viral hemagglutinins


Summary: Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.

Top Publications

  1. Gocník M, Fislová T, Sladkova T, Mucha V, Kostolansky F, Varečková E. Antibodies specific to the HA2 glycopolypeptide of influenza A virus haemagglutinin with fusion-inhibition activity contribute to the protection of mice against lethal infection. J Gen Virol. 2007;88:951-5 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that antibodies specific to the antigenically conserved HA2 glycopolypeptide that exhibit fusion-inhibition activity can contribute to the protection of infected mice and mediate more effective recovery from infection. ..
  2. Christensen L, Scholler S, Schierup M, Vestergaard B, Mordhorst C. Sequence analysis of measles virus strains collected during the pre- and early-vaccination era in Denmark reveals a considerable diversity of ancient strains. APMIS. 2002;110:113-22 pubmed
  3. Seki F, Ono N, Yamaguchi R, Yanagi Y. Efficient isolation of wild strains of canine distemper virus in Vero cells expressing canine SLAM (CD150) and their adaptability to marmoset B95a cells. J Virol. 2003;77:9943-50 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that Vero cells stably expressing canine SLAM are highly sensitive to CDV in clinical specimens and that only a single amino acid substitution in the hemagglutinin can allow the virus to adapt to marmoset SLAM. ..
  4. Gambaryan A, Karasin A, Tuzikov A, Chinarev A, Pazynina G, Bovin N, et al. Receptor-binding properties of swine influenza viruses isolated and propagated in MDCK cells. Virus Res. 2005;114:15-22 pubmed
  5. Uema M, Ohashi K, Wakasa C, Kai C. Phylogenetic and restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses of hemagglutinin (H) protein of canine distemper virus isolates from domestic dogs in Japan. Virus Res. 2005;109:59-63 pubmed
    ..Thus, the RFLP method is useful for differentiating the infections with field CDV strains from the vaccine strains in clinical cases...
  6. Vaccaro L, Cross K, Kleinjung J, Straus S, Thomas D, Wharton S, et al. Plasticity of influenza haemagglutinin fusion peptides and their interaction with lipid bilayers. Biophys J. 2005;88:25-36 pubmed
    ..These results confirm that the sequence can adopt different folds in different environments. The plasticity and the conformational dependence on the local environment could be used to better understand the function of fusion peptides. ..
  7. Xu R, Ekiert D, Krause J, Hai R, Crowe J, Wilson I. Structural basis of preexisting immunity to the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza virus. Science. 2010;328:357-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, antigenic similarity between the 2009 and 1918-like viruses provides an explanation for the age-related immunity to the current influenza pandemic. ..
  8. Kouomou D, Nerrienet E, Mfoupouendoun J, Tene G, Whittle H, Wild T. Measles virus strains circulating in Central and West Africa: Geographical distribution of two B3 genotypes. J Med Virol. 2002;68:433-40 pubmed
    ..2 genotype is found in West Africa. In Nigeria and Ghana, the viruses co-circulate. The identification of these viruses will permit more meaningful epidemiological studies after the proposed increase in measles vaccination coverage. ..
  9. Mochalova L, Gambaryan A, Romanova J, Tuzikov A, Chinarev A, Katinger D, et al. Receptor-binding properties of modern human influenza viruses primarily isolated in Vero and MDCK cells and chicken embryonated eggs. Virology. 2003;313:473-80 pubmed
    ..These HA mutations disturb the observed strict 6'SLN specificity of recent human influenza viruses. ..

More Information


  1. Slemons R, Hansen W, Converse K, Senne D. Type A influenza virus surveillance in free-flying, nonmigratory ducks residing on the eastern shore of Maryland. Avian Dis. 2003;47:1107-10 pubmed
  2. Lan N, Yamaguchi R, Inomata A, Furuya Y, Uchida K, Sugano S, et al. Comparative analyses of canine distemper viral isolates from clinical cases of canine distemper in vaccinated dogs. Vet Microbiol. 2006;115:32-42 pubmed
    ..These results surely indicate that wild strains of CDV from dogs with a vaccination history were not reversed vaccine virus, and that the dogs showed characteristics of recent CD in Japan. ..
