Genomes and Genes
Summary: Toxins produced, especially by bacterial or fungal cells, and released into the culture medium or environment.
- Damasco P, Chamon R, Barbosa A, da Cunha S, Aquino J, Cavalcante F, et al. Involvement of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus related to sequence type 25 and harboring pvl genes in a case of carotid cavernous fistula after community-associated sepsis. J Clin Microbiol. 2012;50:196-8 pubmed publisher..The patient's condition was complicated by pleural empyema and osteomyelitis in the right femur. The patient was discharged in good clinical condition after 160 days of hospitalization. ..
- Chakraborty A, Ghosh S, Chowdhary G, Maulik U, Chakrabarti S. DBETH: a Database of Bacterial Exotoxins for Human. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:D615-20 pubmed publisher..We developed a Database for Bacterial ExoToxins (DBETH, http://www.hpppi.iicb.res...
- Casas V, Maloy S. Role of bacteriophage-encoded exotoxins in the evolution of bacterial pathogens. Future Microbiol. 2011;6:1461-73 pubmed publisher..These findings suggest that the exotoxin genes may play a beneficial role for the bacterial host in nature, and that this environmental reservoir of exotoxin genes may play a role in the evolution of new bacterial pathogens. ..
- Alonzo F, Benson M, Chen J, Novick R, Shopsin B, Torres V. Staphylococcus aureus leucocidin ED contributes to systemic infection by targeting neutrophils and promoting bacterial growth in vivo. Mol Microbiol. 2012;83:423-35 pubmed publisher..Moreover, the tropism of LukED for murine phagocytes highlights the utility of murine models to study LukED pathobiology, including development and testing of strategies to inhibit toxin activity and control bacterial infection. ..
- Huang T, Chen F, Miu W, Liao T, Lin A, Huang I, et al. Complete genome sequence of Staphylococcus aureus M013, a pvl-positive, ST59-SCCmec type V strain isolated in Taiwan. J Bacteriol. 2012;194:1256-7 pubmed publisher..Comparison of M013 with the genomes of two CA-MRSA strains in the United States revealed major differences in the regions covering several genomic islands and prophages. ..
- Onda M, Beers R, Xiang L, Lee B, Weldon J, Kreitman R, et al. Recombinant immunotoxin against B-cell malignancies with no immunogenicity in mice by removal of B-cell epitopes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:5742-7 pubmed publisher..HA22-LR-8M also has greatly reduced antigenicity when exposed to sera from patients who have produced antibodies to HA22. The properties of HA22-LR-8M make it an excellent candidate for further clinical development. ..
- Hung C, Tsao N, Zeng Y, Lu S, Chuan C, Lin Y, et al. Synergistic effects of streptolysin S and streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B on the mouse model of group A streptococcal infection. Med Microbiol Immunol. 2012;201:357-69 pubmed publisher..Taken together, these results indicate that both SPE B and SLS contributed to GAS evasion from immune cell killing, local tissue damage, and mouse mortality...
- Adhikari R, Ajao A, Aman M, Karauzum H, Sarwar J, Lydecker A, et al. Lower antibody levels to Staphylococcus aureus exotoxins are associated with sepsis in hospitalized adults with invasive S. aureus infections. J Infect Dis. 2012;206:915-23 pubmed publisherStaphylococcus aureus has numerous virulence factors, including exotoxins that may increase the severity of infection. This study was aimed at assessing whether preexisting antibodies to S...
- Catena V, Baiocchi M, Lentini P, Badolati L, Baccarin M, Del Monte D, et al. Necrotizing pneumonia caused by Panton-Valentine leukocidin-producing methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA). Infez Med. 2012;20:205-10 pubmed..Bactericidal antistaphylococcal antibiotics are recommended for the treatment as soon as possible to avoid the potentially devastating consequences of this kind of S. aureus. ..
