shiga toxins


Summary: A class of toxins that inhibit protein synthesis by blocking the interaction of ribosomal RNA; (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) with PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTORS. They include SHIGA TOXIN which is produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE and a variety of shiga-like toxins that are produced by pathologic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157.

Top Publications

  1. Brigotti M, Caprioli A, Tozzi A, Tazzari P, Ricci F, Conte R, et al. Shiga toxins present in the gut and in the polymorphonuclear leukocytes circulating in the blood of children with hemolytic-uremic syndrome. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44:313-7 pubmed
    ..early childhood, is caused primarily by intestinal infections from some Escherichia coli strains that produce Shiga toxins. The toxins released in the gut are targeted to renal endothelium after binding to polymorphonuclear leukocytes...
  2. Römer W, Pontani L, Sorre B, Rentero C, Berland L, Chambon V, et al. Actin dynamics drive membrane reorganization and scission in clathrin-independent endocytosis. Cell. 2010;140:540-53 pubmed publisher
  3. Tesh V. Activation of cell stress response pathways by Shiga toxins. Cell Microbiol. 2012;14:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Shiga toxins (Stxs), the main virulence factors expressed by the pathogens, are ribosome-inactivating proteins which inhibit ..
  4. Toma C, Martínez Espinosa E, Song T, Miliwebsky E, Chinen I, Iyoda S, et al. Distribution of putative adhesins in different seropathotypes of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:4937-46 pubmed
    ..The wide distribution of iha in STEC strains suggested that it could be a candidate for vaccine development. ..
  5. Serra Moreno R, Jofre J, Muniesa M. The CI repressors of Shiga toxin-converting prophages are involved in coinfection of Escherichia coli strains, which causes a down regulation in the production of Shiga toxin 2. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:4722-35 pubmed publisher
    b>Shiga toxins (Stx) are the main virulence factors associated with a form of Escherichia coli known as Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). They are encoded in temperate lambdoid phages located on the chromosome of STEC...
  6. Bettelheim K. The non-O157 shiga-toxigenic (verocytotoxigenic) Escherichia coli; under-rated pathogens. Crit Rev Microbiol. 2007;33:67-87 pubmed
    ..The animal host-specificity of these STEC is also reviewed. In conclusion some methods of improving isolation of these pathogens is addressed. ..
  7. Gyles C. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli: an overview. J Anim Sci. 2007;85:E45-62 pubmed
    ..Studies aimed at understanding factors that affect carriage and shedding of STEC by cattle and factors that contribute to development of disease in humans are considered to be important in achieving this objective. ..
  8. Johnson K, Thorpe C, Sears C. The emerging clinical importance of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;43:1587-95 pubmed
    ..This commentary provides a perspective on the non-O157 STEC as human pathogens, how and when the clinician should approach the diagnosis of these organisms, and the challenges ahead...
  9. del Nery E, Miserey Lenkei S, Falguières T, Nizak C, Johannes L, Perez F, et al. Rab6A and Rab6A' GTPases play non-overlapping roles in membrane trafficking. Traffic. 2006;7:394-407 pubmed
    ..Thus, our work shows that Rab6A and Rab6A' perform different functions within the cell and suggests a novel role for Rab6A' as the major Rab6 isoform regulating previously described Rab6-dependent transport pathways. ..

More Information


  1. Tesh V. The induction of apoptosis by Shiga toxins and ricin. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2012;357:137-78 pubmed publisher
    b>Shiga toxins and ricin are ribosome-inactivating proteins which share the property of inhibiting protein synthesis by catalytic inactivation of eukaryotic ribosomes...
  2. Gilmour M, Tracz D, Andrysiak A, Clark C, Tyson S, Severini A, et al. Use of the espZ gene encoded in the locus of enterocyte effacement for molecular typing of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44:449-58 pubmed
    ..Classification of STEC is by stx genotype (encoding the Shiga toxins), O and H antigen serotype, and seropathotype (subgroupings based upon the clinical relevance and virulence-..
