hiv core protein p24


Summary: A major core protein of the human immunodeficiency virus encoded by the HIV gag gene. HIV-seropositive individuals mount a significant immune response to p24 and thus detection of antibodies to p24 is one basis for determining HIV infection by ELISA and Western blot assays. The protein is also being investigated as a potential HIV immunogen in vaccines.

Top Publications

  1. Brennan C, Yamaguchi J, Vallari A, Swanson P, Hackett J. ARCHITECT® HIV Ag/Ab Combo assay: correlation of HIV-1 p24 antigen sensitivity and RNA viral load using genetically diverse virus isolates. J Clin Virol. 2013;57:169-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The correlation of viral load and Ag sensitivity was consistent across genetically diverse HIV-1 group M strains. ..
  2. Ma J, Rong L, Zhou Y, Roy B, Lu J, Abrahamyan L, et al. The requirement of the DEAD-box protein DDX24 for the packaging of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA. Virology. 2008;375:253-64 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that DDX24 acts at the early phase of HIV-1 RNA metabolism prior to nuclear export and the consequence of this action extends to the viral RNA packaging stage during virus assembly. ..
  3. Zhang B, Liu D, Bao Z, Chen B, Li C, Jiang H, et al. High level soluble expression, one-step purification and characterization of HIV-1 p24 protein. Virol J. 2011;8:316 pubmed publisher
    ..coli. This soluble recombinant p24 protein specifically react with HIV infected sera and elicit HIV p24 specific antibodies in mice, indicating this soluble recombinant p24 protein could be a promising reagent for HIV diagnosis. ..
  4. Miedouge M, Grèze M, Bailly A, Izopet J. Analytical sensitivity of four HIV combined antigen/antibody assays using the p24 WHO standard. J Clin Virol. 2011;50:57-60 pubmed publisher
    ..We recommend the use of this approach in medical laboratory to validate on site their methods. ..
  5. Lindh I, Wallin A, Kalbina I, Sävenstrand H, Engström P, Andersson S, et al. Production of the p24 capsid protein from HIV-1 subtype C in Arabidopsis thaliana and Daucus carota using an endoplasmic reticulum-directing SEKDEL sequence in protein expression constructs. Protein Expr Purif. 2009;66:46-51 pubmed publisher
    ..However, on a total soluble protein basis, carrots produced considerable higher levels of the p24_SEKDEL protein than Arabidopsis. ..
  6. Donayre Torres A, Esquivel Soto E, Gutiérrez Xicoténcatl M, Esquivel Guadarrama F, Gómez Lim M. Production and purification of immunologically active core protein p24 from HIV-1 fused to ricin toxin B subunit in E. coli. Virol J. 2009;6:17 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report in which a eukaryotic toxin produced in E. coli is employed as an adjuvant to elicit immune responses to p24 HIV core antigen. ..
  7. Tang S, Zhao J, Storhoff J, Norris P, Little R, Yarchoan R, et al. Nanoparticle-Based biobarcode amplification assay (BCA) for sensitive and early detection of human immunodeficiency type 1 capsid (p24) antigen. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2007;46:231-7 pubmed
  8. Crawford H, Lumm W, Leslie A, Schaefer M, Boeras D, Prado J, et al. Evolution of HLA-B*5703 HIV-1 escape mutations in HLA-B*5703-positive individuals and their transmission recipients. J Exp Med. 2009;206:909-21 pubmed publisher
    ..These data underline the need for a CTL vaccine against multiple conserved epitopes. ..
  9. Ly T, Ebel A, Faucher V, Fihman V, Laperche S. Could the new HIV combined p24 antigen and antibody assays replace p24 antigen specific assays?. J Virol Methods. 2007;143:86-94 pubmed

More Information


  1. Imai K, Okamoto T. Transcriptional repression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 by AP-4. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:12495-505 pubmed
  2. Lee K, Ambrose Z, Martin T, Oztop I, Mulky A, Julias J, et al. Flexible use of nuclear import pathways by HIV-1. Cell Host Microbe. 2010;7:221-33 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal a remarkable flexibility in HIV-1 nuclear transport and highlight a single residue in CA as essential in regulating interactions with NUPs. ..