- Carrillo Marquez M, Hulten K, Hammerman W, Lamberth L, Mason E, Kaplan S. Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia in children in the era of community-acquired methicillin-resistance at Texas Children's Hospital. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2011;30:545-50 pubmed publisher..Viral coinfection in 15% of the cases was associated with respiratory failure. Clindamycin is an effective treatment for susceptible-SA pneumonia; VATS was more common in patients with USA300 infections. ..
- Malachowa N, Whitney A, Kobayashi S, Sturdevant D, Kennedy A, Braughton K, et al. Global changes in Staphylococcus aureus gene expression in human blood. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e18617 pubmed publisher..These findings, along with a requirement of specific growth conditions for leukotoxin expression, may explain the apparent limited contribution of any single two-component leukotoxin to USA300 immune evasion and virulence. ..
- Forman M, Nishikubo J, Han R, Le A, Balashova N, Kachlany S. Gangliosides block Aggregatibacter Actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin (LtxA)-mediated hemolysis. Toxins (Basel). 2010;2:2824-36 pubmed publisher..Based on the results presented here, we suggest that because of the similarity between N-linked sugars on LFA-1 and the structures of gangliosides, LtxA may have acquired the ability to lyse RBCs. ..
- Weldon J, Pastan I. A guide to taming a toxin--recombinant immunotoxins constructed from Pseudomonas exotoxin A for the treatment of cancer. FEBS J. 2011;278:4683-700 pubmed publisher..This review summarizes our current understanding of PE, its intoxication pathway, and the ongoing efforts to convert this toxin into a treatment for cancer. ..
- Johansson A, Eriksson M, Ahrén A, Boman K, Jansson J, Hallmans G, et al. Prevalence of systemic immunoreactivity to Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin in relation to the incidence of myocardial infarction. BMC Infect Dis. 2011;11:55 pubmed publisher..The results from the present study do not support the hypothesis that systemic leukotoxin-neutralizing capacity can decrease the risk for MI. ..
- Kelk P, Abd H, Claesson R, Sandstrom G, Sjostedt A, Johansson A. Cellular and molecular response of human macrophages exposed to Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin. Cell Death Dis. 2011;2:e126 pubmed publisher..This novel virulence mechanism of the leukotoxin may have an important role in the pathogenic potential of this bacterium and can be a target for future therapeutic agents. ..
- Kawaguchiya M, Urushibara N, Kuwahara O, Ito M, Mise K, Kobayashi N. Molecular characteristics of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Hokkaido, northern main island of Japan: identification of sequence types 6 and 59 Panton-Valentine leucocidin-positive community-acquired methicillin-resi. Microb Drug Resist. 2011;17:241-50 pubmed publisher..These findings suggest a potential spread of these emerging CA-MRSA clones in Japan. ..
- Lee S, Wang Y, Kim S, Han J. AMPD3 is involved in anthrax LeTx-induced macrophage cell death. Protein Cell. 2011;2:564-72 pubmed publisher..Our data provides new information regarding LeTx-induced macrophage death and suggests that there is a key regulatory site downstream of or parallel to MKK cleavage that controls the cell death in LeTx-treated macrophages...
- Nelson D, Garbe J, Collin M. Cysteine proteinase SpeB from Streptococcus pyogenes - a potent modifier of immunologically important host and bacterial proteins. Biol Chem. 2011;392:1077-88 pubmed publisher..Here we review all known host and bacterial protein substrates for SpeB, their cleavage sites, and discuss the role of this enzyme in streptococcal pathogenesis based on the current literature. ..
- Sharma Kuinkel B, Ahn S, Rude T, Zhang Y, Tong S, Ruffin F, et al. Presence of genes encoding panton-valentine leukocidin is not the primary determinant of outcome in patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia due to Staphylococcus aureus. J Clin Microbiol. 2012;50:848-56 pubmed publisher..This study suggests that neither pvl presence nor in vitro level of alpha-hemolysin production is the primary determinant of outcome among patients with HAP caused by S. aureus. ..