  3. Lagüe P, Roux B, Pastor R. Molecular dynamics simulations of the influenza hemagglutinin fusion peptide in micelles and bilayers: conformational analysis of peptide and lipids. J Mol Biol. 2005;354:1129-41 pubmed
    ..An extension of the classical surfactant theory of Israelachvili based on shapes is proposed to introduce the concept of a "dynamically induced shape" of the membrane lipids by the peptide. ..
  4. Kiso M, Mitamura K, Sakai Tagawa Y, Shiraishi K, Kawakami C, Kimura K, et al. Resistant influenza A viruses in children treated with oseltamivir: descriptive study. Lancet. 2004;364:759-65 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, children can be a source of viral transmission, even after 5 days of treatment with oseltamivir. ..
  5. Yassine H, Al Natour M, Lee C, Saif Y. Interspecies and intraspecies transmission of triple reassortant H3N2 influenza A viruses. Virol J. 2007;4:129 pubmed
    ..Identifying viruses with varying inter- and intra-species transmission potential should be useful for further studies on the molecular basis of interspecies transmission. ..
  6. Lipatov A, Kwon Y, Sarmento L, Lager K, Spackman E, Suarez D, et al. Domestic pigs have low susceptibility to H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses. PLoS Pathog. 2008;4:e1000102 pubmed publisher
  7. Chun S, Li C, Van Domselaar G, Wang J, Farnsworth A, Cui X, et al. Universal antibodies and their applications to the quantitative determination of virtually all subtypes of the influenza A viral hemagglutinins. Vaccine. 2008;26:6068-76 pubmed publisher
    ..remarkable specificity against the viral sequences and robustness of quantitatively analyzing the viral hemagglutinins even under stringent conditions...
  8. Schwarzer J, Rapp E, Hennig R, Genzel Y, Jordan I, Sandig V, et al. Glycan analysis in cell culture-based influenza vaccine production: influence of host cell line and virus strain on the glycosylation pattern of viral hemagglutinin. Vaccine. 2009;27:4325-36 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast to this, a principal switch of the N-glycan type attached to HA was observed when comparing different virus types (A and B) and subtypes (H1N1 and H3N2). ..
  9. Smith D, Lapedes A, de Jong J, Bestebroer T, Rimmelzwaan G, Osterhaus A, et al. Mapping the antigenic and genetic evolution of influenza virus. Science. 2004;305:371-6 pubmed
    ..Further, this approach offers a route to predicting the relative success of emerging strains, which could be achieved by quantifying the combined effects of population level immune escape and viral fitness on strain evolution. ..
  10. Huang Q, Chen C, Herrmann A. Bilayer conformation of fusion peptide of influenza virus hemagglutinin: a molecular dynamics simulation study. Biophys J. 2004;87:14-22 pubmed
    ..The average hydrophobic thickness of the lipid phase close to the N-terminus is reduced in comparison with the average hydrophobic thickness of a pure dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine bilayer. ..
  11. Alla A, Liffick S, Newton B, Elaouad R, Rota P, Bellini W. Genetic analysis of measles viruses isolated in Morocco. J Med Virol. 2002;68:441-4 pubmed
    ..Knowledge of the indigenous strain of measles virus circulating in Morocco will help to describe viral transmission pathways and should contribute to efforts to evaluate the effectiveness of future vaccination campaigns. ..
  12. Klein A, Krishna M, Varki N, Varki A. 9-O-acetylated sialic acids have widespread but selective expression: analysis using a chimeric dual-function probe derived from influenza C hemagglutinin-esterase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:7782-6 pubmed
    ..Thus, 9-O-acetylation is more widespread than previously thought and occurs on specific molecules and cell types. ..
