L, Bill B, Adams N, Harrington N, Borchert J, et al. Diarrhetic shellfish toxins and other lipophilic toxins of human health concern in Washington State. Mar Drugs. 2013;11:1815-35 pubmed publisher
    ..The greater than average Fraser River flow during the summers of 2011 and 2012 may have provided an environment conducive to dinoflagellates and played a role in the prevalence of toxigenic Dinophysis in Puget Sound. ..
  4. Konoki K, Saito K, Matsuura H, Sugiyama N, Cho Y, Yotsu Yamashita M, et al. Binding of diarrheic shellfish poisoning toxins to okadaic acid binding proteins purified from the sponge Halichondria okadai. Bioorg Med Chem. 2010;18:7607-10 pubmed publisher
    ..3 with an EC(50) of 92±8.4 nM and 87±13 nM, respectively. These results suggest that the blockage of OA-induced cytotoxicity by OABPs 2.1 and 2.3 may be involved in regulating symbiotic relationships present in the sponge H. okadai. ..
  5. Honsell G, De Bortoli M, Boscolo S, Dell Aversano C, Battocchi C, Fontanive G, et al. Harmful dinoflagellate Ostreopsis cf. ovata Fukuyo: detection of ovatoxins in field samples and cell immunolocalization using antipalytoxin antibodies. Environ Sci Technol. 2011;45:7051-9 pubmed publisher
  6. Ciminiello P, Dell Aversano C, Dello Iacovo E, Fattorusso E, Forino M, Grauso L, et al. High resolution LC-MS(n) fragmentation pattern of palytoxin as template to gain new insights into ovatoxin-a structure. The key role of calcium in MS behavior of palytoxins. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom. 2012;23:952-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Either the regions or the specific sites where ovatoxin-a and palytoxin structurally differ have been identified...
  7. Ujevic I, Nincevic Gladan Z, Roje R, Skejic S, Arapov J, Marasovic I. Domoic acid--a new toxin in the Croatian Adriatic shellfish toxin profile. Molecules. 2010;15:6835-49 pubmed publisher
    ..This investigation indicates the first presence of domoic acid in Croatian shellfish, but in concentrations under the regulatory limit (20 ?g g?¹), therefore shellfish consumption was not found to endanger human health. ..
  8. Haberkorn H, Tran D, Massabuau J, Ciret P, Savar V, Soudant P. Relationship between valve activity, microalgae concentration in the water and toxin accumulation in the digestive gland of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas exposed to Alexandrium minutum. Mar Pollut Bull. 2011;62:1191-7 pubmed publisher
    ..0001). Oysters exhibiting the maximum increase in opening duration also exhibited the highest [PSP](dg). The results are discussed in terms of oyster physiology and origin of the behavioral response. ..
  9. Van Dolah F, Fire S, Leighfield T, Mikulski C, Doucette G. Determination of paralytic shellfish toxins in shellfish by receptor binding assay: collaborative study. J AOAC Int. 2012;95:795-812 pubmed
    ..The results of this interlaboratory study demonstrate that the RBA is suitable for the routine determination of PST in shellfish in appropriately equipped laboratories. ..

More Information


  1. Aligizaki K, Katikou P, Milandri A, Diogène J. Occurrence of palytoxin-group toxins in seafood and future strategies to complement the present state of the art. Toxicon. 2011;57:390-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Future recommendations include systematic screening of PlTX in those species and areas where PlTX has already been recorded implementing updated methodologies...
  2. Raven J. Cyanotoxins: a poison that frees phosphate. Curr Biol. 2010;20:R850-2 pubmed publisher
    ..New work shows that the cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon ovalisporum obtains inorganic phosphate by secreting the cyanotoxin cylindrospermopsin, which induces alkaline phosphatase in other phytoplankton species...
  3. Armi Z, Turki S, Trabelsi E, Ceredi A, Riccardi E, Milandri A. Occurrence of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins in clams (Ruditapes decussatus) from Tunis north lagoon. Environ Monit Assess. 2012;184:5085-95 pubmed publisher
    ..However, a potential threat, in this area, is represented by DSP toxic species as D. sacculus and provides grounds for widen and reinforcing sanitary control of the phycotoxin measures in the region...
