bordetella virulence factors


Summary: A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of BORDETELLA INFECTIONS, such as WHOOPING COUGH. They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic toxin; tracheal cytotoxin; Bordetella LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES; and tracheal colonization factor.

Top Publications

  1. Irie Y, Mattoo S, Yuk M. The Bvg virulence control system regulates biofilm formation in Bordetella bronchiseptica. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:5692-8 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the coordinated regulation of adhesins and ACY expression leads to maximal biofilm formation in the Bvgi phase in B. bronchiseptica. ..
  2. Masuda M, Minami M, Shime H, Matsuzawa T, Horiguchi Y. In vivo modifications of small GTPase Rac and Cdc42 by Bordetella dermonecrotic toxin. Infect Immun. 2002;70:998-1001 pubmed
    ..MC3T3-E1 cells treated with DNT at high concentrations demonstrated extensive formations of lamellipodia and filopodia, which indicate the intracellular activation of Rac and Cdc42, respectively...
  3. Fingermann M, Fernandez J, Sisti F, Rodriguez M, Gatti B, Bottero D, et al. Differences of circulating Bordetella pertussis population in Argentina from the strain used in vaccine production. Vaccine. 2006;24:3513-21 pubmed
    ..bronchiseptica. The presence of this Bordetella species together with the observed differences between circulating B. pertussis and the strain used in vaccine production should be considered for the development of an improved vaccine. ..
  4. Hijnen M, van Gageldonk P, Berbers G, van Woerkom T, Mooi F. The Bordetella pertussis virulence factor P.69 pertactin retains its immunological properties after overproduction in Escherichia coli. Protein Expr Purif. 2005;41:106-12 pubmed
    ..Here, we describe the procedure to clone, express, and purify up to 0.1mg P.69 pertactin and its derivatives per 1 ml Escherichia coli culture. ..
  5. Makinen J, Viljanen M, Mertsola J, Arvilommi H, He Q. Rapid identification of Bordetella pertussis pertactin gene variants using LightCycler real-time polymerase chain reaction combined with melting curve analysis and gel electrophoresis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7:952-8 pubmed
    ..This method correctly identified the prn type of all tested 41 clinical isolates and two Finnish vaccine strains. The method is simple and reliable and provides an alternative for sequencing in pertussis research. ..
  6. Gzyl A, Augustynowicz E, van Loo I, Slusarczyk J. Temporal nucleotide changes in pertactin and pertussis toxin genes in Bordetella pertussis strains isolated from clinical cases in Poland. Vaccine. 2001;20:299-303 pubmed
    ..pertussis in Poland and resulted in antigenic shift in both genes analyzed. Our findings may have implications for the composition of polish WCV and the currently licensed acellular pertussis vaccines. ..
  7. Lee S, Halperin S, Knight J, Tait A. Purification and immunogenicity of a recombinant Bordetella pertussis S1S3FHA fusion protein expressed by Streptococcus gordonii. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2002;68:4253-8 pubmed
    ..gordonii and that the fusion protein is immunogenic. This multivalent fusion protein approach may be used in designing a new generation of acellular pertussis vaccines. ..
  8. Peppler M, Kuny S, Nevesinjac A, Rogers C, de Moissac Y, Knowles K, et al. Strain variation among Bordetella pertussis isolates from Québec and Alberta provinces of Canada from 1985 to 1994. J Clin Microbiol. 2003;41:3344-7 pubmed
    ..This study provides a baseline for continued surveillance of prevalent and emerging strains of B. pertussis in Canada. ..
  9. Cotter P, Jones A. Phosphorelay control of virulence gene expression in Bordetella. Trends Microbiol. 2003;11:367-73 pubmed

More Information


  1. Fiett J, Letowska I, Gniadkowski M, Hryniewicz W. The new strategy for allele identification of the genes coding for pertussis toxin subunit S1 (ptx S1) and pertactin (prn) in Bordetella pertussis. J Microbiol Methods. 2003;55:651-66 pubmed
    ..pertussis strains isolated from the 1960s to 2001. Similarly to findings from other countries and to earlier Polish data, the tendency to change the vaccine types of PT S1 and Prn by the antigenically different ones was observed. ..
