shiga toxin

Summary

Summary: A toxin produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE. It is the prototype of class of toxins that inhibit protein synthesis by blocking the interaction of ribosomal RNA; (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) with PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTORS.

Top Publications

  1. McGannon C, Fuller C, Weiss A. Different classes of antibiotics differentially influence shiga toxin production. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010;54:3790-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Shiga toxin (Stx) in Escherichia coli O157:H7 is encoded as a late gene product by temperate bacteriophage integrated into the chromosome. Phage late genes, including stx, are silent in the lysogenic state...
  2. Allison H. Stx-phages: drivers and mediators of the evolution of STEC and STEC-like pathogens. Future Microbiol. 2007;2:165-74 pubmed
    ..This article focuses on how a group of bacteriophages, Stx-phages, which carry the genes encoding Shiga toxin, have driven and are driving the emergence of Shiga toxin-producing pathogens such as the infamous Escherichia ..
  3. Kulkarni A, Weiss A, Iyer S. Glycan-based high-affinity ligands for toxins and pathogen receptors. Med Res Rev. 2010;30:327-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Using Shiga toxin and influenza virus as examples, we describe the complex biological interface between host glycans and these ..
  4. Yan Y, Shi Y, Cao D, Meng X, Xia L, Sun J. Prevalence of Stx phages in environments of a pig farm and lysogenic infection of the field E. coli O157 isolates with a recombinant converting Phage. Curr Microbiol. 2011;62:458-64 pubmed publisher
    The prevalence and nature of Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and Stx phage were investigated in 720 swine fecal samples randomly collected from a commercial breeding pig farm in China over a 1-year surveillance period...
  5. In J, Lukyanenko V, Foulke Abel J, Hubbard A, Delannoy M, Hansen A, et al. Serine protease EspP from enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli is sufficient to induce shiga toxin macropinocytosis in intestinal epithelium. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e69196 pubmed publisher
    ..Intimin-negative enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) O104:H4 robustly stimulate Shiga toxin macropinocytosis into intestinal epithelial cells...
  6. Arakawa Y, Sawada T, Takatori K, Lee K, Hara Kudo Y. Rapid detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in ground beef by an immunochromatography kit in combination with short-term enrichment and treatment for Shiga toxin release. Biocontrol Sci. 2011;16:159-64 pubmed
    To establish rapid methods to detect Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in ground beef samples by using an immunochromatography kit, results of 8-h enrichment in various types of broth with shaking were compared...
  7. Thorpe C. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;38:1298-303 pubmed
    Large-scale outbreaks of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infection have revealed the great disease-causing potential of this organism, especially among children and elderly persons...
  8. Bielaszewska M, Karch H. Consequences of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli infection for the vascular endothelium. Thromb Haemost. 2005;94:312-8 pubmed
    ..Based on current data, cytolethal distending toxin, EHEC haemolysin, and subtilase cytotoxin might be such candidates...
  9. Saenz J, Doggett T, Haslam D. Identification and characterization of small molecules that inhibit intracellular toxin transport. Infect Immun. 2007;75:4552-61 pubmed
    b>Shiga toxin (Stx), cholera toxin (Ctx), and the plant toxin ricin are among several toxins that reach their intracellular destinations via a complex route...

More Information

Publications104 found, 100 shown here

  1. Melchior W, Tolleson W. A functional quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay for ricin, Shiga toxin, and related ribosome-inactivating proteins. Anal Biochem. 2010;396:204-11 pubmed publisher
    ..This assay detects as little as 30pg of ricin. We used the assay to study enzymatic properties of ricin such as pH and temperature optima (pH 4.5-5.0 and 60 degrees C). ..
  2. Mallick E, McBee M, Vanguri V, Melton Celsa A, Schlieper K, Karalius B, et al. A novel murine infection model for Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli. J Clin Invest. 2012;122:4012-24 pubmed publisher
    Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) is an important subset of Shiga toxin-producing (Stx-producing) E...
  3. Falguières T, Römer W, Amessou M, Afonso C, Wolf C, Tabet J, et al. Functionally different pools of Shiga toxin receptor, globotriaosyl ceramide, in HeLa cells. FEBS J. 2006;273:5205-18 pubmed
    Many studies have investigated the intracellular trafficking of Shiga toxin, but very little is known about the underlying dynamics of its cellular receptor, the glycosphingolipid globotriaosyl ceramide...
  4. Manning S, Motiwala A, Springman A, Qi W, Lacher D, Ouellette L, et al. Variation in virulence among clades of Escherichia coli O157:H7 associated with disease outbreaks. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:4868-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Differences were observed between clades in the frequency and distribution of Shiga toxin genes and in the type of clinical disease reported...