  3. Masana M, Leotta G, Del Castillo L, D Astek B, Palladino P, Galli L, et al. Prevalence, characterization, and genotypic analysis of Escherichia coli O157:H7/NM from selected beef exporting abattoirs of Argentina. J Food Prot. 2010;73:649-56 pubmed
    ..Five phage type-PFGE-stx profiles of 10 strains isolated in this study matched with the profiles of the strains recovered from 18 of 122 HUS cases that occurred in the same period. ..
  4. Yoon J, Hovde C. All blood, no stool: enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection. J Vet Sci. 2008;9:219-31 pubmed
    ..coli that produces one or more Shiga toxins, forms a characteristic histopathology described as attaching and effacing lesions, and possesses the large ..
  5. Zweifel C, Blanco J, Blanco M, Blanco J, Stephan R. Serotypes and virulence genes of ovine non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in Switzerland. Int J Food Microbiol. 2004;95:19-27 pubmed
    ..Nevertheless, as long as the contribution and interaction of these factors in milder disease remains unclear P, a certain risk for humans cannot be excluded. ..
  6. Bielaszewska M, Friedrich A, Aldick T, Schürk Bulgrin R, Karch H. Shiga toxin activatable by intestinal mucus in Escherichia coli isolated from humans: predictor for a severe clinical outcome. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;43:1160-7 pubmed
    ..A prompt and comprehensive subtyping of stx genes in STEC isolates is necessary to alert the treating physician that a patient is at risk of developing hemolytic uremic syndrome, even though the infecting STEC lacks eae. ..
  7. Hyytia Trees E, Smole S, Fields P, Swaminathan B, Ribot E. Second generation subtyping: a proposed PulseNet protocol for multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 (STEC O157). Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2006;3:118-31 pubmed
    ..An additional more extensive multi-laboratory validation of the MLVA protocol is in progress in order to address critical issues such as establishing epidemiologically relevant interpretation guidelines for the MLVA data. ..
  8. Miura Y, Sakaki A, Kamihira M, Iijima S, Kobayashi K. A globotriaosylceramide (Gb3Cer) mimic peptide isolated from phage display library expressed strong neutralization to Shiga toxins. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1760:883-9 pubmed
    ..mimic peptide was selected with biopanning from a phage display library against anti-Gb3 antibody to neutralize Shiga toxins (Stxs)...
  9. Pradel N, Bertin Y, Martin C, Livrelli V. Molecular analysis of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains isolated from hemolytic-uremic syndrome patients and dairy samples in France. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008;74:2118-28 pubmed publisher
    ..The presence of genes encoding Shiga toxins (stx(1), stx(2), and variants), intimin (eae and variants), adhesins (bfp, efa1), enterohemolysin (ehxA), ..
  10. Kotewicz M, Mammel M, LeClerc J, Cebula T. Optical mapping and 454 sequencing of Escherichia coli O157 : H7 isolates linked to the US 2006 spinach-associated outbreak. Microbiology. 2008;154:3518-28 pubmed publisher
  11. Lee M, Cherla R, Jenson M, Leyva Illades D, Martinez Moczygemba M, Tesh V. Shiga toxins induce autophagy leading to differential signalling pathways in toxin-sensitive and toxin-resistant human cells. Cell Microbiol. 2011;13:1479-96 pubmed publisher
    The bacterial virulence factors Shiga toxins (Stxs) are expressed by Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 and certain Escherichia coli strains. Stxs are protein synthesis inhibitors and induce apoptosis in many cell types...