  2. Hijnen M, He Q, Schepp R, van Gageldonk P, Mertsola J, Mooi F, et al. Antibody responses to defined regions of the Bordetella pertussis virulence factor pertactin. Scand J Infect Dis. 2008;40:94-104 pubmed
    ..It also suggests that the amount of pertactin type-specific antibodies will not be very large and that the variation in pertactin probably will not constitute a problem in highly immune individuals. ..
  3. Gerlach G, Janzen S, Beier D, Gross R. Functional characterization of the BvgAS two-component system of Bordetella holmesii. Microbiology. 2004;150:3715-29 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, it is shown that, despite the high similarity of the BvgA proteins of B. pertussis and B. holmesii, promoter recognition by the response regulator proteins differs substantially in these organisms. ..
  4. Poynten M, McIntyre P, Mooi F, Heuvelman K, Gilbert G. Temporal trends in circulating Bordetella pertussis strains in Australia. Epidemiol Infect. 2004;132:185-93 pubmed
    ..Antigenic shift in B. pertussis may have contributed to the re-emergence of pertussis in Australia. Monitoring these trends will be important as acellular vaccines are introduced and changes are made to pertussis vaccine schedules...
  5. Hijnen M, Mooi F, van Gageldonk P, Hoogerhout P, King A, Berbers G. Epitope structure of the Bordetella pertussis protein P.69 pertactin, a major vaccine component and protective antigen. Infect Immun. 2004;72:3716-23 pubmed
    ..69 pertactin. This may explain why the variation in P.69 pertactin is so effective, despite the fact that it is limited to only two small segments of the molecule. ..
  6. Muyldermans G, Pierard D, Hoebrekx N, Advani R, Van Amersfoorth S, De Schutter I, et al. Simple Algorithm for Identification of Bordetella pertussis Pertactin Gene Variants. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:1614-9 pubmed
    ..The typing of 231 clinical strains of B. pertussis routinely isolated in Belgium showed that this algorithm was adequate to identify less-frequent prn types like prn9 and prn11. ..
  7. Kirimanjeswara G, Agosto L, Kennett M, Bjornstad O, Harvill E. Pertussis toxin inhibits neutrophil recruitment to delay antibody-mediated clearance of Bordetella pertussis. J Clin Invest. 2005;115:3594-601 pubmed
    ..Together these results indicate that PTx inhibits neutrophil recruitment, which consequently allows B. pertussis to avoid rapid antibody-mediated clearance and therefore successfully infect immune hosts. ..
  8. McGuirk P, McCann C, Mills K. Pathogen-specific T regulatory 1 cells induced in the respiratory tract by a bacterial molecule that stimulates interleukin 10 production by dendritic cells: a novel strategy for evasion of protective T helper type 1 responses by Bordetella pertussis. J Exp Med. 2002;195:221-31 pubmed
    ..The induction of Tr1 cells after interaction of a pathogen-derived molecule with cells of the innate immune system represents a novel strategy exploited by an infectious pathogen to subvert protective immune responses in vivo. ..
  9. McMahon S, Miller J, Lawton J, Kerkow D, Hodes A, Marti Renom M, et al. The C-type lectin fold as an evolutionary solution for massive sequence variation. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2005;12:886-92 pubmed
    ..Mtd variants are biased toward the receptor pertactin, and there is evidence that the CLec fold is used broadly for sequence variation by related retroelements. ..