  5. Windham W, Yoon S, Ladely S, Haley J, Heitschmidt J, Lawrence K, et al. Detection by hyperspectral imaging of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145 on rainbow agar. J Food Prot. 2013;76:1129-36 pubmed publisher
    The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety Inspection Service has determined that six non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145) are adulterants in raw beef...
  6. Mora A, Blanco M, Blanco J, Alonso M, Dhabi G, Thomson Carter F, et al. Phage types and genotypes of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolates from humans and animals in spain: identification and characterization of two predominating phage types (PT2 and PT8). J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:4007-15 pubmed
    ..analysis by pulsed-field electrophoresis (PFGE) were used for the epidemiological subtyping of a collection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 strains isolated in Spain between 1980 and 1999...
  7. Madic J, Lecureuil C, Dilasser F, Derzelle S, Jamet E, Fach P, et al. Screening of food raw materials for the presence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O91:H21. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2009;48:447-51 pubmed publisher
    To provide information on the prevalence and detection, in foods, of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O91:H21. Seven hundred fifteen minced beef meats and 205 raw milk samples were analysed by stx-specific PCR-ELISA...
  8. Windschiegl B, Orth A, Römer W, Berland L, Stechmann B, Bassereau P, et al. Lipid reorganization induced by Shiga toxin clustering on planar membranes. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6238 pubmed publisher
    The homopentameric B-subunit of bacterial protein Shiga toxin (STxB) binds to the glycolipid Gb(3) in plasma membranes, which is the initial step for entering cells by a clathrin-independent mechanism...
  9. Gilbreath J, Shields M, Smith R, Farrell L, Sheridan P, Spiegel K. Shiga toxins, and the genes encoding them, in fecal samples from native Idaho ungulates. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009;75:862-5 pubmed publisher
    Cattle are a known reservoir of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli. The prevalence and stability of Shiga toxin and/or Shiga toxin genes among native wild ungulates in Idaho were investigated...
  10. Riley L, Veses Garcia M, Hillman J, Handfield M, McCarthy A, Allison H. Identification of genes expressed in cultures of E. coli lysogens carrying the Shiga toxin-encoding prophage ?24B. BMC Microbiol. 2012;12:42 pubmed publisher
    Shigatoxigenic E. coli are a global and emerging health concern. Shiga toxin, Stx, is encoded on the genome of temperate, lambdoid Stx phages...
  11. Lee M, Cherla R, Lentz E, Leyva Illades D, Tesh V. Signaling through C/EBP homologous protein and death receptor 5 and calpain activation differentially regulate THP-1 cell maturation-dependent apoptosis induced by Shiga toxin type 1. Infect Immun. 2010;78:3378-91 pubmed publisher
    ..THP-1 cells responded to Shiga toxin type 1 (Stx1) in a cell maturation-dependent manner, undergoing rapid apoptosis in the undifferentiated state ..
  12. Du X, Kumar J, Ferguson C, Schulz T, Ong Y, Hong W, et al. A role for oxysterol-binding protein-related protein 5 in endosomal cholesterol trafficking. J Cell Biol. 2011;192:121-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results establish the first link between NPC1 and a cytoplasmic sterol carrier, and suggest that ORP5 may cooperate with NPC1 to mediate the exit of cholesterol from endosomes/lysosomes. ..
  13. Nejman Falenczyk B, Golec P, Maciag M, Wegrzyn A, Wegrzyn G. Inhibition of development of Shiga toxin-converting bacteriophages by either treatment with citrate or amino acid starvation. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2012;9:13-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are pathogenic strains, whose virulence depends on induction of Shiga toxin-converting prophages and their subsequent lytic development...
  14. Gallegos K, Conrady D, Karve S, Gunasekera T, Herr A, Weiss A. Shiga toxin binding to glycolipids and glycans. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e30368 pubmed publisher
    Immunologically distinct forms of Shiga toxin (Stx1 and Stx2) display different potencies and disease outcomes, likely due to differences in host cell binding...
  15. Friedrich A, Zhang W, Bielaszewska M, Mellmann A, Köck R, Fruth A, et al. Prevalence, virulence profiles, and clinical significance of Shiga toxin-negative variants of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 infection in humans. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;45:39-45 pubmed
    Escherichia coli O157, of the H7 clone, exists in humans and in the environment as Shiga toxin (Stx)-positive and Stx-negative variants...
  16. Fogg P, Gossage S, Smith D, Saunders J, McCarthy A, Allison H. Identification of multiple integration sites for Stx-phage Phi24B in the Escherichia coli genome, description of a novel integrase and evidence for a functional anti-repressor. Microbiology. 2007;153:4098-110 pubmed
    The key virulence factor in Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli is the expression of Shiga toxin (Stx), which is conferred by Stx-encoding temperate lambdoid phages (Stx-phages)...