  3. Banerjee K, Klasse P, Sanders R, Pereyra F, Michael E, Lu M, et al. IgG subclass profiles in infected HIV type 1 controllers and chronic progressors and in uninfected recipients of Env vaccines. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2010;26:445-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Although we found isotypic differences in IgG responses to HIV-1 antigens among vaccinees and the HC and CP individuals, there were no indications of differential T(H)1:T(H)2 polarization between the different groups. ..
  4. Fox J, Dunn H, O Shea S. Low rates of p24 antigen detection using a fourth-generation point of care HIV test. Sex Transm Infect. 2011;87:178-9 pubmed publisher
  5. Wang D, Kang X, Li L, Xie Q, Gao Y, Huang T. In vitro study on vertical transmission of the HIV-1 gag gene by human sperm. J Med Virol. 2011;83:16-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The results provide evidence for possible vertical transmission of the HIV-1 gag gene to the embryo by fertilizing sperm in vitro. ..
  6. Tang S, Hewlett I. Nanoparticle-based immunoassays for sensitive and early detection of HIV-1 capsid (p24) antigen. J Infect Dis. 2010;201 Suppl 1:S59-64 pubmed publisher
    ..5 pg/mL. These results indicate that the universal labeling technology based on NPs and its application may provide a rapid and sensitive testing platform for clinical diagnosis and laboratory research. ..
  7. Bhattacharya S, Zhang H, Debnath A, Cowburn D. Solution structure of a hydrocarbon stapled peptide inhibitor in complex with monomeric C-terminal domain of HIV-1 capsid. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:16274-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of the structural analysis provide valuable insight into the determinants for high affinity and selective inhibitors for HIV-1 particle assembly. ..
  8. Zheng L, Jia L, Li B, Situ B, Liu Q, Wang Q, et al. A sandwich HIV p24 amperometric immunosensor based on a direct gold electroplating-modified electrode. Molecules. 2012;17:5988-6000 pubmed publisher
    ..This immunosensor may be broadly applied to clinical samples, being distinguished by its ease of use, mild reaction conditions, guaranteed reproducibility, and good anti-interference ability. ..
  9. Sickinger E, Jonas G, Yem A, Goller A, Stieler M, Brennan C, et al. Performance evaluation of the new fully automated human immunodeficiency virus antigen-antibody combination assay designed for blood screening. Transfusion. 2008;48:584-93 pubmed publisher
    ..The assay demonstrated enhanced specificity and sensitivity along with broad subtype detection. The assay performance represents the "state-of-the art" technology for serologic blood screening of HIV infection. ..
  10. Hulme A, Perez O, Hope T. Complementary assays reveal a relationship between HIV-1 uncoating and reverse transcription. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:9975-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these results suggest that some aspect of reverse transcription has the ability to influence the kinetics of uncoating. ..
  11. Grigorov B, Decimo D, Smagulova F, Pechoux C, Mougel M, Muriaux D, et al. Intracellular HIV-1 Gag localization is impaired by mutations in the nucleocapsid zinc fingers. Retrovirology. 2007;4:54 pubmed
    ..These results show that Gag oligomerization mediated by gRNA-NC interactions is required for correct Gag trafficking, and assembly in HIV-1 producing cells and the release of infectious viruses. ..
  12. Liard C, Munier S, Arias M, Joulin Giet A, Bonduelle O, Duffy D, et al. Targeting of HIV-p24 particle-based vaccine into differential skin layers induces distinct arms of the immune responses. Vaccine. 2011;29:6379-91 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that re-directing the immune responses by targeting differential skin immunization routes, offers enormous potential for innovative vaccination strategies, especially against HIV. ..
  13. Pajot A, Schnuriger A, Moris A, Rodallec A, Ojcius D, Autran B, et al. The Th1 immune response against HIV-1 Gag p24-derived peptides in mice expressing HLA-A02.01 and HLA-DR1. Eur J Immunol. 2007;37:2635-44 pubmed
    ..A T helper effect was demonstrated in all cases, and was particularly strong with epitopes Gag(301-320),Gag(321-340 )and Gag(271-290), which should, therefore, be considered in the design of new vaccines. ..