  10. Gzyl A, Augustynowicz E, Gniadek G, Rabczenko D, Dulny G, Slusarczyk J. Sequence variation in pertussis S1 subunit toxin and pertussis genes in Bordetella pertussis strains used for the whole-cell pertussis vaccine produced in Poland since 1960: efficiency of the DTwP vaccine-induced immunity against currently circulatin. Vaccine. 2004;22:2122-8 pubmed
    ..pertussis vaccine strains, since isolates with gene variants different from those observed in vaccine strains were eliminated from the lungs of the immunized animals with lower efficiency. ..
  11. Mattoo S, Yuk M, Huang L, Miller J. Regulation of type III secretion in Bordetella. Mol Microbiol. 2004;52:1201-14 pubmed
    ..The block in type III secretion is post-transcriptional in human-adapted strains, and signal recognition appears to be a point of divergence between subspecies...
  12. Fukui A, Horiguchi Y. Bordetella dermonecrotic toxin exerting toxicity through activation of the small GTPase Rho. J Biochem. 2004;136:415-9 pubmed
    ..Several lines of evidence show that the toxin undergoes proteolytic cleavage by furin or furin-like protease probably in the early endosome, and then escapes into the cytoplasm to reach the GTPase. ..
  13. Kodama A, Kamachi K, Horiuchi Y, Konda T, Arakawa Y. Antigenic divergence suggested by correlation between antigenic variation and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles of Bordetella pertussis isolates in Japan. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:5453-7 pubmed
    ..In contrast, the number of reported pertussis-like and pertussis cases decreased gradually from 1991 on, suggesting that the antigenic divergence did not affect the efficacy of pertussis vaccination in Japan. ..
  14. Mäkinen J, Mertsola J, Viljanen M, Arvilommi H, He Q. Rapid typing of Bordetella pertussis pertussis toxin gene variants by LightCycler real-time PCR and fluorescence resonance energy transfer hybridization probe melting curve analysis. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40:2213-6 pubmed
    ..The assay correctly identified the ptxS1 alleles of all strains tested, comprising 57 Finnish clinical isolates and 2 vaccine strains. The method is simple, reliable, and suitable for large-scale screening of B. pertussis strains. ..
  15. Matsuzawa T, Kashimoto T, Katahira J, Horiguchi Y. Identification of a receptor-binding domain of Bordetella dermonecrotic toxin. Infect Immun. 2002;70:3427-32 pubmed
    ..DNT(1-54) bound to none of the DNT-resistant cells, implying the presence of a cell surface receptor specific to DNT-sensitive cells. ..
  16. Clantin B, Hodak H, Willery E, Locht C, Jacob Dubuisson F, Villeret V. The crystal structure of filamentous hemagglutinin secretion domain and its implications for the two-partner secretion pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:6194-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This structure is representative of the TPS domains found so far in >100 secreted proteins from pathogenic bacteria. It also provides a mechanistic insight into how protein folding may be linked to secretion in the TPS pathway...
  17. Tsang R, Lau A, Sill M, Halperin S, Van Caeseele P, Jamieson F, et al. Polymorphisms of the fimbria fim3 gene of Bordetella pertussis strains isolated in Canada. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:5364-7 pubmed publisher
    ..At least one of the novel mutations identified was found to involve a surface epitope that has been mapped by serum antibodies from infected or vaccinated subjects...
  18. Cummings C, Brinig M, Lepp P, van de Pas S, Relman D. Bordetella species are distinguished by patterns of substantial gene loss and host adaptation. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:1484-92 pubmed
  19. Hellwig S, Rodriguez M, Berbers G, van de Winkel J, Mooi F. Crucial role of antibodies to pertactin in Bordetella pertussis immunity. J Infect Dis. 2003;188:738-42 pubmed
    ..pertussis phagocytosis. These data are consistent with field studies showing that levels of antibodies to pertactin correlate with protection. ..
  20. Matsuzawa T, Fukui A, Kashimoto T, Nagao K, Oka K, Miyake M, et al. Bordetella dermonecrotic toxin undergoes proteolytic processing to be translocated from a dynamin-related endosome into the cytoplasm in an acidification-independent manner. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:2866-72 pubmed
    ..DeltaB, liberated from the binding domain after the processing, begins to translocate the enzymatic domain into the cytoplasm. ..