  12. Cergole Novella M, Nishimura L, Dos Santos L, Irino K, Vaz T, Bergamini A, et al. Distribution of virulence profiles related to new toxins and putative adhesins in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolated from diverse sources in Brazil. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2007;274:329-34 pubmed
  13. Muthing J, Schweppe C, Karch H, Friedrich A. Shiga toxins, glycosphingolipid diversity, and endothelial cell injury. Thromb Haemost. 2009;101:252-64 pubmed
    ..This approach may be helpful to gain insights into Stx-induced impairment of target cells that is suggested to originate at least partly from the structural heterogeneity of the cellular ligands of Stxs. ..
  14. Rivas L, Dykes G, Fegan N. A comparative study of biofilm formation by Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli using epifluorescence microscopy on stainless steel and a microtitre plate method. J Microbiol Methods. 2007;69:44-51 pubmed
  15. Khan F, Proulx F, Lingwood C. Detergent-resistant globotriaosyl ceramide may define verotoxin/glomeruli-restricted hemolytic uremic syndrome pathology. Kidney Int. 2009;75:1209-1216 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study shows that differential membrane Gb(3) organization in glomeruli and tubules provides a basis for the age- and glomerular-restricted pathology of hemolytic uremic syndrome. ..
  16. Neri P, Shigemori N, Hamada Tsutsumi S, Tsukamoto K, Arimitsu H, Shimizu T, et al. Single chain variable fragment antibodies against Shiga toxins isolated from a human antibody phage display library. Vaccine. 2011;29:5340-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Shiga toxins (Stxs) are involved in the pathogenesis of hemolytic-uremic syndrome and other severe systemic complications following enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli infection in humans...
  17. Scheutz F, Teel L, Beutin L, Pierard D, Buvens G, Karch H, et al. Multicenter evaluation of a sequence-based protocol for subtyping Shiga toxins and standardizing Stx nomenclature. J Clin Microbiol. 2012;50:2951-63 pubmed publisher
  18. Bergan J, Dyve Lingelem A, Simm R, Skotland T, Sandvig K. Shiga toxins. Toxicon. 2012;60:1085-107 pubmed publisher
    b>Shiga toxins are virulence factors produced by the bacteria Shigella dysenteriae and certain strains of Escherichia coli...
  19. Shimizu T, Sato T, Kawakami S, Ohta T, Noda M, Hamabata T. Receptor affinity, stability and binding mode of Shiga toxins are determinants of toxicity. Microb Pathog. 2007;43:88-95 pubmed
    The closely related Shiga toxins, Shiga toxin 1 (Stx1) and Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2), can bind to Gb3 receptors...
  20. Ferens W, Cobbold R, Hovde C. Intestinal Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli bacteria mitigate bovine leukemia virus infection in experimentally infected sheep. Infect Immun. 2006;74:2906-16 pubmed
    ..05). These results support the hypothesis that in ruminants, intestinal STEC bacteria have antiviral activity and mitigate BLV-induced disease...
  21. Razzaq S. Hemolytic uremic syndrome: an emerging health risk. Am Fam Physician. 2006;74:991-6 pubmed
    ..Obtaining a complete blood count and stool culture and performing Shiga toxin testing are the first of a series of tests that may help diagnose hemolytic uremic syndrome. ..
  22. Holle J, Williams J, Harper L, Savage C, Taylor C. Effect of verocytotoxins (Shiga-like toxins) on human neutrophils in vitro. Pediatr Nephrol. 2005;20:1237-44 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, VT1 and VT2 do not activate primed neutrophils in vitro. Nor do they affect chemotaxis towards fMLP. They may impair neutrophil priming. ..
  23. Nolasco L, Turner N, Bernardo A, Tao Z, Cleary T, Dong J, et al. Hemolytic uremic syndrome-associated Shiga toxins promote endothelial-cell secretion and impair ADAMTS13 cleavage of unusually large von Willebrand factor multimers. Blood. 2005;106:4199-209 pubmed
    ..Nanomolar concentrations (1-10 nM) of the Shiga toxins were as effective in inducing the formation of ULVWF-platelet strings as millimolar concentrations (0...