  17. Maletzki C, Linnebacher M, Savai R, Hobohm U. Mistletoe lectin has a shiga toxin-like structure and should be combined with other Toll-like receptor ligands in cancer therapy. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2013;62:1283-92 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that mistletoe lectin is a plant protein of bacterial origin with a 3D structure very similar to shiga toxin from Shigella dysenteriae, which explains the remarkable immunogenicity of mistletoe lectin...
  18. Lee K, French N, Jones G, Hara Kudo Y, Iyoda S, Kobayashi H, et al. Variation in stress resistance patterns among stx genotypes and genetic lineages of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2012;78:3361-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the relationship between bacterial genotypes and stress resistance patterns, we exposed 57 strains of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 to acid, freeze-thaw, heat, osmotic, oxidative, and starvation stresses...
  19. Yu M, Haslam D. Shiga toxin is transported from the endoplasmic reticulum following interaction with the luminal chaperone HEDJ/ERdj3. Infect Immun. 2005;73:2524-32 pubmed
    b>Shiga toxin (Stx) follows a complex intracellular pathway in order to kill susceptible cells. After binding to cell surface glycolipids, the toxin is internalized and trafficked in retrograde fashion to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)...
  20. Durso L, Reynolds K, Bauer N, Keen J. Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections among livestock exhibitors and visitors at a Texas County Fair. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2005;5:193-201 pubmed
    ..Livestock exhibitors and fair visitors should follow guidelines to reduce the risk of transmission of STEC O157 at agricultural fairs. ..
  21. Scholl D, Cooley M, Williams S, Gebhart D, Martin D, Bates A, et al. An engineered R-type pyocin is a highly specific and sensitive bactericidal agent for the food-borne pathogen Escherichia coli O157:H7. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009;53:3074-80 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, E. coli O157:H7 exposed to and killed by AVR2-V10 do not release Shiga toxin, as is often the case with many antibiotics, suggesting potential therapeutic applications...
  22. Tyler J, Friedman D. Characterization of a eukaryotic-like tyrosine protein kinase expressed by the Shiga toxin-encoding bacteriophage 933W. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:3472-9 pubmed
    The Shiga toxin (Stx)-encoding bacteriophage 933W contains an open reading frame, stk, with amino acid sequence similarity to the catalytic domain of eukaryotic serine/threonine (Ser/Thr) protein kinases (PKs)...
  23. Bielaszewska M, Köck R, Friedrich A, von Eiff C, Zimmerhackl L, Karch H, et al. Shiga toxin-mediated hemolytic uremic syndrome: time to change the diagnostic paradigm?. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e1024 pubmed
    ..uremic syndrome (HUS) is caused by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) which possess genes encoding Shiga toxin (stx), the major virulence factor, and adhesin intimin (eae)...
  24. Palermo M, Exeni R, Fernandez G. Hemolytic uremic syndrome: pathogenesis and update of interventions. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2009;7:697-707 pubmed publisher
    The typical form of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is the major complication of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli infections...
  25. Hadler J, Clogher P, Hurd S, Phan Q, Mandour M, Bemis K, et al. Ten-year trends and risk factors for non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli found through Shiga toxin testing, Connecticut, 2000-2009. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;53:269-76 pubmed publisher
    The epidemiology over time of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is unknown...
  26. Waldor M, Friedman D. Phage regulatory circuits and virulence gene expression. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2005;8:459-65 pubmed
    ..circuits contribute to expression of these genes? Phages of the lambda family that have genes encoding Shiga toxin are found in certain pathogenic Escherichia coli (known as Shiga toxin producing E...
  27. Engedal N, Skotland T, Torgersen M, Sandvig K. Shiga toxin and its use in targeted cancer therapy and imaging. Microb Biotechnol. 2011;4:32-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we discuss the possibility of utilizing Stx or StxB coupled to therapeutic compounds or contrast agents in targeted cancer therapy and imaging. ..
  28. Bloch S, Nejman Falenczyk B, Łoś J, Barańska S, Łepek K, Felczykowska A, et al. Genes from the exo-xis region of ? and Shiga toxin-converting bacteriophages influence lysogenization and prophage induction. Arch Microbiol. 2013;195:693-703 pubmed publisher
    ..In this report, using bacteriophage ? and Shiga toxin-converting bacteriophage ?24?, we demonstrate that the presence of this region on a multicopy plasmid results ..