  21. Inatsuka C, Julio S, Cotter P. Bordetella filamentous hemagglutinin plays a critical role in immunomodulation, suggesting a mechanism for host specificity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:18578-83 pubmed
    ..These results indicate a critical role for FHA in B. bronchiseptica-mediated immunomodulation, and they suggest a role for FHA in host specificity...
  22. Brockmeier S, Register K, Magyar T, Lax A, Pullinger G, Kunkle R. Role of the dermonecrotic toxin of Bordetella bronchiseptica in the pathogenesis of respiratory disease in swine. Infect Immun. 2002;70:481-90 pubmed
    ..Therefore, production of DNT by B. bronchiseptica is necessary to produce the lesions of turbinate atrophy and bronchopneumonia in pigs infected with this organism...
  23. Weber C, Boursaux Eude C, Coralie G, Caro V, Guiso N. Polymorphism of Bordetella pertussis isolates circulating for the last 10 years in France, where a single effective whole-cell vaccine has been used for more than 30 years. J Clin Microbiol. 2001;39:4396-403 pubmed
    ..This observation suggests that there has been continuous evolution of the B. pertussis population. ..
  24. Fry N, Neal S, Harrison T, Miller E, Matthews R, George R. Genotypic variation in the Bordetella pertussis virulence factors pertactin and pertussis toxin in historical and recent clinical isolates in the United Kingdom. Infect Immun. 2001;69:5520-8 pubmed
    ..The most striking difference in the United Kingdom isolates is that all 105 of the most recent circulating strains (from 1998 to 1999) are of a pertussis toxin type found in the United Kingdom WCV, i.e., ptxA(1)...
  25. Hodak H, Clantin B, Willery E, Villeret V, Locht C, Jacob Dubuisson F. Secretion signal of the filamentous haemagglutinin, a model two-partner secretion substrate. Mol Microbiol. 2006;61:368-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The N-terminal domain of FhaC is involved in the FHA-FhaC interaction, in agreement with its proposed function and periplasmic localization...
  26. King A, Berbers G, van Oirschot H, Hoogerhout P, Knipping K, Mooi F. Role of the polymorphic region 1 of the Bordetella pertussis protein pertactin in immunity. Microbiology. 2001;147:2885-95 pubmed publisher
    ..An mAb directed against a linear conserved epitope conferred cross-immunity against isolates with distinct pertactin variants. The results indicate an important role of region 1 of pertactin in immunity...
  27. Coutte L, Antoine R, Drobecq H, Locht C, Jacob Dubuisson F. Subtilisin-like autotransporter serves as maturation protease in a bacterial secretion pathway. EMBO J. 2001;20:5040-8 pubmed publisher
    ..SphB1 is the first described subtilisin-like protein that serves as a specialized maturation protease in a secretion pathway of Gram-negative bacteria. This is reminiscent of pro-protein convertases of eukaryotic cells...
  28. Ishibashi Y, Nishikawa A. Role of nuclear factor-kappa B in the regulation of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 after infection of human bronchial epithelial cells by Bordetella pertussis. Microb Pathog. 2003;35:169-77 pubmed
  29. Alonso S, Pethe K, Mielcarek N, Raze D, Locht C. Role of ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of pertussis toxin in toxin-adhesin redundancy with filamentous hemagglutinin during Bordetella pertussis infection. Infect Immun. 2001;69:6038-43 pubmed
    ..This may lead to damage of the pulmonary epithelium, allowing the bacteria to colonize even in the absence of FHA. ..