  14. Biancotto A, Brichacek B, Chen S, Fitzgerald W, Lisco A, Vanpouille C, et al. A highly sensitive and dynamic immunofluorescent cytometric bead assay for the detection of HIV-1 p24. J Virol Methods. 2009;157:98-101 pubmed publisher
    ..This cytometric bead assay allows the detection of p24 concentrations over 4 orders of magnitude from less than 0.4pg to up to 20,000pgml(-1) in a volume of 50microl and can be combined with other measurements. ..
  15. Nowacek A, Miller R, McMillan J, KANMOGNE G, Kanmogne M, Mosley R, et al. NanoART synthesis, characterization, uptake, release and toxicology for human monocyte-macrophage drug delivery. Nanomedicine (Lond). 2009;4:903-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Cytotoxicities resulting from nanoART carriage were limited. These results support the continued development of macrophage-mediated nanoART carriage for HIV-1 disease. ..
  16. Wacharapornin P, Lauhakirti D, Auewarakul P. The effect of capsid mutations on HIV-1 uncoating. Virology. 2007;358:48-54 pubmed
    ..Our data indicated that mutations at phosphoacceptor sites of capsid disturbed the uncoating mechanism, but the defect may not be directly caused by the lack of phosphate on the core particles undergoing uncoating. ..
  17. Edwards C, Holmes E, Wilson D, Viscidi R, Abrams E, Phillips R, et al. Population genetic estimation of the loss of genetic diversity during horizontal transmission of HIV-1. BMC Evol Biol. 2006;6:28 pubmed
    ..Assuming the bottleneck at transmission is selectively neutral, such a severe reduction in genetic diversity has important implications for adaptation in HIV-1, since beneficial mutations have a reduced chance of transmission. ..
  18. Martinez Picado J, Prado J, Fry E, Pfafferott K, Leslie A, Chetty S, et al. Fitness cost of escape mutations in p24 Gag in association with control of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Virol. 2006;80:3617-23 pubmed
  19. Pumarola T, Freeman J, Saxton E, Dillon P, Bal T, van Helden J. Performance evaluation of the ADVIA Centaur(®) HIV Ag/Ab Combo assay. J Virol Methods. 2010;170:16-20 pubmed publisher
    ..74% (7753/7773; 95% confidence interval: 99.60-99.84%). Sensitivity was 100% for the HIV genotypes tested. The HIV Ag/Ab Combo assay is a sensitive and specific assay that can assist clinicians in the early diagnosis of HIV infection. ..
  20. Matalon S, Palmer B, Nold M, Furlan A, Kassu A, Fossati G, et al. The histone deacetylase inhibitor ITF2357 decreases surface CXCR4 and CCR5 expression on CD4(+) T-cells and monocytes and is superior to valproic acid for latent HIV-1 expression in vitro. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010;54:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..001). ITF2357 is superior to VPA in inducing HIV-1 from latently infected cells. Safely used in humans, ITF2357 is an attractive candidate for HIV-1 clinical purging. ..
  21. Tang S, Zhao J, Wang A, Viswanath R, Harma H, Little R, et al. Characterization of immune responses to capsid protein p24 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and implications for detection. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2010;17:1244-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The data provide the foundation for development and refinement of new assays for improved p24 antigen testing as future tools for rapid and accurate diagnosis as part of early intervention strategies and estimations of incidence. ..
  22. Beelaert G, Fransen K. Evaluation of a rapid and simple fourth-generation HIV screening assay for qualitative detection of HIV p24 antigen and/or antibodies to HIV-1 and HIV-2. J Virol Methods. 2010;168:218-22 pubmed publisher
    ..5% (62/67) with the Vironostika compared to the reference single Ag ELISA. The assay could not detect Ag in one group O, one subtype F and two subtype H cell supernatant isolates. None of the HIV-2 Ag could be detected. ..