  29. Bagheri M, Ghanbarpour R, Alizade H. Shiga toxin and beta-lactamases genes in Escherichia coli phylotypes isolated from carcasses of broiler chickens slaughtered in Iran. Int J Food Microbiol. 2014;177:16-20 pubmed publisher
  30. Raa H, Grimmer S, Schwudke D, Bergan J, Walchli S, Skotland T, et al. Glycosphingolipid requirements for endosome-to-Golgi transport of Shiga toxin. Traffic. 2009;10:868-82 pubmed publisher
    b>Shiga toxin binds to globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) receptors on the target cell surface...
  31. Marucci P, Olivera N, Brugnoni L, Sica M, Cubitto M. The occurrence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in bathing water of the Sierra de la Ventana region, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Environ Monit Assess. 2011;175:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..A survey of the occurrence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in these waters was conducted, and the microbiological quality of rivers and ..
  32. Petruzziello Pellegrini T, Moslemi Naeini M, Marsden P. New insights into Shiga toxin-mediated endothelial dysfunction in hemolytic uremic syndrome. Virulence. 2013;4:556-63 pubmed publisher
    b>Shiga toxin-producing E. coli represents a significant global health concern, especially as hypervirulent pathogens surface amidst outbreaks of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)...
  33. Nejman B, Nadratowska Wesołowska B, Szalewska Pałasz A, Wegrzyn A, Wegrzyn G. Replication of plasmids derived from Shiga toxin-converting bacteriophages in starved Escherichia coli. Microbiology. 2011;157:220-33 pubmed publisher
    The pathogenicity of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) depends on the expression of stx genes that are located on lambdoid prophages...
  34. Brigotti M, Carnicelli D, Arfilli V, Rocchi L, Ricci F, Pagliaro P, et al. Change in conformation with reduction of alpha-helix content causes loss of neutrophil binding activity in fully cytotoxic Shiga toxin 1. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:34514-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate that conformational changes of Shiga toxin 1, with reduction of ?-helix content and exposition to solvent of hydrophobic tryptophan residues, cause a loss ..
  35. Havelaar A, Van Duynhoven Y, Nauta M, Bouwknegt M, Heuvelink A, De Wit G, et al. Disease burden in The Netherlands due to infections with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157. Epidemiol Infect. 2004;132:467-84 pubmed
    ..Sensitivity analysis indicates that uncertainty associated with model assumptions did not have a major effect on these estimates. ..
  36. Blackall D, Marques M. Hemolytic uremic syndrome revisited: Shiga toxin, factor H, and fibrin generation. Am J Clin Pathol. 2004;121 Suppl:S81-8 pubmed
    ..HUS most commonly affects children younger than 5 years and is associated with Shiga toxin-producing enteric bacteria, the most important of which is Escherichia coli O157:H7...
  37. Hussein H, Sakuma T. Prevalence of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in dairy cattle and their products. J Dairy Sci. 2005;88:450-65 pubmed
    ..objective of this review was to assess the role of dairy cattle and their products in human infections with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). A large number of STEC strains (e.g...
  38. Falguières T, Johannes L. Shiga toxin B-subunit binds to the chaperone BiP and the nucleolar protein B23. Biol Cell. 2006;98:125-34 pubmed
    In many cell lines, such as HeLa cells, STxB (Shiga toxin B-subunit) is transported from the plasma membrane to the ER (endoplasmic reticulum), via early/recycling endosomes and the Golgi apparatus, bypassing the late endocytic pathway...
  39. Torres A, Vazquez Juarez R, Tutt C, Garcia Gallegos J. Pathoadaptive mutation that mediates adherence of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O111. Infect Immun. 2005;73:4766-76 pubmed
    ..LDC activity was found in most of the pathogenic E. coli strains tested and was absent from Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) O111 strains (DEC pathotype 8)...
  40. Hiramatsu R, Matsumoto M, Sakae K, Miyazaki Y. Ability of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. to survive in a desiccation model system and in dry foods. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2005;71:6657-63 pubmed
    ..desiccation tolerances of bacterial strains, the survival of 58 diarrheagenic strains (18 salmonellae, 35 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli [STEC], and 5 shigellae) and of 15 nonpathogenic E...
  41. Roudkenar M, Bouzari S, Kuwahara Y, Roushandeh A, Oloomi M, Fukumoto M. Recombinant hybrid protein, Shiga toxin and granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor effectively induce apoptosis of colon cancer cells. World J Gastroenterol. 2006;12:2341-4 pubmed
    ..Selective cytotoxic effect of the hybrid protein on the colon cancer cell line expressing GM-CSF receptors (GM-CSFRs) receptor and apoptosis can be observed in this cell line. The hybrid protein can be considered as a therapeutic agent. ..