  4. Florez Barros F, Prado Alvarez M, Mendez J, Fernandez Tajes J. Evaluation of genotoxicity in gills and hemolymph of clam Ruditapes decussatus fed with the toxic dinoflagellate Prorocentrum lima. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2011;74:971-9 pubmed publisher
    ..An increase in DNA damage was observed at the lower concentration and only in gill tissue. The results obtained may contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying genotoxic effects induced by OA on bivalves...
  5. Mulvenna V, Dale K, Priestly B, Mueller U, Humpage A, Shaw G, et al. Health risk assessment for cyanobacterial toxins in seafood. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2012;9:807-20 pubmed publisher
    ..This paper estimates risk from seafood contaminated by cyanobacterial toxins, and provides guidelines for safe human consumption. ..
  6. Twiner M, Fire S, Schwacke L, Davidson L, Wang Z, Morton S, et al. Concurrent exposure of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) to multiple algal toxins in Sarasota Bay, Florida, USA. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e17394 pubmed publisher
    ..001) counts. Our findings demonstrate that dolphins within Sarasota Bay are commonly exposed to two algal toxins, and provide the impetus to further explore the potential long-term impacts on bottlenose dolphin health. ..
  7. Ehlers A, Scholz J, These A, Hessel S, Preiss Weigert A, Lampen A. Analysis of the passage of the marine biotoxin okadaic acid through an in vitro human gut barrier. Toxicology. 2011;279:196-202 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our results indicate that besides the well known defense mechanisms of humans against this marine biotoxin--vomiting and diarrhea--further detoxification mechanisms are available to limit the absorption of toxic OA. ..
  8. Faassen E, Harkema L, Begeman L, Lürling M. First report of (homo)anatoxin-a and dog neurotoxicosis after ingestion of benthic cyanobacteria in The Netherlands. Toxicon. 2012;60:378-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Dutch recreational waters are at this moment only screened for pelagic cyanobacterial species, the current bathing water protocol therefore does not protect humans and animals from negative effects of blooms of benthic cyanobacteria...
  9. Serandour A, Ledreux A, Morin B, Derick S, Augier E, Lanceleur R, et al. Collaborative study for the detection of toxic compounds in shellfish extracts using cell-based assays. Part I: screening strategy and pre-validation study with lipophilic marine toxins. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2012;403:1983-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Considering these successful results, the CBA strategy will be further applied to extracts of negative, spiked, and naturally contaminated shellfish tissues. ..
  10. Ciminiello P, Dell Aversano C, Dello Iacovo E, Fattorusso E, Forino M, Tartaglione L, et al. Palytoxin in seafood by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry: investigation of extraction efficiency and matrix effect. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2011;401:1043-50 pubmed publisher
  11. Abraham A, Wang Y, El Said K, Plakas S. Characterization of brevetoxin metabolism in Karenia brevis bloom-exposed clams (Mercenaria sp.) by LC-MS/MS. Toxicon. 2012;60:1030-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Of highest abundance were cysteine and taurine conjugates. We also found glutathione, glycine-cysteine, and ?-glutamyl-cysteine conjugates. A series of fatty acid derivatives of cysteine-brevetoxin conjugates were also identified. ..
  12. El Shehawy R, Gorokhova E, Fernández Piñas F, Del Campo F. Global warming and hepatotoxin production by cyanobacteria: what can we learn from experiments?. Water Res. 2012;46:1420-9 pubmed publisher
  13. Jackson J, Stivala C, Iorga B, Molgo J, Zakarian A. Stability of cyclic imine toxins: interconversion of pinnatoxin amino ketone and pinnatoxin A in aqueous media. J Org Chem. 2012;77:10435-40 pubmed publisher
    Pinnatoxins belong to the cyclic imine (CI) group of marine toxins with a unique toxicological profile...
  14. Gerssen A, Mulder P, de Boer J. Screening of lipophilic marine toxins in shellfish and algae: development of a library using liquid chromatography coupled to orbitrap mass spectrometry. Anal Chim Acta. 2011;685:176-85 pubmed publisher
    Most liquid chromatography (LC) mass spectrometric (MS) methods used for routine monitoring of lipophilic marine toxins focus on the analysis of the 13 toxins that are stated in European Union legislation...
