programmed cell death 1 receptor

Summary

Summary: An inhibitory T-lymphocyte receptor that has specificity for CD274 ANTIGEN and PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 LIGAND 2 PROTEIN. Signaling by the receptor limits T cell proliferation and INTERFERON GAMMA synthesis. The receptor also may play an essential role in the regulatory pathway that induces PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.

Top Publications

  1. Inno A, Metro G, Bironzo P, Grimaldi A, Grego E, Di Nunno V, et al. Pathogenesis, clinical manifestations and management of immune checkpoint inhibitors toxicity. Tumori. 2017;103:405-421 pubmed publisher
    ..This review focuses on the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations and management of immune-related toxicity of anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1 antibodies. ..
  2. Cabel L, Bidard F, Servois V, Cacheux W, Mariani P, Romano E, et al. HPV circulating tumor DNA to monitor the efficacy of anti-PD-1 therapy in metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal: A case report. Int J Cancer. 2017;141:1667-1670 pubmed publisher
    ..This observation provides proof-of-concept that HPV ctDNA can be used as a noninvasive early dynamic biomarker to monitor the efficacy of new immunotherapy agents. ..
  3. Hirunwidchayarat W, Furusawa E, Kang S, Ohno T, Takeuchi S, Rungsiyanont S, et al. Site-specific regulation of oral mucosa-recruiting CD8+ T cells in a mouse contact allergy model. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;490:1294-1300 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results may facilitate the understanding of the unique features of contact allergies in the oral mucosa, and guide the development of new strategies for control of contact allergy. ..
  4. Chaft J, Hellmann M, Velez M, Travis W, Rusch V. Initial Experience With Lung Cancer Resection After Treatment With T-Cell Checkpoint Inhibitors. Ann Thorac Surg. 2017;104:e217-e218 pubmed publisher
    ..This series of 5 cases describes for the first time the safety and technical issues relating to pulmonary resection after checkpoint inhibitor therapy. ..
  5. Kamphorst A, Wieland A, Nasti T, Yang S, Zhang R, Barber D, et al. Rescue of exhausted CD8 T cells by PD-1-targeted therapies is CD28-dependent. Science. 2017;355:1423-1427 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data demonstrate CD28-costimulation requirement for CD8 T cell rescue and suggest an important role for the CD28/B7 pathway in PD-1 therapy of cancer patients. ..
  6. Wright M, Beaty J, Ternent C. Molecular Markers for Colorectal Cancer. Surg Clin North Am. 2017;97:683-701 pubmed publisher
    ..Techniques to recognize colorectal cancer at the molecular level have facilitated development of new signature drugs designed to inhibit the unique pathways of colorectal cancer growth and immunity. ..
  7. Overman M, McDermott R, Leach J, Lonardi S, Lenz H, Morse M, et al. Nivolumab in patients with metastatic DNA mismatch repair-deficient or microsatellite instability-high colorectal cancer (CheckMate 142): an open-label, multicentre, phase 2 study. Lancet Oncol. 2017;18:1182-1191 pubmed publisher
    ..Nivolumab provided durable responses and disease control in pre-treated patients with dMMR/MSI-H metastatic colorectal cancer, and could be a new treatment option for these patients. Bristol-Myers Squibb. ..
  8. Khunger M, Rakshit S, Pasupuleti V, Hernandez A, Mazzone P, Stevenson J, et al. Incidence of Pneumonitis With Use of Programmed Death 1 and Programmed Death-Ligand 1 Inhibitors in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Trials. Chest. 2017;152:271-281 pubmed publisher
    ..4%-6.3% vs 2.8%; 95% CI, 1.7%- 4%; P = .03). There was a higher incidence of pneumonitis with use of PD-1 inhibitors compared with PD-L1 inhibitors. Higher rate of pneumonitis was more common in treatment naive patients. ..
  9. Szczepaniak Sloane R, Gopalakrishnan V, Reddy S, Zhang X, Reuben A, Wargo J. Interaction of molecular alterations with immune response in melanoma. Cancer. 2017;123:2130-2142 pubmed publisher
    ..These mechanisms and the interplay between them are discussed herein. Cancer 2017;123:2130-42. © 2017 American Cancer Society...