  42. Jeon B, Itoh K. Production of shiga toxin by a luxS mutant of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in vivo and in vitro. Microbiol Immunol. 2007;51:391-6 pubmed
    ..A luxS mutation caused a minimal decrease (about 2-fold) in Shiga toxin (Stx) production in in vitro cultures using Luria-Bertani broth...
  43. El Alaoui A, Schmidt F, Amessou M, Sarr M, Decaudin D, Florent J, et al. Shiga toxin-mediated retrograde delivery of a topoisomerase I inhibitor prodrug. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2007;46:6469-72 pubmed
  44. Scheiring J, Andreoli S, Zimmerhackl L. Treatment and outcome of Shiga-toxin-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Pediatr Nephrol. 2008;23:1749-60 pubmed publisher
    ..The most common infectious agents causing HUS are enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC)-producing Shiga toxin (and belonging to the serotype O157:H7) and several non-O157:H7 serotypes...
  45. Poirier K, Faucher S, Béland M, Brousseau R, Gannon V, Martin C, et al. Escherichia coli O157:H7 survives within human macrophages: global gene expression profile and involvement of the Shiga toxins. Infect Immun. 2008;76:4814-22 pubmed publisher
    ..As the Shiga toxin genes were upregulated in macrophages, survival and cytotoxicity assays were performed with isogenic Shiga ..
  46. Smith C, Olszewski A, Mauro S. Correlation of shiga toxin gene frequency with commonly used microbial indicators of recreational water quality. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009;75:316-21 pubmed publisher
    b>Shiga toxin (Stx) genes produce proteins that are pathogenic to humans, leading to severe gastrointestinal illness...
  47. Jakubczak A, Szych J, Januszkiewicz K. [Characterization of first sorbitol-fermenting shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H- strain isolated in Poland]. Med Dosw Mikrobiol. 2008;60:173-81 pubmed
    Sorbitol-fermenting shiga toxin-producing E. coli O157:H- strains have emerged as a cause of human disease in many European and non-European countries...
  48. Grys T, Sloan L, Rosenblatt J, Patel R. Rapid and sensitive detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from nonenriched stool specimens by real-time PCR in comparison to enzyme immunoassay and culture. J Clin Microbiol. 2009;47:2008-12 pubmed publisher
    b>Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) bacteria are a frequent cause of food-borne gastroenteritis, hemorrhagic colitis, and hemolytic uremic syndrome...
  49. Guetzoyan L, Spooner R, Lord J, Roberts L, Clarkson G. Simple oxidation of pyrimidinylhydrazones to triazolopyrimidines and their inhibition of Shiga toxin trafficking. Eur J Med Chem. 2010;45:275-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The effect of these compounds on Shiga toxin (STx) trafficking in HeLa cells and comparison to the previously reported Exo2 is also detailed.
  50. McDonald J, Smith D, Fogg P, McCarthy A, Allison H. High-throughput method for rapid induction of prophages from lysogens and its application in the study of Shiga Toxin-encoding Escherichia coli strains. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2010;76:2360-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The induction method was tested on 188 putative Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains and demonstrated the ability to detect both lambdoid and stx-..
  51. Wahome P, Bai Y, Neal L, Robertus J, Mantis N. Identification of small-molecule inhibitors of ricin and shiga toxin using a cell-based high-throughput screen. Toxicon. 2010;56:313-23 pubmed publisher
    The Category B agents, ricin and shiga toxin (Stx), are RNA N-glycosidases that target a highly conserved adenine residue within the sarcin-ricin loop of eukaryotic 28S ribosomal RNA...
  52. Hunt J. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). Clin Lab Med. 2010;30:21-45 pubmed publisher
    b>Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are important enteric pathogens worldwide, causing diarrhea with or without blood visibly present and hemolytic uremic syndrome...
  53. Imamovic L, Ballesté E, Jofre J, Muniesa M. Quantification of Shiga toxin-converting bacteriophages in wastewater and in fecal samples by real-time quantitative PCR. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2010;76:5693-701 pubmed publisher
    b>Shiga toxin-converting bacteriophages (Stx phages) are involved in the pathogenicity of some enteric bacteria, such as Escherichia coli O157:H7...
  54. Spooner R, Lord J. How ricin and Shiga toxin reach the cytosol of target cells: retrotranslocation from the endoplasmic reticulum. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2012;357:19-40 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe here the dislocation of ricin A chain and Shiga toxin A chain, but also consider cholera toxin which bears a superficial structural resemblance to Shiga toxin...
  55. Gupta P, Singh M, Singh Y, Gautam V, Kumar S, Kumar O, et al. Recombinant Shiga toxin B subunit elicits protection against Shiga toxin via mixed Th type immune response in mice. Vaccine. 2011;29:8094-100 pubmed publisher
    ..It produces potent toxin termed Shiga toxin which is listed in category B biological warfare agent of CDC, USA...