  15. Pezzolesi L, Guerrini F, Ciminiello P, Dell Aversano C, Dello Iacovo E, Fattorusso E, et al. Influence of temperature and salinity on Ostreopsis cf. ovata growth and evaluation of toxin content through HR LC-MS and biological assays. Water Res. 2012;46:82-92 pubmed publisher
  16. Rolland J, Pelletier K, Masseret E, Rieuvilleneuve F, Savar V, Santini A, et al. Paralytic toxins accumulation and tissue expression of ?-amylase and lipase genes in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas fed with the neurotoxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella. Mar Drugs. 2012;10:2519-34 pubmed publisher
    ..catenella. All together, these results suggest that the digestion capacity could be affected by PSP toxins...
  17. Savage T, Smith G, Clark A, Saucedo P. Condensation of the isoprenoid and amino precursors in the biosynthesis of domoic acid. Toxicon. 2012;59:25-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Ultimately, these and similar studies will facilitate the identification of DA biosynthetic enzymes and genes which will enable the study of how environmental factors regulate DA biosynthesis at the molecular level. ..
  18. Fux E, Gonzalez Gil S, Lunven M, Gentien P, Hess P. Production of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxins and pectenotoxins at depths within and below the euphotic zone. Toxicon. 2010;56:1487-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Sample concentrates and SPATT results suggested that toxic D. acuta occurred and produced similar toxin profiles at all water depths, including below the euphotic zone. ..
  19. Rodríguez A, Cassoli J, Sa F, Dong Z, de Freitas J, Pimenta A, et al. Peptide fingerprinting of the neurotoxic fractions isolated from the secretions of sea anemones Stichodactyla helianthus and Bunodosoma granulifera. New members of the APETx-like family identified by a 454 pyrosequencing approach. Peptides. 2012;34:26-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Some of them presumably belong to new classes of crab-paralyzing peptide toxins, especially those with molecular masses below 2kDa, which represent the smallest peptide toxins found in sea anemones...
  20. Turner A, Dhanji Rapkova M, Algoet M, Suarez Isla B, Cordova M, Caceres C, et al. Investigations into matrix components affecting the performance of the official bioassay reference method for quantitation of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in oysters. Toxicon. 2012;59:215-30 pubmed publisher
    ..As such, the results show the performance of the official MBA is potentially unsafe for application to the routine monitoring of PSP toxicity in oysters or in any other shellfish found to contain high concentrations of metal ions. ..
  21. Rundberget T, Aasen J, Selwood A, Miles C. Pinnatoxins and spirolides in Norwegian blue mussels and seawater. Toxicon. 2011;58:700-11 pubmed publisher
  22. Rossini G, Bigiani A. Palytoxin action on the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and the disruption of ion equilibria in biological systems. Toxicon. 2011;57:429-39 pubmed publisher
  23. Cusick K, Sayler G. An overview on the marine neurotoxin, saxitoxin: genetics, molecular targets, methods of detection and ecological functions. Mar Drugs. 2013;11:991-1018 pubmed publisher
    ..The eco-evolutionary role(s) PSTs may serve for phytoplankton species that produce them are also discussed. ..
  24. Szkola A, Campbell K, Elliott C, Niessner R, Seidel M. Automated, high performance, flow-through chemiluminescence microarray for the multiplexed detection of phycotoxins. Anal Chim Acta. 2013;787:211-8 pubmed publisher
    ..2%, 102.5%, and 61.6%, respectively, in 20 min. This is the first demonstration of an antibody based phycotoxin microarray. ..
  25. Aasen J, Espenes A, Miles C, Samdal I, Hess P, Aune T. Combined oral toxicity of azaspiracid-1 and yessotoxin in female NMRI mice. Toxicon. 2011;57:909-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Indeed, the very low absorption of YTX when given alone remained largely unchanged when YTX was administered in combination with AZA1. Thus, the oral toxicity of YTX is not enhanced in the presence of sub-lethal levels of AZA1. ..