  24. Brooks J, Sowers E, Wells J, Greene K, Griffin P, Hoekstra R, et al. Non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli infections in the United States, 1983-2002. J Infect Dis. 2005;192:1422-9 pubmed
    ..These efforts require increased clinical suspicion, improved clinical laboratory isolation, and continued serotyping of isolates in public health laboratories. ..
  25. Lainhart W, Stolfa G, Koudelka G. Shiga toxin as a bacterial defense against a eukaryotic predator, Tetrahymena thermophila. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:5116-22 pubmed publisher
  26. Nejman B, Los J, Łoś M, Wegrzyn G, Wegrzyn A. Plasmids derived from lambdoid bacteriophages as models for studying replication of mobile genetic elements responsible for the production of Shiga toxins by pathogenic Escherichia coli strains. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol. 2009;17:211-20 pubmed publisher
    Genes encoding Shiga toxins in pathogenic Escherichia coli strains (Shiga toxin-producing E. coli, STEC) are located on lambdoid prophages. However, studies on the replication of these phages were not reported to date.
  27. Johannes L, Römer W. Shiga toxins--from cell biology to biomedical applications. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2010;8:105-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we discuss how Shiga toxins might be exploited in cancer therapy and immunotherapy.
  28. Tesh V. Induction of apoptosis by Shiga toxins. Future Microbiol. 2010;5:431-53 pubmed publisher
    b>Shiga toxins comprise a family of structurally and functionally related protein toxins expressed by Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 and multiple serotypes of Escherichia coli...
  29. Tarr P, Gordon C, Chandler W. Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli and haemolytic uraemic syndrome. Lancet. 2005;365:1073-86 pubmed
    ..The vascular injury leading to HUS is likely to be well under way by the time infected patients seek medical attention for diarrhoea. The best way to prevent HUS is to prevent primary infection with Shiga-toxin-producing bacteria...
  30. Stechmann B, Bai S, Gobbo E, Lopez R, Merer G, Pinchard S, et al. Inhibition of retrograde transport protects mice from lethal ricin challenge. Cell. 2010;141:231-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work discovers the first small molecule that shows efficacy against ricin in animal experiments and identifies the retrograde route as a potential therapeutic target. ..
  31. Fernandez Brando R, Bentancor L, Mejías M, Ramos M, Exeni A, Exeni C, et al. Antibody response to Shiga toxins in Argentinean children with enteropathic hemolytic uremic syndrome at acute and long-term follow-up periods. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e19136 pubmed publisher
  32. Colpoys W, Cochran B, Carducci T, Thorpe C. Shiga toxins activate translational regulation pathways in intestinal epithelial cells. Cell Signal. 2005;17:891-9 pubmed
    b>Shiga toxins (Stxs) cause irreversible damage to eukaryotic ribosomes, yet cellular intoxication of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) results in increased synthesis of selected proteins, notably cytokines...
  33. Noris M, Remuzzi G. Hemolytic uremic syndrome. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2005;16:1035-50 pubmed
  34. Brigotti M, Carnicelli D, Arfilli V, Rocchi L, Ricci F, Pagliaro P, et al. Change in conformation with reduction of alpha-helix content causes loss of neutrophil binding activity in fully cytotoxic Shiga toxin 1. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:34514-21 pubmed publisher
    b>Shiga toxins (Stx) play an important role in the pathogenesis of hemolytic uremic syndrome, a life-threatening renal sequela of human intestinal infection caused by specific Escherichia coli strains...
  35. Herold S, Karch H, Schmidt H. Shiga toxin-encoding bacteriophages--genomes in motion. Int J Med Microbiol. 2004;294:115-21 pubmed
    b>Shiga toxins (Stx) represent a group of bacterial toxins that are involved in human and animal disease...
  36. Bielaszewska M, Prager R, Köck R, Mellmann A, Zhang W, Tschäpe H, et al. Shiga toxin gene loss and transfer in vitro and in vivo during enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O26 infection in humans. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007;73:3144-50 pubmed
    ..coli (EHEC) and atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC). The former produces Shiga toxins (Stx), major determinants of EHEC pathogenicity, encoded by bacteriophages; the latter is Stx negative...