  30. Cassiday P, Sanden G, Heuvelman K, Mooi F, Bisgard K, Popovic T. Polymorphism in Bordetella pertussis pertactin and pertussis toxin virulence factors in the United States, 1935-1999. J Infect Dis. 2000;182:1402-8 pubmed
    ..Our results provide the basis for prospectively monitoring for changes among circulating B. pertussis that might have epidemiologic relevance. ..
  31. Locht C, Antoine R, Jacob Dubuisson F. Bordetella pertussis, molecular pathogenesis under multiple aspects. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2001;4:82-9 pubmed
    ..They are regulated by iron, although in one case, the production of a siderophore receptor could be linked to the BvgAS regulon. ..
  32. Kinnear S, Marques R, Carbonetti N. Differential regulation of Bvg-activated virulence factors plays a role in Bordetella pertussis pathogenicity. Infect Immun. 2001;69:1983-93 pubmed
    ..These data suggest a role for differential regulation of bvg-activated genes, and therefore for the BvgAS regulatory system, in the pathogenicity of B. pertussis. ..
  33. Abramson T, Kedem H, Relman D. Proinflammatory and proapoptotic activities associated with Bordetella pertussis filamentous hemagglutinin. Infect Immun. 2001;69:2650-8 pubmed
    ..pertussis-host interaction. ..
  34. Locht C. Molecular aspects of Bordetella pertussis pathogenesis. Int Microbiol. 1999;2:137-44 pubmed
    ..pertussis strains to be used as recombinant live bacterial vaccine vectors for homologous and heterologous protection. ..
  35. Ishibashi Y, Relman D, Nishikawa A. Invasion of human respiratory epithelial cells by Bordetella pertussis: possible role for a filamentous hemagglutinin Arg-Gly-Asp sequence and alpha5beta1 integrin. Microb Pathog. 2001;30:279-88 pubmed
    ..pertussis invasion. Taken together, these findings suggest that B. pertussis FHA may promote invasion of human respiratory epithelial cells through the interaction of its RGD sequence with host cell alpha5beta1 integrin. ..
  36. Yagle K, Lu H, Guizzetti M, Moller T, Costa L. Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase by muscarinic receptors in astroglial cells: role in DNA synthesis and effect of ethanol. Glia. 2001;35:111-20 pubmed
  37. van Gent M, Pierard D, Lauwers S, van der Heide H, King A, Mooi F. Characterization of Bordetella pertussis clinical isolates that do not express the tracheal colonization factor. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2007;51:149-54 pubmed
    ..Irreversible and reversible loss occurred, respectively, by recombination between repeats leading to deletion of the tcfA gene and by mutations in a polymorphic G-track. These phenomena may reflect adaptation to distinct niches. ..
  38. Goddard I, Bauer S, Gougeon A, Lopez F, Giannetti N, Susini C, et al. Somatostatin inhibits stem cell factor messenger RNA expression by Sertoli cells and stem cell factor-induced DNA synthesis in isolated seminiferous tubules. Biol Reprod. 2001;65:1732-42 pubmed
    ..Combined RT-PCR and immunohistochemical approaches point toward spermatogonia and Leydig cells as the source of testicular SRIF. These data argue in favor of paracrine/autocrine SRIF actions in testis. ..
  39. Watanabe M, Nagai M. Reciprocal protective immunity against Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis in a murine model of respiratory infection. Infect Immun. 2001;69:6981-6 pubmed
    ..pertussis and by B. parapertussis. It is possible that Th1 and Th2 responses against FHA might be related to the reciprocal protection achieved in our murine model...
  40. Jiang M, Spicher K, Boulay G, Martin Requero A, Dye C, Rudolph U, et al. Mouse gene knockout and knockin strategies in application to alpha subunits of Gi/Go family of G proteins. Methods Enzymol. 2002;344:277-98 pubmed
  41. Russell K, Potter D. Biphasic alterations of cAMP levels and inhibition of norepinephrine release in iris-ciliary body by bremazocine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001;298:941-6 pubmed
    ..Based on the modifications induced by PTX pretreatment, the kappa-opioid receptors involved in some of the ocular actions of BRE are linked to a G(i/o) protein. ..