  26. Perini F, Casabianca A, Battocchi C, Accoroni S, Totti C, Penna A. New approach using the real-time PCR method for estimation of the toxic marine dinoflagellate Ostreopsis cf. ovata in marine environment. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e17699 pubmed publisher
    ..ovata in the environmental samples. This molecular approach may be considered alternative to traditional microscopy and applied for the monitoring of benthic toxic microalgal species in the marine ecosystems. ..
  27. Tubaro A, Durando P, Del Favero G, Ansaldi F, Icardi G, Deeds J, et al. Case definitions for human poisonings postulated to palytoxins exposure. Toxicon. 2011;57:478-95 pubmed publisher
    ..A standardized protocol for data collection could provide a more rapid and reliable diagnosis of palytoxin-poisoning, but also the collection of necessary data for the risk assessment for this family of toxins...
  28. Wandscheer C, Vilariño N, Espiña B, Louzao M, Botana L. Human muscarinic acetylcholine receptors are a target of the marine toxin 13-desmethyl C spirolide. Chem Res Toxicol. 2010;23:1753-61 pubmed publisher
    Spirolides are a group of cyclic imine marine toxins recently described. Although no human intoxication has been related to their presence in shellfish yet, the possible toxicological consequences to human health are actually unknown...
  29. Yamaguchi Y, Hasegawa Y, Honma T, Nagashima Y, Shiomi K. Screening and cDNA cloning of Kv1 potassium channel toxins in sea anemones. Mar Drugs. 2010;8:2893-905 pubmed publisher
    ..3)-SHTX-She1a (Shk) from Stichodactyla helianthus but only 34-63% identities with the other type 1 potassium channel toxins. ..
  30. Jauffrais T, Herrenknecht C, Sechet V, Sibat M, Tillmann U, Krock B, et al. Quantitative analysis of azaspiracids in Azadinium spinosum cultures. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2012;403:833-46 pubmed publisher
    ..5?×?10(9) ?m(3). Moreover, experiments carried out to clarify the formation and structure of methylated AZA analogues led to the description of two AZA methyl esters and to the correction of the chemical structures of AZAs29-32...
  31. Ledreux A, Serandour A, Morin B, Derick S, Lanceleur R, Hamlaoui S, et al. Collaborative study for the detection of toxic compounds in shellfish extracts using cell-based assays. Part II: application to shellfish extracts spiked with lipophilic marine toxins. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2012;403:1995-2007 pubmed publisher
  32. Dittmann E, Fewer D, Neilan B. Cyanobacterial toxins: biosynthetic routes and evolutionary roots. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2013;37:23-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Advances in the understanding of toxin biosynthesis and evolution have provided new methods for drinking-water quality control and may inspire the development of techniques for the management of bloom formation in the future. ..
  33. Neilan B, Pearson L, Muenchhoff J, Moffitt M, Dittmann E. Environmental conditions that influence toxin biosynthesis in cyanobacteria. Environ Microbiol. 2013;15:1239-53 pubmed publisher
    ..This review focuses on the environmental regulation of some of the most relevant cyanotoxins, namely the microcystins, nodularin, cylindrospermopsin, saxitoxins, anatoxins and jamaicamides...
  34. Ciminiello P, Dell Aversano C, Iacovo E, Fattorusso E, Forino M, Tartaglione L, et al. Unique toxin profile of a Mediterranean Ostreopsis cf. ovata strain: HR LC-MS(n) characterization of ovatoxin-f, a new palytoxin congener. Chem Res Toxicol. 2012;25:1243-52 pubmed publisher
    ..congeners, a putative palytoxin and ovatoxins (ovatoxin-a, -b, -c, -d/-e), listed among the most potent marine toxins. High resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HR LC-MS) based investigation of a North Western ..
  35. Prado Alvarez M, Florez Barros F, Sexto Iglesias A, Mendez J, Fernandez Tajes J. Effects of okadaic acid on haemocytes from Mytilus galloprovincialis: a comparison between field and laboratory studies. Mar Environ Res. 2012;81:90-3 pubmed publisher
    ..These data were compared with results of in vitro assays of mussel haemocytes exposed to increased concentrations of OA. Similarly, haemocytes exposed to the most concentrated OA solution were less damaged. ..