  37. Brigotti M. The interactions of human neutrophils with shiga toxins and related plant toxins: danger or safety?. Toxins (Basel). 2012;4:157-90 pubmed publisher
    b>Shiga toxins and ricin are well characterized similar toxins belonging to quite different biological kingdoms...
  38. Mora A, Blanco M, Blanco J, Dahbi G, Lopez C, Justel P, et al. Serotypes, virulence genes and intimin types of Shiga toxin (verocytotoxin)-producing Escherichia coli isolates from minced beef in Lugo (Spain) from 1995 through 2003. BMC Microbiol. 2007;7:13 pubmed
    ..Thus, our data confirm minced beef in the city of Lugo as vehicles of highly pathogenic STEC. This requires that control measures to be introduced and implemented to increase the safety of minced beef. ..
  39. Mora A, León S, Blanco M, Blanco J, Lopez C, Dahbi G, et al. Phage types, virulence genes and PFGE profiles of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolated from raw beef, soft cheese and vegetables in Lima (Peru). Int J Food Microbiol. 2007;114:204-10 pubmed
    ..All 35 were positive by PCR for O157 rfbE, fliCh7, eae-gamma1 and ehxA genes. In addition, genes encoding Shiga toxins were detected in 33 of 35 isolates, five isolates (14%) encoded stx(1), stx(2), and 28 (80%) stx2 only...
  40. Burow L, Gobius K, Vanselow B, Klieve A. A lack of predatory interaction between rumen ciliate protozoa and Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2005;40:117-22 pubmed
    ..They appear as neither a host that protects STEC from the ruminal environment nor a predator that might reduce STEC numbers. ..
  41. Krüger A, Lucchesi P, Parma A. Verotoxins in bovine and meat verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli isolates: type, number of variants, and relationship to cytotoxicity. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:73-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The main observation was that both basal and induced cytotoxic effects seemed to be associated with the type and number of vt variants more than with the serotype or origin of the isolate. ..
  42. Tumer N, Li X. Interaction of ricin and Shiga toxins with ribosomes. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2012;357:1-18 pubmed publisher
    Ricin and Shiga toxins designated as ribosome inactivating proteins (RIPs) are RNA N-glycosidases that depurinate a specific adenine (A???? in rat 28S rRNA) in the conserved ?-sarcin/ricin loop of the large rRNA, inhibiting protein ..
  43. Wahome P, Robertus J, Mantis N. Small-molecule inhibitors of ricin and Shiga toxins. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2012;357:179-207 pubmed publisher
    ..and continuing challenges associated with the identification of small-molecule inhibitors of ricin and Shiga toxins, members of the RNA N-glycosidase family of toxins that irreversibly inactivate eukaryotic ribosomes through ..
  44. Conedera G, Dalvit P, Martini M, Galiero G, Gramaglia M, Goffredo E, et al. Verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 in minced beef and dairy products in Italy. Int J Food Microbiol. 2004;96:67-73 pubmed
    ..The survey also encouraged updating of knowledge and procedures on VTEC O157 in laboratories with official responsibility for microbiological testing of foods of animal origin. ..
  45. Gould L, Bopp C, Strockbine N, Atkinson R, Baselski V, Body B, et al. Recommendations for diagnosis of shiga toxin--producing Escherichia coli infections by clinical laboratories. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2009;58:1-14 pubmed
    ..coli O157:H7 (O157 STEC) and tested with an assay that detects Shiga toxins to detect non-O157 STEC...
  46. Paton A, Srimanote P, Talbot U, Wang H, Paton J. A new family of potent AB(5) cytotoxins produced by Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli. J Exp Med. 2004;200:35-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Oral challenge of mice with E. coli K-12-expressing cloned subA and subB resulted in dramatic weight loss. These findings suggest that the toxin may contribute to the pathogenesis of human disease...