  56. Rahal E, Kazzi N, Sabra A, Abdelnoor A, Matar G. Decrease in Shiga toxin expression using a minimal inhibitory concentration of rifampicin followed by bactericidal gentamicin treatment enhances survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7-infected BALB/c mice. Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob. 2011;10:34 pubmed publisher
    ..The utility of decreasing Shiga toxin gene expression in E...
  57. Obrig T, Karpman D. Shiga toxin pathogenesis: kidney complications and renal failure. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2012;357:105-36 pubmed publisher
    ..renal disease in D(+)HUS is largely the result of the interaction between bacterial virulence factors such as Shiga toxin and lipopolysaccharide and host cells in the kidney and in the blood circulation...
  58. Fogg P, Saunders J, McCarthy A, Allison H. Cumulative effect of prophage burden on Shiga toxin production in Escherichia coli. Microbiology. 2012;158:488-97 pubmed publisher
    ..The more serious symptoms associated with STEC infection are primarily the result of Shiga toxin (Stx) production, directed by converting Stx bacteriophages...
  59. Bielaszewska M, Fell M, Greune L, Prager R, Fruth A, Tschäpe H, et al. Characterization of cytolethal distending toxin genes and expression in shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains of non-O157 serogroups. Infect Immun. 2004;72:1812-6 pubmed
    We identified cytolethal distending toxin and its gene (cdt) in 17 of 340 non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains (serotypes O73:H18, O91:H21, O113:H21, and O153:H18), all of which were eae negative...
  60. Yamasaki C, Nishikawa K, Zeng X, Katayama Y, Natori Y, Komatsu N, et al. Induction of cytokines by toxins that have an identical RNA N-glycosidase activity: Shiga toxin, ricin, and modeccin. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2004;1671:44-50 pubmed
    b>Shiga toxin (Stx) has an A1-B5 subunit structure, and the A subunit is an RNA N-glycosidase that inhibits cellular protein synthesis...
  61. Greco K, McDonough M, Butterton J. Variation in the Shiga toxin region of 20th-century epidemic and endemic Shigella dysenteriae 1 strains. J Infect Dis. 2004;190:330-4 pubmed publisher
    The Shiga toxin (Stx) region of Shigella dysenteriae 1 lies on a defective prophage homologous to lambdoid bacteriophages in Stx-producing Escherichia coli. S...
  62. Gourmelon M, Montet M, Lozach S, Le Mennec C, Pommepuy M, Beutin L, et al. First isolation of Shiga toxin 1d producing Escherichia coli variant strains in shellfish from coastal areas in France. J Appl Microbiol. 2006;100:85-97 pubmed publisher
    This study was carried out to evaluate the presence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and E. coli O157:H7 in shellfish from French coastal environments. ..
  63. Miyamoto Y, Iimura M, Kaper J, Torres A, Kagnoff M. Role of Shiga toxin versus H7 flagellin in enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli signalling of human colon epithelium in vivo. Cell Microbiol. 2006;8:869-79 pubmed
    ..Whereas Shiga toxin (Stx) and bacterial flagellin have been studied for their ability to upregulate the production of ..
  64. Sheng H, Lim J, Knecht H, Li J, Hovde C. Role of Escherichia coli O157:H7 virulence factors in colonization at the bovine terminal rectal mucosa. Infect Immun. 2006;74:4685-93 pubmed
    ..coli O157:H7 was compared with those of nonpathogenic E. coli K-12 and isogenic deletion mutants missing Shiga toxin (Stx), the adhesin intimin, its receptor Tir, hemolysin, or the approximately 92-kb pO157...
  65. Kuusi M, Eklund M, Siitonen A, Virkki M, Häkkinen P, Mäkelä R. Prolonged shedding of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2007;26:279 pubmed
  66. Utskarpen A, Slagsvold H, Dyve A, Skånland S, Sandvig K. SNX1 and SNX2 mediate retrograde transport of Shiga toxin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;358:566-70 pubmed
    The bacterial toxin Shiga toxin (Stx) is transported retrogradely from early endosomes to the Golgi apparatus on its way to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the cytosol...
  67. Vareille M, de Sablet T, Hindré T, Martin C, Gobert A. Nitric oxide inhibits Shiga-toxin synthesis by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:10199-204 pubmed
    ..Thus our findings identify NO as an inhibitor of stx expressing-phage propagation and Stx release and thus as a potential protective factor limiting the development of hemolytic syndromes. ..