  36. Mello D, de Oliveira E, Vieira R, Simoes E, Trevisan R, Dafre A, et al. Cellular and transcriptional responses of Crassostrea gigas hemocytes exposed in vitro to brevetoxin (PbTx-2). Mar Drugs. 2012;10:583-97 pubmed publisher
  37. Frazão B, Vasconcelos V, Antunes A. Sea anemone (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Actiniaria) toxins: an overview. Mar Drugs. 2012;10:1812-51 pubmed
  38. Montie E, Wheeler E, Pussini N, Battey T, Barakos J, Dennison S, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging quality and volumes of brain structures from live and postmortem imaging of California sea lions with clinical signs of domoic acid toxicosis. Dis Aquat Organ. 2010;91:243-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, postmortem MRI scanning (either intact or formalin-fixed) with volumetric analysis can be used to investigate the acute, chronic and possible developmental effects of DA on the brain of California sea lions...
  39. Pfannkuchen M, Godrijan J, Pfannkuchen D, Ivesa L, Kružić P, Ciminiello P, et al. Toxin-producing Ostreopsis cf. ovata are likely to bloom undetected along coastal areas. Environ Sci Technol. 2012;46:5574-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Increased monitoring efforts are therefore required to understand the ecology and toxicology of those bloom events and reduce their negative impact on coastal populations...
  40. Pistocchi R, Pezzolesi L, Guerrini F, Vanucci S, Dell Aversano C, Fattorusso E. A review on the effects of environmental conditions on growth and toxin production of Ostreopsis ovata. Toxicon. 2011;57:421-8 pubmed publisher
    ..e. 40). For the same strain, both nitrogen and phosphorus limitation determined a decrease in cell toxicity showing different behaviour with respect to many other toxic dinoflagellates...
  41. Kilcoyne J, Keogh A, Clancy G, LeBlanc P, Burton I, Quilliam M, et al. Improved isolation procedure for azaspiracids from shellfish, structural elucidation of azaspiracid-6, and stability studies. J Agric Food Chem. 2012;60:2447-55 pubmed publisher
    ..The stability of 6 relative to 1 was also assessed in three solvents in a short-term study that demonstrated the greatest stability in aqueous acetonitrile...
  42. Ciminiello P, Dell Aversano C, Dello Iacovo E, Fattorusso E, Forino M, Grauso L, et al. Isolation and structure elucidation of ovatoxin-a, the major toxin produced by Ostreopsis ovata. J Am Chem Soc. 2012;134:1869-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Elucidation of ovatoxin-a's complex structure will ultimately herald the understanding of the molecular bases of ovatoxins bioactivity...
  43. Echevarria M, Naar J, Tomas C, Pawlik J. Effects of Karenia brevis on clearance rates and bioaccumulation of brevetoxins in benthic suspension feeding invertebrates. Aquat Toxicol. 2012;106-107:85-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Also, high concentrations of toxin may accumulate in the tissues of benthic suspension feeding invertebrates that may be transferred to higher-level consumers. ..
  44. Escalera L, Pazos Y, Doval M, Reguera B. A comparison of integrated and discrete depth sampling for monitoring toxic species of Dinophysis. Mar Pollut Bull. 2012;64:106-13 pubmed publisher
    ..This study adds new information about the heterogeneous, specific vertical distributions of two Dinophysis spp. ..
  45. Simonini R, Orlandi M, Abbate M. Is the toxic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis cf. ovata harmful to Mediterranean benthic invertebrates? Evidences from ecotoxicological tests with the polychaete Dinophilus gyrociliatus. Mar Environ Res. 2011;72:230-3 pubmed publisher
    ..The high per cell toxicity of O. cf. ovata during mid summer could represent an allelopathic response. The test with D. gyrociliatus appears to be a promising tool for assessing the ecological risk of toxic dinoflagellate blooms...
  46. Konoki K, Onoda T, Watanabe R, Cho Y, Kaga S, Suzuki T, et al. In vitro acylation of okadaic acid in the presence of various bivalves' extracts. Mar Drugs. 2013;11:300-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Since DTX3 does not bind to protein phosphatases 1 and 2A, the physiological target for OA and DTXs in mammalian cells, the acylation of DSP toxins would be related to a detoxification mechanism for the bivalve species. ..