- Holzinger D, Gieldon L, Mysore V, Nippe N, Taxman D, Duncan J, et al. Staphylococcus aureus Panton-Valentine leukocidin induces an inflammatory response in human phagocytes via the NLRP3 inflammasome. J Leukoc Biol. 2012;92:1069-81 pubmed publisher..This study analyzes a specific host signaling pathway that mediates PVL-induced inflammation and cytotoxicity, which has high relevance for CA-MRSA-associated and PVL-mediated pathogenic processes, such as necrotizing infections...
- Coombs G, Goering R, Chua K, Monecke S, Howden B, Stinear T, et al. The molecular epidemiology of the highly virulent ST93 Australian community Staphylococcus aureus strain. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e43037 pubmed publisher..Whether ST93-IVa [2B] t202-dt10 arose from one PVL-positive ST93-MSSA-t202, or by independent acquisitions of SCCmec-IVa [2B]-dt10 into multiple PVL-positive ST93-MSSA-t202 strains is not known. ..
- Spaulding A, Salgado Pabon W, Kohler P, Horswill A, Leung D, Schlievert P. Staphylococcal and streptococcal superantigen exotoxins. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2013;26:422-47 pubmed publisher..Finally, the review addresses current and possible novel strategies to prevent superantigen production and passive and active immunization strategies. ..
- Lipinska U, Hermans K, Meulemans L, Dumitrescu O, Badiou C, Duchateau L, et al. Panton-Valentine leukocidin does play a role in the early stage of Staphylococcus aureus skin infections: a rabbit model. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e22864 pubmed publisher..Further, they support the epidemiological link between PVL producing S. aureus strains and necrotizing skin infections. ..
- Rafai M, Abouelalaa K, Skhsoukh Y, Balkhi H, Belyamani L, Dimou M. Evolution of a fatal septic arthritis caused by a Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-producing Staphylococcus aureus strain. Joint Bone Spine. 2013;80:525-7 pubmed publisher..Anti-PLV antibiotics with anti-staphylococcal activity, such as clindamycin and linezolid should be started without waiting for typing of the S. aureus strain. ..
- Kaltsas A, Guh A, Mediavilla J, Varshney A, Robiou N, Gialanellia P, et al. Frequency of panton-valentine leukocidin-producing methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus strains in patients with complicated skin and soft tissue infection in bronx, new york. J Clin Microbiol. 2011;49:2992-5 pubmed publisher..aureus (MRSA) and MSSA SSTIs were comparable. In multivariable analysis, the presence of lukF-PV remained a significant predictor for incision and drainage among MSSA strains...
- Johansson A. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin: a powerful tool with capacity to cause imbalance in the host inflammatory response. Toxins (Basel). 2011;3:242-59 pubmed publisher..Therapeutic strategies targeting the cellular and molecular inflammatory host response in periodontal diseases might be a future treatment alternative. ..
- Brennan G, Shore A, Corcoran S, Tecklenborg S, Coleman D, O Connell B. Emergence of hospital- and community-associated panton-valentine leukocidin-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus genotype ST772-MRSA-V in Ireland and detailed investigation of an ST772-MRSA-V cluster in a neonatal intensive care unit. J Clin Microbiol. 2012;50:841-7 pubmed publisher..Our study indicates that hospital-acquired and CA-ST772-MRSA-V is currently emerging in Ireland and may have been imported from India on several occasions. ..
- Tong A, Tong S, Zhang Y, Lamlertthon S, Sharma Kuinkel B, Rude T, et al. Panton-Valentine leukocidin is not the primary determinant of outcome for Staphylococcus aureus skin infections: evaluation from the CANVAS studies. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e37212 pubmed publisher..The results of this contemporary, international study suggest that pvl presence was not the primary determinant of outcome in patients with cSSSI due to either MRSA or MSSA. ..
- Brown E, Dumitrescu O, Thomas D, Badiou C, Koers E, Choudhury P, et al. The Panton-Valentine leukocidin vaccine protects mice against lung and skin infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus USA300. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2009;15:156-64 pubmed publisher..These data suggest that PVL is a virulence factor in murine CA-MRSA infections. ..