  47. Mora A, Blanco J, Blanco M, Alonso M, Dhabi G, Echeita A, et al. Antimicrobial resistance of Shiga toxin (verotoxin)-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 and non-O157 strains isolated from humans, cattle, sheep and food in Spain. Res Microbiol. 2005;156:793-806 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the high prevalence of antimicrobial resistance detected in our study is a source of concern, and cautious use of antibiotics in animals is highly recommended. ..
  48. Okuda T, Tokuda N, Numata S, Ito M, Ohta M, Kawamura K, et al. Targeted disruption of Gb3/CD77 synthase gene resulted in the complete deletion of globo-series glycosphingolipids and loss of sensitivity to verotoxins. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:10230-5 pubmed
    ..The lethal kinetics were similar regardless of lipopolysaccharide elimination in VT preparation, suggesting that basal Gb3/CD77 levels are sufficient for lethal effects of VTs. ..
  49. Rivas M, Miliwebsky E, Chinen I, Deza N, Leotta G. [The epidemiology of hemolytic uremic syndrome in Argentina. Diagnosis of the etiologic agent, reservoirs and routes of transmission]. Medicina (B Aires). 2006;66 Suppl 3:27-32 pubmed
    ..b>Shiga toxins (Stx1, Stx2, and their variants), intimin, and enterohemolysin are the main virulence factors...
  50. Garrido P, Blanco M, Moreno Paz M, Briones C, Dahbi G, Blanco J, et al. STEC-EPEC oligonucleotide microarray: a new tool for typing genetic variants of the LEE pathogenicity island of human and animal Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) strains. Clin Chem. 2006;52:192-201 pubmed
    ..coli strains isolated from human and animal infections. The results demonstrate the great genetic diversity among LEE genes of human and animal STEC and EPEC strains. ..
  51. Brigotti M, Carnicelli D, Ravanelli E, Barbieri S, Ricci F, Bontadini A, et al. Interactions between Shiga toxins and human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. J Leukoc Biol. 2008;84:1019-27 pubmed publisher
  52. Karch H, Tarr P, Bielaszewska M. Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli in human medicine. Int J Med Microbiol. 2005;295:405-18 pubmed
    ..This review will focus on the microbiology, epidemiology, and pathophysiology of EHEC-associated diseases, and illustrate future challenges and opportunities for their control...
  53. Ochoa T, Chen J, Walker C, Gonzales E, Cleary T. Rifaximin does not induce toxin production or phage-mediated lysis of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007;51:2837-41 pubmed
    ..Rifaximin, unlike many antibiotics used to treat pediatric gastroenteritis, does not induce phage-mediated bacteriolysis and Stx release. ..
  54. Uzawa H, Ito H, Neri P, Mori H, Nishida Y. Glycochips from polyanionic glycopolymers as tools for detecting Shiga toxins. Chembiochem. 2007;8:2117-24 pubmed
    ..beta-Lac), or alpha-D-mannoside (alpha-Man) residues were prepared, and used for the detection of Shiga toxins, Stx-1 and Stx-2, by using surface plasmon resonance (SPR)...
  55. Karmali M, Gannon V, Sargeant J. Verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC). Vet Microbiol. 2010;140:360-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite these efforts many scientific, technical and regulatory challenges remain in the control and prevention of VTEC-associated human illness. ..
  56. Tarragó Trani M, Storrie B. Alternate routes for drug delivery to the cell interior: pathways to the Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2007;59:782-97 pubmed
    ..We highlight the retrograde trafficking pathway illustrated by Shiga toxin and Shiga-like toxin, and the potential role of the B subunit of these toxins as carriers of drugs, antigens and imaging agents. ..