  23. Yuan Y, Yokoyama M, Maeda Y, Terasawa H, Harada S, Sato H, et al. Structure and dynamics of the gp120 V3 loop that confers noncompetitive resistance in R5 HIV-1(JR-FL) to maraviroc. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e65115 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the HIV-1 gp120 V3 mutations that confer maraviroc resistance alter structure and dynamics of the V3 loop on the gp120 outer domain, and enable interactions between gp120 and the drug-bound form of CCR5...
  24. Dos Ramos Farias M, Garcia M, Dilernia D, Rabinovich R, Avila M. Centrifugation improves the detection of HIV-1 p24 antigen in plasma from children born to mothers infected with HIV-1. J Virol Methods. 2009;158:6-10 pubmed publisher
    ..7% vs. 36.4%, p=0.009). Centrifugation of plasma samples prior to determination of p24 in pediatric patients resulted in a significant increase in sensitivity. ..
  25. Song E, Hur M, Roh E, Park M, Moon H, Yun Y. Performances of four fourth-generation human immunodeficiency virus-1 screening assays. J Med Virol. 2012;84:1884-8 pubmed publisher
    ..ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab Combo and Elecsys HIV Combi PT have the higher analytical sensitivities, and would be preferable for reducing the window period. ..
  26. Niederhauser C, Strohle A, Stolz M, Muller F, Tinguely C. The risk of a second diagnostic window with 4th generation HIV assays: Two cases. J Clin Virol. 2009;45:367-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Nevertheless, the rare occurrence of a second diagnostic window with 4th generation HIV assays strongly suggests that the following up testing algorithms need to be adjusted accordingly. ..
  27. Niu L, Termini J, Kanagavelu S, Gupta S, Rolland M, Kulkarni V, et al. Preclinical evaluation of HIV-1 therapeutic ex vivo dendritic cell vaccines expressing consensus Gag antigens and conserved Gag epitopes. Vaccine. 2011;29:2110-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This indicates that immune responses can be focused onto the conserved elements of Gag in the absence of other Gag components. ..
  28. Richmond M, McKinnon L, Kiazyk S, Wachihi C, Kimani M, Kimani J, et al. Epitope mapping of HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses by multiple immunological readouts reveals distinct specificities defined by function. J Virol. 2011;85:1275-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the identification of epitopes that elicit polyfunctional responses reinforces the need for the comprehensive evaluation of HIV vaccine candidates, and these epitopes may represent novel targets for CMI-based vaccines. ..
  29. Kim E, Stanton J, Korber B, Krebs K, Bogdan D, Kunstman K, et al. Detection of HIV-1 p24 Gag in plasma by a nanoparticle-based bio-barcode-amplification method. Nanomedicine (Lond). 2008;3:293-303 pubmed publisher
    ..Because the bio-barcode-amplification method does not require enzymatic amplification, this method could be translated into a robust point-of-care test. ..
  30. George E, Beauharnais C, Brignoli E, Noel F, Bois G, De Matteis Rouzier P, et al. Potential of a simplified p24 assay for early diagnosis of infant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in Haiti. J Clin Microbiol. 2007;45:3416-8 pubmed
    ..We postulated that the p24 antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay could be simplified by eliminating signal amplification without compromising diagnostic accuracy. ..
  31. Zhang L, Jin N, Song Y, Wang H, Ma H, Li Z, et al. Construction and characterization of a recombinant fowlpox virus containing HIV-1 multi-epitope-p24 chimeric gene in mice. Sci China C Life Sci. 2007;50:212-20 pubmed
    ..We concluded that the rFPV may induce HIV-1 specific immunity especially cellular immunity in mice. ..
  32. Yang R, Aiken C. A mutation in alpha helix 3 of CA renders human immunodeficiency virus type 1 cyclosporin A resistant and dependent: rescue by a second-site substitution in a distal region of CA. J Virol. 2007;81:3749-56 pubmed
    ..A105T rescued the impaired single-cycle infectivity and replication defects of both T54A and A92E mutants. These results indicate that CA determinants outside the CypA-binding loop can modulate the dependence of HIV-1 infection on CypA. ..