  42. Fujiu T, Kato M, Kimura H, Tachibana A, Suzuki M, Nako Y, et al. Cellular adhesion is required for effector functions of human eosinophils via G-protein coupled receptors. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2002;89:90-8 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that effector functions of eosinophils which are mediated through G-protein coupled receptors are dependent on cellular adhesion. ..
  43. Hodak H, Wohlkonig A, Smet Nocca C, Drobecq H, Wieruszeski J, Senechal M, et al. The peptidyl-prolyl isomerase and chaperone Par27 of Bordetella pertussis as the prototype for a new group of parvulins. J Mol Biol. 2008;376:414-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Par27 displays both PPIase and chaperone activities in vitro. In vivo, Par27 might function as a general periplasmic chaperone in B. pertussis. ..
  44. Roduit C, Bozzotti P, Mielcarek N, Lambert P, Del Giudice G, Locht C, et al. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of neonatal vaccination against Bordetella pertussis in a murine model: evidence for early control of pertussis. Infect Immun. 2002;70:3521-8 pubmed
    ..pertussis challenge. Thus, neonatal priming with antipertussis vaccines should be considered to reduce the window of vulnerability to pertussis at the time of its greatest severity. ..
  45. Hijnen M, de Voer R, Mooi F, Schepp R, Moret E, van Gageldonk P, et al. The role of peptide loops of the Bordetella pertussis protein P.69 pertactin in antibody recognition. Vaccine. 2007;25:5902-14 pubmed
    ..69 Prn. The results presented here provide a better understanding of the structure and function of variable loops and their role in the persistence of pathogens in immunologically primed populations. ..
  46. Rubovitch V, Gafni M, Sarne Y. The cannabinoid agonist DALN positively modulates L-type voltage-dependent calcium-channels in N18TG2 neuroblastoma cells. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2002;101:93-102 pubmed
    ..Hence, we suggest a cannabinoid-specific, PTX-insensitive, stimulatory effect on L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels, which is mediated by PKA and modulated by PKC and calmodulin. ..
  47. Poolman J, Hallander H. Acellular pertussis vaccines and the role of pertactin and fimbriae. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2007;6:47-56 pubmed
    ..The available data, therefore, demonstrate that appropriately formulated acellular vaccines containing PT and PRN are the preferred option for pertussis immunization. ..
  48. Yajima H, Komatsu M, Sato Y, Yamada S, Yamauchi K, Sharp G, et al. Norepinephrine inhibits glucose-stimulated, Ca2+-independent insulin release independently from its action on adenylyl cyclase. Endocr J. 2001;48:647-54 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, norepinephrine strongly, yet reversibly, inhibits insulin release in intact beta cells at a late step of exocytosis, through pertussis toxin-sensitive, G protein-mediated mechanism(s). ..
  49. Paccani S, Dal Molin F, Benagiano M, Ladant D, D Elios M, Montecucco C, et al. Suppression of T-lymphocyte activation and chemotaxis by the adenylate cyclase toxin of Bordetella pertussis. Infect Immun. 2008;76:2822-32 pubmed publisher
  50. Valenti S, Giusti M. Melatonin participates in the control of testosterone secretion from rat testis: an overview of our experience. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002;966:284-9 pubmed
    ..Ultimately, our studies suggest that MLT is likely to control the immune response not only through its direct effects, but also by finely modulating the androgen milieu. ..
  51. Chang P, Luo S, Jiang T, Lee Y, Lu S, Henry P, et al. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein downregulates endothelial basic fibroblast growth factor through a pertussis toxin-sensitive G-protein pathway: mediator role of platelet-activating factor-like phospholipids. Circulation. 2001;104:588-93 pubmed
    ..OxLDL suppresses endothelial bFGF expression and DNA synthesis through a PTX-sensitive heterotrimeric G-protein pathway involving mediator phospholipids similar, but not identical, to PAF. ..