  13. El Mubarak H, van de Bildt M, Mustafa O, Vos H, Mukhtar M, Ibrahim S, et al. Genetic characterization of wild-type measles viruses circulating in suburban Khartoum, 1997-2000. J Gen Virol. 2002;83:1437-43 pubmed
    ..Our study demonstrates a remarkable genetic stability of an endemically circulating MV strain. ..
  14. Liffick S, Thi Thoung N, Xu W, Li Y, Phoung Lien H, Bellini W, et al. Genetic characterization of contemporary wild-type measles viruses from Vietnam and the People's Republic of China: identification of two genotypes within clade H. Virus Res. 2001;77:81-7 pubmed
    ..Sequence analysis of measles viruses imported into the United States from either China or Vietnam demonstrated that this designation of genotypes will be helpful in future measles surveillance activities. ..
  15. Lin Y, Shaw M, Gregory V, Cameron K, Lim W, Klimov A, et al. Avian-to-human transmission of H9N2 subtype influenza A viruses: relationship between H9N2 and H5N1 human isolates. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:9654-8 pubmed
    ..This common feature emphasizes the apparent propensity of avian viruses with this genetic complement to infect humans and highlights the potential for the emergence of a novel human pathogen. ..
  16. Swayne D. Pathobiology of H5N2 Mexican avian influenza virus infections of chickens. Vet Pathol. 1997;34:557-67 pubmed
  17. Rudneva I, Kaverin N, Timofeeva T, Shilov A, Varich N, Kochergin Nikitskiĭ K, et al. [Optimization of the gene composition of influenza H5 virus hemagglutinin-containing reassortants and their efficacy in immune cross-protection experiments]. Vopr Virusol. 2008;53:24-7 pubmed
    ..Murine immunization with the inactivated reassortant containing the HA and NA genes of the virus A/Duck/Primorie/2621/2001 (H5N2) provided an efficient protection against the virus containing HA and NA of a recent H5N1 strain. ..
  18. Santiago C, Gutiérrez Rodríguez A, Tucker P, Stehle T, Casasnovas J. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the measles virus hemagglutinin in complex with the CD46 receptor. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2010;66:91-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Well diffracting crystals containing two complexes in the asymmetric unit were obtained and the structure of the complex was solved by the molecular-replacement method. ..
  19. Curtis Fisk J, Preston C, Zheng Z, Worden R, Weliky D. Solid-state NMR structural measurements on the membrane-associated influenza fusion protein ectodomain. J Am Chem Soc. 2007;129:11320-1 pubmed
  20. Roman F, Vaman T, Kafeja F, Hanon E, Van Damme P. AS03(A)-Adjuvanted influenza A (H1N1) 2009 vaccine for adults up to 85 years of age. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;51:668-77 pubmed publisher
    ..This phenomenon warrants further investigation. NCT00968526. ..
  21. Ivanova V, Kordiukova L, Manykin A, Burtseva E, Zagorskaia I, Oskerko T, et al. [The use of bromelain in obtaining the subviral particles of influenza A and B viruses]. Vopr Virusol. 2003;48:14-8 pubmed
    ..Enzyme B2252 was found to be effective in respect to all viruses selected for testing, however, the highest effect was noted for influenza A(H1N1) and B viruses. ..
  22. Brum L, Turner P, Devick H, Baquero M, Moyer R. Plasma membrane localization and fusion inhibitory activity of the cowpox virus serpin SPI-3 require a functional signal sequence and the virus encoded hemagglutinin. Virology. 2003;306:289-302 pubmed
    ..In the absence of HA, secretion of SPI-3 or SPI-3 N-glyc(-) was markedly enhanced, suggesting HA serves to retain SPI-3 on the plasma membrane,thereby preventing cell fusion. ..