  33. Weber B, Orazi B, Raineri A, Thorstensson R, Burgisser P, Mühlbacher A, et al. Multicenter evaluation of a new 4th generation HIV screening assay Elecsys HIV combi. Clin Lab. 2006;52:463-73 pubmed
  34. Abdurahman S, Vegvari A, Youssefi M, Levi M, Höglund S, Andersson E, et al. Activity of the small modified amino acid alpha-hydroxy glycineamide on in vitro and in vivo human immunodeficiency virus type 1 capsid assembly and infectivity. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008;52:3737-44 pubmed publisher
    ..As an antiviral compound, alpha-HGA has an unusually simple structure, a pronounced antiviral specificity, and a novel mechanism of antiviral action. As such, it might prove to be a lead compound for a new class of anti-HIV substances. ..
  35. Crawford H, Matthews P, Schaefer M, Carlson J, Leslie A, Kilembe W, et al. The hypervariable HIV-1 capsid protein residues comprise HLA-driven CD8+ T-cell escape mutations and covarying HLA-independent polymorphisms. J Virol. 2011;85:1384-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate complex patterns of adaptation of HIV under immune selection pressure, the understanding of which should aid vaccine design. ..
  36. Kwon J, Yoon S, Lee C, Lim C, Lee K, Sung H, et al. Performance evaluation of three automated human immunodeficiency virus antigen-antibody combination immunoassays. J Virol Methods. 2006;133:20-6 pubmed
    ..0% to 99.6%. The Architect HIV Ag/Ab Combo exhibited the best performance for specificity and detection of p24 antigen leading to closure of seroconversion window and demonstrating its utility for early diagnosis of HIV infection. ..
  37. Schupbach J. Viral RNA and p24 antigen as markers of HIV disease and antiretroviral treatment success. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2003;132:196-209 pubmed
    ..p24 antigen is an excellent marker of HIV expression and disease activity and can be used in the same fields of application as HIV RNA is used. The test is validated for subtype B, but requires further studies for non-B subtypes. ..
  38. Prado J, Shintani A, Bofill M, Clotet B, Ruiz L, Martinez Picado J. Lack of longitudinal intrapatient correlation between p24 antigenemia and levels of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 RNA in patients with chronic hiv infection during structured treatment interruptions. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:1620-5 pubmed
  39. Respess R, Cachafeiro A, Withum D, Fiscus S, Newman D, Branson B, et al. Evaluation of an ultrasensitive p24 antigen assay as a potential alternative to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA viral load assay in resource-limited settings. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:506-8 pubmed
    ..4% at a viral load of <30,000 (232 specimens from 65 seropositive subjects). The assay was highly reproducible, with excellent correlation between duplicates and among three laboratories. ..
  40. Stevens G, Rekhviashvili N, Scott L, GONIN R, Stevens W. Evaluation of two commercially available, inexpensive alternative assays used for assessing viral load in a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype C-infected patients from South Africa. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:857-61 pubmed
    ..However, both assays provide a less expensive alternative to the Roche viral load assay and demonstrate the same trends during treatment. ..
  41. Swanson P, Huang S, Holzmayer V, Bodelle P, Yamaguchi J, Brennan C, et al. Performance of the automated Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay on a genetically diverse panel of specimens from Brazil. J Virol Methods. 2006;134:237-43 pubmed
    ..5 log(10)copies/ml. The RealTime HIV-1 assay and m2000 system offer the advantages of automation while providing reliable quantification of diverse HIV strains. ..
  42. Jennings C, Fiscus S, Crowe S, Danilovic A, Morack R, Scianna S, et al. Comparison of two human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA surrogate assays to the standard HIV RNA assay. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:5950-6 pubmed
    ..67, and r = 0.59 to 0.95, respectively). Thus, the use of these two assays for monitoring patients, together with less-frequent confirmation testing, offers a feasible alternative to frequent HIV RNA testing in resource-limited settings. ..
  43. Zijenah L, Tobaiwa O, Rusakaniko S, Nathoo K, Nhembe M, Matibe P, et al. Signal-boosted qualitative ultrasensitive p24 antigen assay for diagnosis of subtype C HIV-1 infection in infants under the age of 2 years. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2005;39:391-4 pubmed
    ..These evaluated parameters were not statistically different between infants aged 0-6 and 7-18 months. The ultrasensitive p24 antigen assay is a useful diagnostic test for detection of HIV-1 infection among infants aged 0-18 months. ..