  68. Fuchs E, Haas A, Spooner R, Yoshimura S, Lord J, Barr F. Specific Rab GTPase-activating proteins define the Shiga toxin and epidermal growth factor uptake pathways. J Cell Biol. 2007;177:1133-43 pubmed
    ..study, we have investigated which Rab GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) can interfere with the trafficking of Shiga toxin from the cell surface to the Golgi apparatus and studied transport of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) from ..
  69. Teel L, Daly J, Jerris R, Maul D, Svanas G, O Brien A, et al. Rapid detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli by optical immunoassay. J Clin Microbiol. 2007;45:3377-80 pubmed
    In a multi-health center study, a new rapid optical immunoassay (OIA) for the detection of Shiga toxin types 1 and 2, the BioStar OIA SHIGATOX kit (Inverness Medical Professional Diagnostics, Inc...
  70. Spilsberg B, Llorente A, Sandvig K. Polyunsaturated fatty acids regulate Shiga toxin transport. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;364:283-8 pubmed
    b>Shiga toxin (Stx) is internalized by receptor-mediated endocytosis and transported retrogradely to the endoplasmic reticulum from where the enzymatically active part of the toxin is translocated to the cytosol...
  71. Smith D, Wareing B, Fogg P, Riley L, Spencer M, Cox M, et al. Multilocus characterization scheme for shiga toxin-encoding bacteriophages. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007;73:8032-40 pubmed
    b>Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains are food-borne pathogens whose ability to produce Shiga toxin (Stx) is due to integration of Stx-encoding lambdoid bacteriophages...
  72. Skånland S, Walchli S, Sandvig K. ?-arrestins attenuate p38-mediated endosome to Golgi transport. Cell Microbiol. 2009;11:796-807 pubmed publisher
    b>Shiga toxin (Stx) is after endocytosis transported via early endosomes to the Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum. It is then translocated to the cytosol where it exerts its toxic effect...
  73. Los J, Los M, Wegrzyn G, Wegrzyn A. Differential efficiency of induction of various lambdoid prophages responsible for production of Shiga toxins in response to different induction agents. Microb Pathog. 2009;47:289-98 pubmed publisher
    b>Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is a group of pathogenic strains responsible for bloody diarrhea and hemorrhagic colitis, with often severe complications. Shiga toxins are the main factors causing the phathogenicity of STEC...
  74. Urdahl A, Solheim H, Vold L, Hasseltvedt V, Wasteson Y. Shiga toxin-encoding genes (stx genes) in human faecal samples. APMIS. 2013;121:202-10 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding emphasizes the importance of correct diagnostic criteria for interpretation of the finding of an occasional stx-positive sample or an STEC isolate when searching for an aetiological agent of human cases of diarrhoea. ..
  75. Kouzel I, Pohlentz G, Storck W, Radamm L, Hoffmann P, Bielaszewska M, et al. Association of Shiga toxin glycosphingolipid receptors with membrane microdomains of toxin-sensitive lymphoid and myeloid cells. J Lipid Res. 2013;54:692-710 pubmed publisher
    ..Our comprehensive study on the expression of Stx-receptors and their subcellular distribution provides the basis for exploring the functional role of lipid raft-associated Stx-receptors in cells of leukocyte origin...
  76. Gaston M, Pellino C, Weiss A. Failure of manganese to protect from Shiga toxin. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e69823 pubmed publisher
    b>Shiga toxin (Stx), the main virulence factor of Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli, is a major public health threat, causing hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome...
  77. Beutin L, Hammerl J, Reetz J, Strauch E. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains from cattle as a source of the Stx2a bacteriophages present in enteroaggregative Escherichia coli O104:H4 strains. Int J Med Microbiol. 2013;303:595-602 pubmed publisher
    Enteroaggregative, Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (EAEC-STEC) O104:H4 strains are emerging pathogens causing life threatening diseases in humans...
  78. Tazzari P, Ricci F, Carnicelli D, Caprioli A, Tozzi A, Rizzoni G, et al. Flow cytometry detection of Shiga toxins in the blood from children with hemolytic uremic syndrome. Cytometry B Clin Cytom. 2004;61:40-4 pubmed
    ..Most cases are due to intestinal infections from Escherichia coli strains (STEC) which produce by Shiga toxin (Stxs)...
  79. Cristancho L, Johnson R, McEwen S, Gyles C. Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other Shiga toxin-producing E. coli in white veal calves. Vet Microbiol. 2008;126:200-9 pubmed
    ..the study were to determine the prevalence of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC O157) and other Shiga toxin-producing E...
  80. Orth D, Khan A, Naim A, Grif K, Brockmeyer J, Karch H, et al. Shiga toxin activates complement and binds factor H: evidence for an active role of complement in hemolytic uremic syndrome. J Immunol. 2009;182:6394-400 pubmed publisher
    ..e., to regions involved in the surface recognition function of FH. In conclusion, complement, and in particular FH, not only plays an important role in atypical HUS, but most probably also in EHEC-induced HUS. ..