  23. Daly J, Yates P, Newton J, Park A, Henley W, Wood J, et al. Evidence supporting the inclusion of strains from each of the two co-circulating lineages of H3N8 equine influenza virus in vaccines. Vaccine. 2004;22:4101-9 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, vaccines should contain virus strains representative of both H3N8 subtype lineages to maximise protection against infection. ..
  24. Schweiger B, Zadow I, Heckler R. Antigenic drift and variability of influenza viruses. Med Microbiol Immunol. 2002;191:133-8 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that molecular analysis of the HA gene is important to complement the antigenic characterization for a better selection of appropriate vaccine strains. ..
  25. Ito T, Okada N, Okawa M, Fukuyama S, Shimizu M. Detection and characterization of bovine torovirus from the respiratory tract in Japanese cattle. Vet Microbiol. 2009;136:366-71 pubmed publisher
    ..One animal with a BToV-positive nasal sample also shed the virus in its feces, suggesting dual tropisms for BToV...
  26. Thomas P, Brown S, Yue W, So J, Webby R, Doherty P. An unexpected antibody response to an engineered influenza virus modifies CD8+ T cell responses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:2764-9 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest intriguing possibilities for vaccination and, at the same time, emphasize that engineered modifications in viruses may have unintended immunological consequences. ..
  27. Hashiguchi T, Kajikawa M, Maita N, Takeda M, Kuroki K, Sasaki K, et al. Crystal structure of measles virus hemagglutinin provides insight into effective vaccines. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:19535-40 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that sugar moieties in the MV hemagglutinin critically modulate virus-receptor interaction as well as antiviral antibody responses, differently from sugars of the HIV gp120, which allow for immune evasion. ..
  28. Bodé C, Bechet T, Prodhomme E, Gheysen K, Gregoir P, Martins J, et al. Towards the conformational mimicry of the measles virus HNE loop: design, synthesis and biological evaluation of a cyclic bile acid-peptide conjugate. Org Biomol Chem. 2009;7:3391-9 pubmed publisher
  29. Zipperle L, Langedijk J, Orvell C, Vandevelde M, Zurbriggen A, Plattet P. Identification of key residues in virulent canine distemper virus hemagglutinin that control CD150/SLAM-binding activity. J Virol. 2010;84:9618-24 pubmed publisher
  30. Farnsworth A, Wisner T, Johnson D. Cytoplasmic residues of herpes simplex virus glycoprotein gE required for secondary envelopment and binding of tegument proteins VP22 and UL11 to gE and gD. J Virol. 2007;81:319-31 pubmed
    ..Nevertheless, assays involving TAP proteins and viral proteins expressed by HSV and Ad vectors supported the conclusion that VP22 and UL11 interact specifically with the CT domains of gD and gE. ..
  31. Okada H, Itoh M, Nagata K, Takeuchi K. Previously unrecognized amino acid substitutions in the hemagglutinin and fusion proteins of measles virus modulate cell-cell fusion, hemadsorption, virus growth, and penetration rate. J Virol. 2009;83:8713-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the F and H proteins synergistically function to ensure efficient wild-type MV growth in Vero cells. ..
  32. Parida S, Mahapatra M, Hawes P, Baron M, Monaghan P, Barrett T. Importance of the extracellular and cytoplasmic/transmembrane domains of the haemagglutinin protein of rinderpest virus for recovery of viable virus from cDNA copies. Virus Res. 2006;117:273-82 pubmed
    ..Both versions of the H protein and also the F protein were found to be incorporated into the envelope of the budded virions. ..
  33. Balamurugan V, Sen A, Saravanan P, Rasool T, Yadav M, Bandyopadhyay S, et al. Development and characterization of a stable vero cell line constitutively expressing Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) hemagglutinin protein and its potential use as antigen in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for serosurveillance of PPRV. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2006;13:1367-72 pubmed
    ..04% and 79.16%, respectively). This study shows that the PPRV H protein could be a sustainable source of safe antigen in countries of nonendemicity without the need to handle infectious virus for serodiagnosis...