- Tseng C, Kyme P, Low J, Rocha M, Alsabeh R, Miller L, et al. Staphylococcus aureus Panton-Valentine leukocidin contributes to inflammation and muscle tissue injury. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6387 pubmed publisher..PVL could contribute to the increased incidence of myositis in CA-MRSA infection, and the toxin could mediate tissue injury by mechanisms other than direct killing of phagocytes. ..
- Balashova N, Shah C, Patel J, Megalla S, Kachlany S. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans LtxC is required for leukotoxin activity and initial interaction between toxin and host cells. Gene. 2009;443:42-7 pubmed publisher..actinomycetemcomitans and that modification is important for initial binding of toxin to host cells, as defined by an increase in intracellular calcium levels. ..
- Otter J, Kearns A, French G, Ellington M. Panton-Valentine leukocidin-encoding bacteriophage and gene sequence variation in community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2010;16:68-73 pubmed publisher..The PVL gene sequence and the PVL-encoding phage varied with lineage. Further work is required to determine whether PVL sequence and/or phage variations result in biological differences. ..
- Boakes E, Kearns A, Ganner M, Perry C, Hill R, Ellington M. Distinct bacteriophages encoding Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) among international methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clones harboring PVL. J Clin Microbiol. 2011;49:684-92 pubmed publisher..These analyses provide important insights into the microepidemiology of PVL-MRSA, will prove a valuable adjunct in outbreak investigation, and may help predict the emergence of new strains. ..
- Orendi J, Coetzee N, Ellington M, Boakes E, Cookson B, Hardy K, et al. Community and nosocomial transmission of Panton-Valentine leucocidin-positive community-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: implications for healthcare. J Hosp Infect. 2010;75:258-64 pubmed publisher..This is the first report of nosocomial transmission of this pandemic clone in the UK associated with a fatality. Increased vigilance in healthcare and community is needed in response to this emerging threat. ..
- Lee M, Arrecubieta C, Martin F, Prince A, Borczuk A, Lowy F. A postinfluenza model of Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia. J Infect Dis. 2010;201:508-15 pubmed publisher..Postinfluenza Staphylococcus aureus pneumonias are increasingly recognized as a major form of life-threatening infections...
- Muttaiyah S, Coombs G, Pandey S, Reed P, Ritchie S, Lennon D, et al. Incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus infections in Auckland, New Zealand. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:3470-4 pubmed publisher..Those patients with PVL-positive MSSA infection were more likely to be of Pacific ethnicity, be younger in age, have community-onset infection, have SSTI, and need surgical intervention. ..
- Del Giudice P, Bes M, Hubiche T, Blanc V, Roudiere L, Lina G, et al. Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive Staphylococcus aureus strains are associated with follicular skin infections. Dermatology. 2011;222:167-70 pubmed publisher..aureus, compared to 16 of the 131 (12%) nonfollicular infections (p < 0.001). PVL-positive S. aureus strains are mainly associated with follicular skin infections. ..
- Nguyen H, Rocha M, Chintalacharuvu K, Beenhouwer D. Detection and quantification of Panton-Valentine leukocidin in Staphylococcus aureus cultures by ELISA and Western blotting: diethylpyrocarbonate inhibits binding of protein A to IgG. J Immunol Methods. 2010;356:1-5 pubmed publisher..In Western blotting, the presence of DEPC prevented the binding of detecting antibody to Spa. These modified ELISA and Western blot techniques should prove useful for detecting and quantifying proteins in S. aureus culture supernatants. ..
- Bidros D, Vogelbaum M. Novel drug delivery strategies in neuro-oncology. Neurotherapeutics. 2009;6:539-46 pubmed publisher..In this review, we describe the clinically available methods used to circumvent the blood brain barrier and summarize the results to date of ongoing and completed clinical trials. ..
- Olsen J, Dagil R, Niclasen L, Sørensen O, Kragelund B. Structure of the mature Streptococcal cysteine protease exotoxin mSpeB in its active dimeric form. J Mol Biol. 2009;393:693-703 pubmed publisher..The results may have applications for the development of protease inhibitors specific to bacterial cysteine proteases. ..