  52. Burvall K, Palmberg L, Larsson K. Metabolic activation of A549 human airway epithelial cells by organic dust: a study based on microphysiometry. Life Sci. 2002;71:299-309 pubmed
    ..In summary, the organic dust induces PTX-sensitive (cAMP independent) signalling in near-confluent A549 epithelial cells and, depending on cell density opposing effects on NHE activity during exposure. ..
  53. Tommassen J. Biochemistry. Getting into and through the outer membrane. Science. 2007;317:903-4 pubmed
  54. Borisova O, Kombarova S, Zakharova N, van Gent M, Aleshkin V, Mazurova I, et al. Antigenic divergence between Bordetella pertussis clinical isolates from Moscow, Russia, and vaccine strains. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2007;14:234-8 pubmed
    ..The results demonstrate that the selection of B. pertussis strains for vaccine manufacturing must be based on a thorough study of the B. pertussis population. ..
  55. Zhao Z, Wang C, Xue Y, Ding K, Zhang C, Cheng X, et al. [Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of pertactin recombinants against Bordetella bronchiseptica challenge]. Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao. 2010;50:1239-45 pubmed
  56. Mooi F, Van Loo I, van Gent M, He Q, Bart M, Heuvelman K, et al. Bordetella pertussis strains with increased toxin production associated with pertussis resurgence. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:1206-13 pubmed publisher
    ..pertussis that may have driven this adaptation. Our results underline the importance of Ptx in transmission, suggest that vaccination may select for increased virulence, and indicate ways to control pertussis more effectively. ..
  57. Lamberti Y, Alvarez Hayes J, Perez Vidakovics M, Rodriguez M. Cholesterol-dependent attachment of human respiratory cells by Bordetella pertussis. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2009;56:143-50 pubmed publisher
  58. Huang S, Chien C, Hsiao L, Wang C, Chiu C, Liang K, et al. Mechanisms of bradykinin-mediated Ca(2+) signalling in canine cultured corneal epithelial cells. Cell Signal. 2001;13:565-74 pubmed
  59. Chen X, Berrou J, Vigneau C, Rondeau E. Role of the third intracellular loop and of the cytoplasmic tail in the mitogenic signaling of the protease-activated receptor 1. Int J Mol Med. 2001;8:309-14 pubmed
    ..In addition, these results also show that MAP kinase activation is necessary but not sufficient for thrombin to induce cell proliferation. ..
  60. Liu J, Ruckle M, Prather P. Constitutively active mu-opioid receptors inhibit adenylyl cyclase activity in intact cells and activate G-proteins differently than the agonist [D-Ala2,N-MePhe4,Gly-ol5]enkephalin. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:37779-86 pubmed
    ..Importantly, photolabeling of Galpha-subunits with azidoanilido-[alpha-32P]GTP demonstrated that constitutively active mu-opioid receptors activate individual G-proteins differently than the agonist [d-Ala2,N-MePhe4,Gly-ol5]enkephalin. ..
  61. Yoshida J, Ishibashi T, Nishio M. Growth-inhibitory effect of a streptococcal antitumor glycoprotein on human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells: involvement of dephosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor. Cancer Res. 2001;61:6151-7 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that dephosphorylation of the M(r) 170,000 EGFR by activation of PTPase(s) may be responsible in part for the antiproliferative effect of SAGP on A431 cells. ..
  62. Burns P, Mendes J, Yemm R, Clay C, Nelson S, Hayes S, et al. Cellular mechanisms by which oxytocin mediates ovine endometrial prostaglandin F2alpha synthesis: role of G(i) proteins and mitogen-activated protein kinases. Biol Reprod. 2001;65:1150-5 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that oxytocin induces phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and that this MAPK appears to mediate oxytocin-induced PGF2alpha synthesis in ovine endometrium. ..