  47. Otero P, Alfonso A, Alfonso C, Rodriguez P, Vieytes M, Botana L. Effect of uncontrolled factors in a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method question its use as a reference method for marine toxins: major causes for concern. Anal Chem. 2011;83:5903-11 pubmed publisher
    ..techniques coupled to mass spectrometry is the method of choice to replace the mouse bioassay (MBA) to detect marine toxins. This paper evaluates the influence of different parameters such as toxin solvents, mass spectrometric ..
  48. Riobó P, Franco J. Palytoxins: biological and chemical determination. Toxicon. 2011;57:368-75 pubmed publisher
    ..This paper reviews all reported biological and chemical analysis methods to date for this group of compounds. ..
  49. Valdiglesias V, Laffon B, Pasaro E, Cemeli E, Anderson D, Mendez J. Induction of oxidative DNA damage by the marine toxin okadaic acid depends on human cell type. Toxicon. 2011;57:882-8 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the extent of these effects are cell type dependent. ..
  50. Bustillos Guzmán J, Vale P, Band Schmidt C. Presence of benzoate type toxins in Gymnodinium catenatum Graham isolated from the Mexican Pacific. Toxicon. 2011;57:922-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These toxins are more abundant, in a relative basis, when comparing with a G. catenatum toxin content isolated from Portugal. This is the first report of the presence of these toxins in a Mexican strain. ..
  51. Fux E, Smith J, Tong M, Guzman L, Anderson D. Toxin profiles of five geographical isolates of Dinophysis spp. from North and South America. Toxicon. 2011;57:275-87 pubmed publisher
    ..The Dinophysis strain from Texas only produced OA, and the one from Chile only PTX2, as confirmed in both cells and culture medium. ..
  52. Rashid M, Mahdavi S, Kuyucak S. Computational studies of marine toxins targeting ion channels. Mar Drugs. 2013;11:848-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we present a review of the computational methods and discuss their applications to marine toxins targeting potassium and sodium channels...
  53. Taylor M, McIntyre L, Ritson M, Stone J, Bronson R, Bitzikos O, et al. Outbreak of Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning associated with mussels, British Columbia, Canada. Mar Drugs. 2013;11:1669-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Shellfish monitoring program changes were implemented after the outbreak. Improved response and understanding of toxin production will improve management of future DSP outbreaks. ..
  54. Domènech A, Cortés Francisco N, Palacios O, Franco J, Riobó P, Llerena J, et al. Determination of lipophilic marine toxins in mussels. Quantification and confirmation criteria using high resolution mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A. 2014;1328:16-25 pubmed publisher
    ..A top-down approach considering two main contributions: those arising from the trueness studies and those coming from the precision's determination, was used. An overall expanded uncertainty of 38% was obtained. ..
  55. Smienk H, Calvo D, Razquin P, Domínguez E, Mata L. Single laboratory validation of a ready-to-use phosphatase inhibition assay for detection of okadaic acid toxins. Toxins (Basel). 2012;4:339-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, the method was qualitatively compared to the mouse bioassay and LC-MS/MS. ..
  56. Aune T, Espenes A, Aasen J, Quilliam M, Hess P, Larsen S. Study of possible combined toxic effects of azaspiracid-1 and okadaic acid in mice via the oral route. Toxicon. 2012;60:895-906 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results indicate that the present practice of regulating toxins from the OA and AZA group individually does not present an unwanted increased risk for consumers of shellfish. ..
  57. Botana L. A perspective on the toxicology of marine toxins. Chem Res Toxicol. 2012;25:1800-4 pubmed publisher
    Although there has been much progress with regard to marine toxins from dinoflagellates, much remains to be done. Because these compounds are a seafood consumer risk, the demands cover from legislative to scientific aspects...
  58. Mackenzie L, Selwood A, Marshall C. Isolation and characterization of an enzyme from the Greenshell™ mussel Perna canaliculus that hydrolyses pectenotoxins and esters of okadaic acid. Toxicon. 2012;60:406-19 pubmed publisher
  59. Jauffrais T, Marcaillou C, Herrenknecht C, Truquet P, Sechet V, Nicolau E, et al. Azaspiracid accumulation, detoxification and biotransformation in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) experimentally fed Azadinium spinosum. Toxicon. 2012;60:582-95 pubmed publisher
    ..AZA17 and -19 were found to be the main metabolites, with AZA17 concentrations estimated in the same order of magnitude as that of the main algal toxin, AZA1. ..