  44. Patton J, Sherman G, Coovadia A, Stevens W, Meyers T. Ultrasensitive human immunodeficiency virus type 1 p24 antigen assay modified for use on dried whole-blood spots as a reliable, affordable test for infant diagnosis. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2006;13:152-5 pubmed
    ..1 filter paper. The modified assay was found to be reliable and accurate, making it an affordable tool for pediatric HIV diagnosis in developing countries. ..
  45. Sun J, Soos T, Kewalramani V, Osiecki K, Zheng J, Falkin L, et al. CD4-specific transgenic expression of human cyclin T1 markedly increases human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) production by CD4+ T lymphocytes and myeloid cells in mice transgenic for a provirus encoding a monocyte-tropic HIV-1 isolate. J Virol. 2006;80:1850-62 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the JR-CSF/hu-cycT1 mice should provide an improved mouse system for investigating the pathogenesis of various aspects of HIV-1-mediated disease and the efficacies of therapeutic interventions. ..
  46. Zuniga R, Lucchetti A, Galvan P, Sanchez S, Sanchez C, Hernandez A, et al. Relative dominance of Gag p24-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes is associated with human immunodeficiency virus control. J Virol. 2006;80:3122-5 pubmed
    ..Analyses in a second cohort in the United States confirm these findings and point towards a dominant role of Gag-specific immunity in effective control of HIV infection, providing important guidance for HIV vaccine development. ..
  47. Sherman G, Stevens G, Stevens W. Affordable diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus infection in infants by p24 antigen detection. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2004;23:173-6 pubmed
    ..A sensitivity of 98.1% and specificity of 98.7% was obtained testing 203 samples from 24 HIV-infected and 66 uninfected infants born to HIV subtype C-infected women. ..
  48. Sugaya M, Lore K, Koup R, Douek D, Blauvelt A. HIV-infected Langerhans cells preferentially transmit virus to proliferating autologous CD4+ memory T cells located within Langerhans cell-T cell clusters. J Immunol. 2004;172:2219-24 pubmed
    ..Disrupting cluster formation between LC and memory CD4(+) T cells may be a novel strategy to interfere with sexual transmission of HIV. ..
  49. Speers D, Phillips P, Dyer J. Combination assay detecting both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) p24 antigen and anti-HIV antibodies opens a second diagnostic window. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:5397-9 pubmed
    ..Although it is likely to be rare, this phenomenon has also been reported for other fourth-generation HIV immunoassays and has implications for the reported diagnostic windows of these assays. ..
  50. Stewart Jones G, Gillespie G, Overton I, Kaul R, Roche P, McMichael A, et al. Structures of three HIV-1 HLA-B*5703-peptide complexes and identification of related HLAs potentially associated with long-term nonprogression. J Immunol. 2005;175:2459-68 pubmed
  51. Koeppe J, Campbell T, Rapaport E, Wilson C. HIV-1-specific CD4+ T-cell responses are not associated with significant viral epitope variation in persons with persistent plasma viremia. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2006;41:140-8 pubmed
  52. Lombart J, Vray M, Kafando A, Lemée V, Ouédraogo Traoré R, Corrigan G, et al. Plasma virion reverse transcriptase activity and heat dissociation-boosted p24 assay for HIV load in Burkina Faso, West Africa. AIDS. 2005;19:1273-7 pubmed
    ..HDB-p24 use requires further evaluation before being considered as an alternative method in African HIV-infected patient follow up. ..
  53. Bonard D, Rouet F, Toni T, Minga A, Huet C, Ekouevi D, et al. Field evaluation of an improved assay using a heat-dissociated p24 antigen for adults mainly infected with HIV-1 CRF02_AG strains in Côte d'Ivoire, West Africa. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2003;34:267-73 pubmed
    ..Follow-up of infected patients using both markers showed different results. The reliability of the HD p24 Ag assay is questionable for clinical and biologic management as a surrogate tool for measurement of HIV-1 RNA levels in Africa. ..