  57. Girardeau J, Dalmasso A, Bertin Y, Ducrot C, Bord S, Livrelli V, et al. Association of virulence genotype with phylogenetic background in comparison to different seropathotypes of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolates. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:6098-107 pubmed
    ..A practical benefit of our phylogenetic analysis of STEC strains is that phylogenetic group A status appears to be highly predictive of "nonvirulent" seropathotypes. ..
  58. Smith D, James C, Sergeant M, Yaxian Y, Saunders J, McCarthy A, et al. Short-tailed stx phages exploit the conserved YaeT protein to disseminate Shiga toxin genes among enterobacteria. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:7223-33 pubmed
  59. Rivas M, Miliwebsky E, Chinen I, Roldán C, Balbi L, Garcia B, et al. Characterization and epidemiologic subtyping of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains isolated from hemolytic uremic syndrome and diarrhea cases in Argentina. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2006;3:88-96 pubmed
    ..STEC strains with different genotypes and belonging to diverse serotypes were isolated in Argentina. Some STEC O157 strains could not be distinguished by applying subtyping techniques such as PFGE and phage typing...
  60. Dinu L, Bach S. Induction of viable but nonculturable Escherichia coli O157:H7 in the phyllosphere of lettuce: a food safety risk factor. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:8295-302 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that E. coli O157:H7 VBNC cells are induced on lettuce plants, and this may have implications regarding food safety. ..
  61. Tai G, Lu L, Wang T, Tang B, Goud B, Johannes L, et al. Participation of the syntaxin 5/Ykt6/GS28/GS15 SNARE complex in transport from the early/recycling endosome to the trans-Golgi network. Mol Biol Cell. 2004;15:4011-22 pubmed
    ..Further studies indicated that syntaxin 5 and syntaxin 16 exerted their role in EE/RE-TGN transport in an additive manner. The kinetics of inhibition exhibited by syntaxin 16 and syntaxin 5 antibodies is similar...
  62. Tam P, Lingwood C. Membrane cytosolic translocation of verotoxin A1 subunit in target cells. Microbiology. 2007;153:2700-10 pubmed
    ..Extrapolation of translocated cytosolic VTA1 values indicates that about one molecule of translocated VTA1 per cell is sufficient to inhibit protein synthesis and kill a cell. ..
  63. Fuller C, Pellino C, Flagler M, Strasser J, Weiss A. Shiga toxin subtypes display dramatic differences in potency. Infect Immun. 2011;79:1329-37 pubmed publisher
    ..In vivo potency in mice was also assessed. Stx2b and Stx2c had potencies similar to that of Stx1, while Stx2a, Stx2d, and elastase-cleaved Stx2d were 40 to 400 times more potent than Stx1. ..
  64. Paton A, Paton J. Multiplex PCR for direct detection of Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli strains producing the novel subtilase cytotoxin. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:2944-7 pubmed
    ..The assay can be used for determining the toxin genotype of STEC isolates, as well as for direct detection of toxin genes in primary fecal culture extracts. ..
  65. Bentancor L, Bilen M, Brando R, Ramos M, Ferreira L, Ghiringhelli P, et al. A DNA vaccine encoding the enterohemorragic Escherichia coli Shiga-like toxin 2 A2 and B subunits confers protective immunity to Shiga toxin challenge in the murine model. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2009;16:712-8 pubmed publisher
  66. Prager R, Annemüller S, Tschäpe H. Diversity of virulence patterns among shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from human clinical cases-need for more detailed diagnostics. Int J Med Microbiol. 2005;295:29-38 pubmed
    ..g. HUS). Such an association speaks either for the "shiga toxin-only concept" or for several redundant, but clinically or epidemiologically important virulence properties. ..
  67. Kitova E, Mulvey G, Dingle T, Sinelnikov I, Wee S, Griener T, et al. Assembly and stability of the shiga toxins investigated by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Biochemistry. 2009;48:5365-74 pubmed publisher
    A systematic investigation into the assembly and stability of native and modified subunits of the Shiga toxins (Stx) in vitro is described...