  63. Mäkinen J, Mertsola J, Soini H, Arvilommi H, Viljanen M, Guiso N, et al. PFGE and pertactin gene sequencing suggest limited genetic variability within the Finnish Bordetella parapertussis population. J Med Microbiol. 2003;52:1059-63 pubmed
    ..parapertussis XbaI PFGE patterns were found. Genetic variation of B. parapertussis was found to be very limited, suggesting that B. parapertussis is a stable organism that is well-adapted to its own ecological niche...
  64. Perroy J, Richard S, Nargeot J, Bockaert J, Fagni L. Permissive effect of voltage on mGlu 7 receptor subtype signaling in neurons. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:1223-8 pubmed
    ..This synergistic effect of membrane depolarization and mGlu7 receptor activation provides a mechanism by which neuronal excitation could control action of the mGlu7 receptor in neurons. ..
  65. Freitas F, Jeschke M, Majstorovic I, Mueller D, Schindler P, Voshol H, et al. Fluoroaluminate stimulates phosphorylation of p130 Cas and Fak and increases attachment and spreading of preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Bone. 2002;30:99-108 pubmed
    ..Simultaneously, fluoroaluminate increased the number of attached MC3T3-E1 cells and their spreading. These novel aspects of fluoroaluminate action in cell culture may be important for the bone-forming action of fluoroaluminate in vivo. ..
  66. Loucká J, Schlecht G, Vodolánová J, Leclerc C, Sebo P. Delivery of a MalE CD4(+)-T-cell epitope into the major histocompatibility complex class II antigen presentation pathway by Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase. Infect Immun. 2002;70:1002-5 pubmed
  67. Chan A, Lai F, Lo R, Voyno Yasenetskaya T, Stanbridge E, Wong Y. Melatonin mt1 and MT2 receptors stimulate c-Jun N-terminal kinase via pertussis toxin-sensitive and -insensitive G proteins. Cell Signal. 2002;14:249-57 pubmed
    ..This report demonstrates the stimulatory effect of melatonin receptors on JNK, and provides experimental evidence for a functional coupling between the G(i)-coupled melatonin receptor and Gs, in terms of adenylyl cyclase activation. ..
  68. Cheng S, Lukacs N, Kunkel S. Eotaxin/CCL11 suppresses IL-8/CXCL8 secretion from human dermal microvascular endothelial cells. J Immunol. 2002;168:2887-94 pubmed
    ..This may play an important biological role in the prevention of overzealous inflammatory responses, aiding in the resolution of acute inflammation or transition from neutrophilic to mononuclear/eosinophilic inflammation. ..
  69. Sindiće A, Başoglu C, Cerçi A, Hirsch J, Potthast R, Kuhn M, et al. Guanylin, uroguanylin, and heat-stable euterotoxin activate guanylate cyclase C and/or a pertussis toxin-sensitive G protein in human proximal tubule cells. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:17758-64 pubmed
    ..For uroguanylin two distinct signaling pathways exist in IHKE-1 cells, one involves GC-C and cGMP as second messenger, the other is cGMP-independent and connected to a pertussis toxin-sensitive G protein. ..
  70. Ubl J, Grishina Z, Sukhomlin T, Welte T, Sedehizade F, Reiser G. Human bronchial epithelial cells express PAR-2 with different sensitivity to thermolysin. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2002;282:L1339-48 pubmed
    ..Thus different epithelial cell types express different PAR-2 with identical responses to physiological stimuli (trypsin, SLIGKV) but different sensitivity to modifying proteases, such as thermolysin. ..
  71. Marti F, Bertran E, Llucià M, Villén E, Peiró M, Garcia J, et al. Platelet factor 4 induces human natural killer cells to synthesize and release interleukin-8. J Leukoc Biol. 2002;72:590-7 pubmed
    ..Our results characterize a new capacity for PF4 and provide further evidence for the pivotal role of NK cells in the environment of inflammation. ..