  34. Vani J, Nayak R, Shaila M. A CD8+ T cell clone specific for antigen also recognizes peptidomimics present in anti-idiotypic antibody: implications for T cell memory. Cell Immunol. 2007;246:17-25 pubmed
    ..Thus, it appears reasonable that a population of activated antigen specific T cells is maintained in the body by presentation of peptidomimic through Jerne cells and other antigen presenting cells long after immunization. ..
  35. Matassov D, Cupo A, Galarza J. A novel intranasal virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine designed to protect against the pandemic 1918 influenza A virus (H1N1). Viral Immunol. 2007;20:441-52 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that it is feasible to make a safe and immunogenic vaccine to protect against the extremely virulent 1918 virus, using a novel and safe cell-based technology. ..
  36. Swalley S, Baker B, Calder L, Harrison S, Skehel J, Wiley D. Full-length influenza hemagglutinin HA2 refolds into the trimeric low-pH-induced conformation. Biochemistry. 2004;43:5902-11 pubmed
    ..The refolded chimeric protein described here is a suitable species for undertaking studies of how the fusion peptide inserts into membranes and assessing the nature of possible intermediates in the fusion process. ..
  37. Kidokoro M, Aoki A, Horiuchi K, Shida H. Large-scale preparation of biologically active measles virus haemagglutinin expressed by attenuated vaccinia virus vectors. Microbes Infect. 2002;4:1035-44 pubmed
    ..Such recombinant haemagglutinin preparations will be useful in diagnostic tests that measure functional anti-measles immunity and investigate the biological functions and structure of the haemagglutinin. ..
  38. Lednicky J, Meehan T, Kinsel M, Dubach J, Hungerford L, Sarich N, et al. Effective primary isolation of wild-type canine distemper virus in MDCK, MV1 Lu and Vero cells without nucleotide sequence changes within the entire haemagglutinin protein gene and in subgenomic sections of the fusion and phospho protein genes. J Virol Methods. 2004;118:147-57 pubmed
    ..Different viral phenotypes and genotypes were detected. The conservation of H gene sequences in primary CDV isolates suggests that MDCK, MV1 Lu, and Vero cells express proper receptors for wild-type CDV. ..
  39. Glinsky G. Genomic analysis of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 reveals association of increasing disease severity with emergence of novel hemagglutinin mutations. Cell Cycle. 2010;9:958-70 pubmed publisher
  40. Kemper C, Atkinson J. Measles virus and CD46. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2009;329:31-57 pubmed
    ..These reports established CD46 as a MV cell entry receptor. This chapter summarizes the role of CD46 in measles virus infection. ..
  41. Runkler N, Dietzel E, Moll M, Klenk H, Maisner A. Glycoprotein targeting signals influence the distribution of measles virus envelope proteins and virus spread in lymphocytes. J Gen Virol. 2008;89:687-96 pubmed publisher
  42. Lachmanovich E, Shvartsman D, Malka Y, Botvin C, Henis Y, Weiss A. Co-localization analysis of complex formation among membrane proteins by computerized fluorescence microscopy: application to immunofluorescence co-patching studies. J Microsc. 2003;212:122-31 pubmed
    ..The approach presented is potentially applicable to studies of co-localization by other methods (e.g. electron microscopy), and the nearest-neighbour distance method can also be adapted to study phenomena of correlated placement. ..
  43. Kireev D, Akanina D, Grebennikova T, Zaberezhnyĭ A, Shchelkanov M, L vov D. [Development of polymerase chain reaction-based test systems for influenza A virus isolation and typing]. Vopr Virusol. 2007;52:17-22 pubmed
    ..The data of these test systems were compared with the techniques of viral shedding in the cell cultures and chicken embryos. ..