- Rabøl P, Dessau R, Warnecke M, Bjerglund L. [Fatal pneumonia with Panton Valentine leucocidin-producing Staphylococcus aureus]. Ugeskr Laeger. 2010;172:1190-1 pubmed..Acidosis and critical leucopenia supervened and the patient died just short of 24 hours after admission. Subsequent bacterial cultivation showed Panton-Valentine Leucocidin-producing Staphylococcus aureus. ..
- Boakes E, Kearns A, Ganner M, Perry C, Warner M, Hill R, et al. Molecular diversity within clonal complex 22 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus encoding Panton-Valentine leukocidin in England and Wales. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2011;17:140-5 pubmed publisher..The observed variances in acquired elements (most notably SCCmec and PVL-encoding phages) suggested that CC22 PVL-MRSA in England and Wales have evolved on multiple occasions. ..
- Kreitman R. Recombinant immunotoxins containing truncated bacterial toxins for the treatment of hematologic malignancies. BioDrugs. 2009;23:1-13 pubmed publisher..The most successful application of recombinant immunotoxins today is in hairy cell leukemia, where BL22 has induced complete remissions in most patients who were previously treated with optimal chemotherapy. ..
- Golding G, Bryden L, Levett P, McDonald R, Wong A, Wylie J, et al. Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus sequence type 398 in humans, Canada. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16:587-94 pubmed publisher..Although prevalence of livestock-associated MRSA seems to be low for the general population in Canada, recent emergence of infections resulting from this strain is of public health concern. ..
- Hansen J, Weldon J, Xiang L, Beers R, Onda M, Pastan I. A recombinant immunotoxin targeting CD22 with low immunogenicity, low nonspecific toxicity, and high antitumor activity in mice. J Immunother. 2010;33:297-304 pubmed publisher..Future studies will determine if these properties carry over to humans with cancer. ..
- Thomsen I, McKenna B, Saye E, Jimenez N, Edwards K, Creech C. Molecular distinctions exist between community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization and disease-associated isolates in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2011;30:418-21 pubmed publisher..This suggests that only colonization with specific strain types, rather than methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization in general, increases the risk for CA-MRSA disease. ..
- Kunwar S, Chang S, Westphal M, Vogelbaum M, Sampson J, Barnett G, et al. Phase III randomized trial of CED of IL13-PE38QQR vs Gliadel wafers for recurrent glioblastoma. Neuro Oncol. 2010;12:871-81 pubmed publisher..There was no survival difference between CB administered via CED and GW. Drug distribution was not assessed and may be crucial for evaluating future CED-based therapeutics. ..
- Nimmo G, Schooneveldt J, Sutherland J, Power S, Olesen D, Selvey C, et al. Epidemiology of non-multiresistant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection in Queensland, Australia: associations with indigenous populations and Panton-Valentine leukocidin. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2010;29:1253-9 pubmed publisher..nmMRSA strains are present throughout Queensland and cause infections in both community and healthcare settings. ..
- Ventura C, Malachowa N, Hammer C, Nardone G, Robinson M, Kobayashi S, et al. Identification of a novel Staphylococcus aureus two-component leukotoxin using cell surface proteomics. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11634 pubmed publisher..We conclude LukGH is a novel two-component leukotoxin with cytolytic activity toward neutrophils, and thus potentially contributes to S. aureus virulence. ..
- Tong S, Lilliebridge R, Bishop E, Cheng A, Holt D, McDonald M, et al. Clinical correlates of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), PVL isoforms, and clonal complex in the Staphylococcus aureus population of Northern Australia. J Infect Dis. 2010;202:760-9 pubmed publisher..MSSA contributes a large but underrecognized burden of PVL(+) disease. Compared with elsewhere in the world, there is a relative abundance of the clade that contains CC93 and CC121 in both northern Australia and Asia. ..