  81. Etoh Y, Murakami K, Ichihara S, Sera N, Hamasaki M, Takenaka S, et al. Isolation of Shiga toxin 2f-producing Escherichia coli (O115:HNM) from an adult symptomatic patient in Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2009;62:315-7 pubmed
    b>Shiga toxin 2f-producing Escherichia coli (O115:HNM) with eae was isolated from a symptomatic patient in Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan...
  82. Grant M, Mogler M, Harris D. Comparison of enrichment procedures for shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in wastes from commercial swine farms. J Food Prot. 2009;72:1982-6 pubmed
    Three methods for enrichment of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) were compared using waste pit samples from swine production facilities housing 50 to 3,000 animals...
  83. Rooks D, Yan Y, McDonald J, Woodward M, McCarthy A, Allison H. Development and validation of a qPCR-based method for quantifying Shiga toxin-encoding and other lambdoid bacteriophages. Environ Microbiol. 2010;12:1194-204 pubmed publisher
    To address whether seasonal variability exists among Shiga toxin-encoding bacteriophage (Stx phage) numbers on a cattle farm, conventional plaque assay was performed on water samples collected over a 17 month period...
  84. Kim S, Lee S, Kim K, Ko A, Kim E, Kim Y, et al. Shiga toxin A subunit mutant of Escherichia coli O157:H7 releases outer membrane vesicles containing the B-pentameric complex. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2010;58:412-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Determination of the median lethal dose concentration for the OMV preparations suggests that the STxA-deficient OMVs containing STxB complex could be safely used as vaccine delivery vehicles. ..
  85. Fratamico P, Bagi L, Cray W, Narang N, Yan X, Medina M, et al. Detection by multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction assays and isolation of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145 in ground beef. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2011;8:601-7 pubmed publisher
    Six Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups, which include O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145, are responsible for the majority of non-O157 STEC infections in the United States, representing a growing public health ..
  86. Madic J, Vingadassalon N, de Garam C, Marault M, Scheutz F, Brugère H, et al. Detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli serotypes O26:H11, O103:H2, O111:H8, O145:H28, and O157:H7 in raw-milk cheeses by using multiplex real-time PCR. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:2035-41 pubmed publisher
    b>Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains are a diverse group of food-borne pathogens with various levels of virulence for humans...
  87. Valadez A, Debroy C, Dudley E, Cutter C. Multiplex PCR detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains belonging to serogroups O157, O103, O91, O113, O145, O111, and O26 experimentally inoculated in beef carcass swabs, beef trim, and ground beef. J Food Prot. 2011;74:228-39 pubmed publisher
    Numerous foodborne outbreaks are attributed to Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and have been recognized for causing gastrointestinal disease in humans. Beef products have been considered the principal source of STEC...
  88. Meichtri L, Miliwebsky E, Gioffré A, Chinen I, Baschkier A, Chillemi G, et al. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in healthy young beef steers from Argentina: prevalence and virulence properties. Int J Food Microbiol. 2004;96:189-98 pubmed
    Between July 1999 and December 2000, the prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) was established in 200 Argentine healthy young beef steers (14-16 months old) grown under local production systems with a feed grain ..
  89. Manning S, Madera R, Schneider W, Dietrich S, Khalife W, Brown W, et al. Surveillance for Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, Michigan, 2001-2005. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13:318-21 pubmed
    A surveillance system used different detection methods to estimate prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli during 2003-2005 and 2001-2002...
  90. Fang C, Fremeaux Bacchi V, Liszewski M, Pianetti G, Noris M, Goodship T, et al. Membrane cofactor protein mutations in atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS), fatal Stx-HUS, C3 glomerulonephritis, and the HELLP syndrome. Blood. 2008;111:624-32 pubmed
    ..cofactor protein (MCP;CD46) predispose to atypical HUS (aHUS), which is not associated with exposure to Shiga toxin (Stx)...
  91. Majalija S, Segal H, Ejobi F, Elisha B. Shiga toxin gene-containing Escherichia coli from cattle and diarrheic children in the pastoral systems of southwestern Uganda. J Clin Microbiol. 2008;46:352-4 pubmed
    b>Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains from cattle and diarrheic children in a pastoralist community in Uganda were investigated...
  92. Rivas M, Sosa Estani S, Rangel J, Caletti M, Valles P, Roldán C, et al. Risk factors for sporadic Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli infections in children, Argentina. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:763-71 pubmed publisher
    We evaluated risk factors for sporadic Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infection among children in Argentina. We conducted a prospective case-control study in 2 sites and enrolled 150 case-patients and 299 controls...