  60. Amzil Z, Sibat M, Chomérat N, Grossel H, Marco Miralles F, Lemée R, et al. Ovatoxin-a and palytoxin accumulation in seafood in relation to Ostreopsis cf. ovata blooms on the French Mediterranean coast. Mar Drugs. 2012;10:477-96 pubmed publisher
    ..This publication brings together scientific knowledge obtained about the summer development of Ostreopsis spp. in France during 2007, 2008 and 2009...
  61. Munday R, Quilliam M, LeBlanc P, Lewis N, Gallant P, Sperker S, et al. Investigations into the toxicology of spirolides, a group of marine phycotoxins. Toxins (Basel). 2012;4:1-14 pubmed publisher
    ..These results have implications for future studies of the toxicology of these marine toxins and the risk assessment of human exposure.
  62. Gerssen A, Pol Hofstad I, Poelman M, Mulder P, van den Top H, de Boer J. Marine toxins: chemistry, toxicity, occurrence and detection, with special reference to the Dutch situation. Toxins (Basel). 2010;2:878-904 pubmed publisher
    Various species of algae can produce marine toxins under certain circumstances. These toxins can then accumulate in shellfish such as mussels, oysters and scallops...
  63. Accoroni S, Romagnoli T, Colombo F, Pennesi C, Di Camillo C, Marini M, et al. Ostreopsis cf. ovata bloom in the northern Adriatic Sea during summer 2009: ecology, molecular characterization and toxin profile. Mar Pollut Bull. 2011;62:2512-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Toxin analysis performed by high resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed a high total toxin content (up to 75 pg cell(-1)), including putative palytoxin and all the ovatoxins known so far...
  64. Sassolas A, Catanante G, Hayat A, Marty J. Development of an efficient protein phosphatase-based colorimetric test for okadaic acid detection. Anal Chim Acta. 2011;702:262-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the efficiency of the assay, PP inhibition tests based on PP2A from ZEU Immunotec in solution or immobilized within a gel were used for OA detection in contaminated shellfish. ..
  65. Trinchet I, Djediat C, Huet H, Dao S, Edery M. Pathological modifications following sub-chronic exposure of medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) to microcystin-LR. Reprod Toxicol. 2011;32:329-40 pubmed publisher
    ..In the males, spermatogenesis appeared to be disrupted. This is the first report showing that a cyanotoxin can affect reproductive function, and so can impact on fish reproduction and thus fish stocks...
  66. Valdiglesias V, Laffon B, Pasaro E, Mendez J. Okadaic acid induces morphological changes, apoptosis and cell cycle alterations in different human cell types. J Environ Monit. 2011;13:1831-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Nevertheless, in the presence of S9 fraction no apoptosis was detected, indicating a metabolic detoxifying activity, although necrosis was observed in neuroblastoma cells. ..
  67. Zegura B, Straser A, Filipic M. Genotoxicity and potential carcinogenicity of cyanobacterial toxins - a review. Mutat Res. 2011;727:16-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Future research efforts should focus on the elucidation of the carcinogenic potential of NOD, CYN, and the mixture of cyanobacterial extracts, as well as on the identification of possible novel toxins. ..
  68. Pelin M, Zanette C, De Bortoli M, Sosa S, Loggia R, Tubaro A, et al. Effects of the marine toxin palytoxin on human skin keratinocytes: role of ionic imbalance. Toxicology. 2011;282:30-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The PLTX concentrations inducing cytotoxicty seem to be lower than those of potential cutaneous human exposure during Ostreopsis ovata blooms, indicating the harmful potential of the toxin...
  69. Manfrin C, Dreos R, Battistella S, Beran A, Gerdol M, Varotto L, et al. Mediterranean mussel gene expression profile induced by okadaic acid exposure. Environ Sci Technol. 2010;44:8276-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The characterization of these transcripts could be useful for the identification of an early physiological response to OA exposure. ..