- Hongo I, Baba T, Oishi K, Morimoto Y, Ito T, Hiramatsu K. Phenol-soluble modulin alpha 3 enhances the human neutrophil lysis mediated by Panton-Valentine leukocidin. J Infect Dis. 2009;200:715-23 pubmed publisher..Phenol-soluble modulin alpha 3 did, however, enhance PVL-mediated lysis of human PMNs. ..
- Al Talib H, Hasan H, Yean C, Al Ashwal S, Ravichandran M. Fatal necrotizing pneumonia caused by Panton-Valentine leukocidin-producing hospital-acquired Staphylococcus aureus: a case report. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2011;64:58-60 pubmed..This report describes a fatal case of hospital-acquired necrotizing pneumonia caused by PVL-positive methicillin-susceptible S. aureus in a patient with a brain tumor. ..
- Montgomery C, Daum R. Transcription of inflammatory genes in the lung after infection with community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a role for panton-valentine leukocidin?. Infect Immun. 2009;77:2159-67 pubmed publisher..Deletion of lukSF-PV did not alter the early immune response to CA-MRSA in the lung. ..
- Shallcross L, Williams K, Hopkins S, Aldridge R, Johnson A, Hayward A. Panton-Valentine leukocidin associated staphylococcal disease: a cross-sectional study at a London hospital, England. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2010;16:1644-8 pubmed publisher..Consideration should be given to current infection control strategy, which advocates household contact screening and decolonization on the assumption that PVL-associated disease is rare...
- Kanerva M, Salmenlinna S, Vuopio Varkila J, Lehtinen P, Möttönen T, Virtanen M, et al. Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated in Finland in 2004 to 2006. J Clin Microbiol. 2009;47:2655-7 pubmed publisher..9/100,000 population) and strain variation increased in comparison to years 1997 to 1999. There were 7 community-associated epidemic and 25 sporadic MRSA strain types. Half of these had Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes. ..
- Okon K, Basset P, Uba A, Lin J, Oyawoye B, Shittu A, et al. Cooccurrence of predominant Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive sequence type (ST) 152 and multidrug-resistant ST 241 Staphylococcus aureus clones in Nigerian hospitals. J Clin Microbiol. 2009;47:3000-3 pubmed publisher..aureus (MSSA) isolates were observed. The cooccurrence of multidrug-resistant MRSA and PVL-positive MSSA isolates entails the risk of emergence of a multidrug-resistant PVL-positive MRSA clone. ..
- Li W, Lyte M, Freestone P, Ajmal A, Colmer Hamood J, Hamood A. Norepinephrine represses the expression of toxA and the siderophore genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2009;299:100-9 pubmed publisher..aeruginosa independent of pyoverdine. Thus, norepinephrine apparently influences the pathogenesis of P. aeruginosa by affecting its pattern of growth and the production of virulence factors...
- Ellington M, Ganner M, Warner M, Cookson B, Kearns A. Polyclonal multiply antibiotic-resistant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with Panton-Valentine leucocidin in England. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2010;65:46-50 pubmed publisher..Recent scattered reports of the emergence of multiresistant PVL-MRSA have highlighted the potential for resistance to emerge. Here we detail polyclonal multiply antibiotic-resistant PVL-MRSA occurring in England...
- Lawrence P, Dassanayake R. Ovis aries CR4 is involved in Mannheimia haemolytica leukotoxin-induced cytotoxicity. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2010;135:266-74 pubmed publisher..haemolytica Lkt and mediate concentration-dependent lysis of host cells, thus, confirming their role in M. haemolytica pathogenesis. This is a critical step in understanding host innate immunity and the management of pneumonia in sheep...
- Graves S, Kobayashi S, Braughton K, Diep B, Chambers H, Otto M, et al. Relative contribution of Panton-Valentine leukocidin to PMN plasma membrane permeability and lysis caused by USA300 and USA400 culture supernatants. Microbes Infect. 2010;12:446-56 pubmed publisher..aureus culture supernatants have limited ability to estimate the relative contribution of PVL to pathogenesis (or cytolysis in vitro or in vivo), especially when assayed using culture media that promote selective high production of PVL. ..