  44. Watabe T, Kishino H, de Oliveira Martins L, Kitazoe Y. A likelihood-based index of protein protein binding affinities with application to influenza HA escape from antibodies. Mol Biol Evol. 2007;24:1627-38 pubmed
    ..The contrast between the adaptations to the two types of antibodies suggests that the virus adapts to the immune system at the cost of structural change. ..
  45. Seki F, Takeda M, Minagawa H, Yanagi Y. Recombinant wild-type measles virus containing a single N481Y substitution in its haemagglutinin cannot use receptor CD46 as efficiently as that having the haemagglutinin of the Edmonston laboratory strain. J Gen Virol. 2006;87:1643-8 pubmed
    ..This may be a reason why few CD46-using MVs are detected in vivo. ..
  46. Somboonthum P, Yoshii H, Okamoto S, Koike M, Gomi Y, Uchiyama Y, et al. Generation of a recombinant Oka varicella vaccine expressing mumps virus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein as a polyvalent live vaccine. Vaccine. 2007;25:8741-55 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the novel varicella vaccine expressing MuV HN protein is suitable as a polyvalent live attenuated vaccine against VZV and MuV infections. ..
  47. Nidaira M, Taira K, Okano S, Shinzato T, Morikawa T, Tokumine M, et al. Survey of Japanese encephalitis virus in pigs on Miyako, Ishigaki, Kume, and Yonaguni Islands in Okinawa, Japan. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2009;62:220-4 pubmed
    ..It was suggested that JEV previously introduced from Taiwan had been maintained on Ishigaki Island. ..
  48. Lehrer R, Jung G, Ruchala P, Andre S, Gabius H, Lu W. Multivalent binding of carbohydrates by the human alpha-defensin, HD5. J Immunol. 2009;183:480-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Self-association and multivalent binding may play integral roles in the ability of HD5 to protect against infections caused by viruses and other infectious agents. ..
  49. Nayak B, Kumar S, DiNapoli J, Paldurai A, Perez D, Collins P, et al. Contributions of the avian influenza virus HA, NA, and M2 surface proteins to the induction of neutralizing antibodies and protective immunity. J Virol. 2010;84:2408-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, there was no indication that M2 is immunogenic or protective. Furthermore, inclusion of NA in addition to HA in a vaccine preparation for chickens may not enhance the high level of protection provided by HA...
  50. Pasick J, Handel K, Robinson J, Copps J, Ridd D, Hills K, et al. Intersegmental recombination between the haemagglutinin and matrix genes was responsible for the emergence of a highly pathogenic H7N3 avian influenza virus in British Columbia. J Gen Virol. 2005;86:727-31 pubmed
    ..The events described here appear very similar to those which occurred in Chile in 2002 where the virulence shift of another H7N3 virus was attributed to non-homologous recombination between the HA and nucleoprotein genes. ..
  51. Tsurudome M. [Viral fusion mechanisms]. Uirusu. 2005;55:207-19 pubmed
    ..The crystal structures of F and the attachment protein HN have recently been clarified, which will facilitate studies of the molecular mechanism of F-mediated membrane fusion. ..
  52. Ishikawa T, Konishi E. Mosquito cells infected with Japanese encephalitis virus release slowly-sedimenting hemagglutinin particles in association with intracellular formation of smooth membrane structures. Microbiol Immunol. 2006;50:211-23 pubmed
    ..Thus, intracellular SMS formations were associated with extracellular SHA production in JEV-infected mosquito cells. ..
  53. Bieback K, Lien E, Klagge I, Avota E, Schneider Schaulies J, Duprex W, et al. Hemagglutinin protein of wild-type measles virus activates toll-like receptor 2 signaling. J Virol. 2002;76:8729-36 pubmed
    ..Thus, the unique property of MV wild-type strains to activate TLR2-dependent signals might essentially contribute not only to immune activation but also to viral spread and pathogenicity by upregulating the MV receptor on monocytes. ..