More Information

Publications102 found, 100 shown here

  1. Gauci M, Laly P, Vidal Trecan T, Baroudjian B, Gottlieb J, Madjlessi Ezra N, et al. Autoimmune diabetes induced by PD-1 inhibitor-retrospective analysis and pathogenesis: a case report and literature review. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2017;66:1399-1410 pubmed publisher
    ..The presence of autoantibodies before treatment could identify individuals at risk of developing diabetes, but systematic titration may not be relevant considering the rarity of this side effect. ..
  2. Pinto N, Park J, Murphy E, Yearley J, McClanahan T, Annamalai L, et al. Patterns of PD-1, PD-L1, and PD-L2 expression in pediatric solid tumors. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2017;64: pubmed publisher
    ..At low levels of expression, IHC score and mRNA expression correlate poorly. Current and planned clinical trials will determine whether this low level of expression predicts limited response to immune checkpoint inhibitors. ..
  3. Weinberg A, Canniff J, Rouphael N, Mehta A, Mulligan M, Whitaker J, et al. Varicella-Zoster Virus-Specific Cellular Immune Responses to the Live Attenuated Zoster Vaccine in Young and Older Adults. J Immunol. 2017;199:604-612 pubmed publisher
    ..This may underlie their inability to contain VZV reactivation and prevent the development of HZ. ..
  4. Le Burel S, Champiat S, Mateus C, Marabelle A, Michot J, Robert C, et al. Prevalence of immune-related systemic adverse events in patients treated with anti-Programmed cell Death 1/anti-Programmed cell Death-Ligand 1 agents: A single-centre pharmacovigilance database analysis. Eur J Cancer. 2017;82:34-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Corticosteroids are often effective and may enable the continued administration of ICIs. Studies designed to identify at-risk patients are warranted. ..
  5. Frydenlund N, Mahalingam M. PD-L1 and immune escape: insights from melanoma and other lineage-unrelated malignancies. Hum Pathol. 2017;66:13-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Special attention is given to melanoma and non-small cell lung cancer, malignancies that have seen the broadest applications of anti-PD-L1/PD-1 therapies. ..
  6. Teply B, Lipson E. Identification and management of toxicities from immune checkpoint-blocking drugs. Oncology (Williston Park). 2014;28 Suppl 3:30-8 pubmed
  7. Moret F, van der Wurff Jacobs K, Bijlsma J, Lafeber F, van Roon J. Synovial T cell hyporesponsiveness to myeloid dendritic cells is reversed by preventing PD-1/PD-L1 interactions. Arthritis Res Ther. 2014;16:497 pubmed publisher
    ..The potential of IL-7 to robustly reverse this hyporesponsiveness suggests that such proinflammatory cytokines in RA joints strongly contribute to memory T cell activation. ..
  8. Bellmunt J, Powles T, Vogelzang N. A review on the evolution of PD-1/PD-L1 immunotherapy for bladder cancer: The future is now. Cancer Treat Rev. 2017;54:58-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Research is ongoing to further categorize responses, define ideal patient populations, and investigate combinations of checkpoint inhibitors to address multiple pathways in immune system functioning. ..
  9. Iwama S, Arima H. Clinical practice and mechanism of endocrinological adverse events associated with immune checkpoint inhibitors. Nihon Rinsho Meneki Gakkai Kaishi. 2017;40:90-94 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we focus on clinical characteristics and pathogenesis of adverse events in the pituitary gland. ..
  10. Konoeda F, Suzuki S, Nishimoto Y, Hoshino H, Takagi M. A case of myasthenia gravis and myositis induced by nivolumab. Rinsho Shinkeigaku. 2017;57:373-377 pubmed publisher
    ..Since the immune checkpoint inhibitors are going to be used widely, it is important to recognize the specific subtype of myasthenia gravis for neurologists. ..
  11. Malmberg K, Sohlberg E, Goodridge J, Ljunggren H. Immune selection during tumor checkpoint inhibition therapy paves way for NK-cell "missing self" recognition. Immunogenetics. 2017;69:547-556 pubmed publisher
  12. Hui E, Cheung J, Zhu J, Su X, Taylor M, Wallweber H, et al. T cell costimulatory receptor CD28 is a primary target for PD-1-mediated inhibition. Science. 2017;355:1428-1433 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal that PD-1 suppresses T cell function primarily by inactivating CD28 signaling, suggesting that costimulatory pathways play key roles in regulating effector T cell function and responses to anti-PD-L1/PD-1 therapy. ..
  13. Vazquez Mateo C, Collins J, Fleury M, Dooms H. Broad induction of immunoregulatory mechanisms after a short course of anti-IL-7R? antibodies in NOD mice. BMC Immunol. 2017;18:18 pubmed publisher
    ..These changes appear to have long-lasting effects by delaying or preventing type 1 diabetes incidence. Hence, our study provides further support for using anti-IL-7R? antibodies to modulate autoreactive T cell responses. ..
  14. Chovanec M, Cierna Z, Miskovska V, Macháleková K, Svetlovska D, Kalavska K, et al. Prognostic role of programmed-death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expressing tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in testicular germ cell tumors. Oncotarget. 2017;8:21794-21805 pubmed publisher
    ..Scoring was performed semiquantitatively by weighted histoscore (HS) method. The prognostic value of PD-L1 expressing TILs in TGCTs was demonstrated for the first time. ..
  15. Xie M, Koh B, Hollister K, Wu H, Sun J, Kaplan M, et al. Bcl6 promotes follicular helper T-cell differentiation and PD-1 expression in a Blimp1-independent manner in mice. Eur J Immunol. 2017;47:1136-1141 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data provide a novel mechanism for positive control of gene expression by Bcl6, and illuminate how Bcl6 and Blimp1 control TFH -cell differentiation. ..
  16. Prasad V, Kaestner V. Nivolumab and pembrolizumab: Monoclonal antibodies against programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) that are interchangeable. Semin Oncol. 2017;44:132-135 pubmed publisher
    ..We will discuss how this can help global payers seeking to contain the cost of cancer therapeutics that continues to spiral out of control. ..
  17. Garber K. Beyond ipilimumab: new approaches target the immunological synapse. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2011;103:1079-82 pubmed publisher
  18. Mitteldorf C, Berisha A, Pfaltz M, Broekaert S, Schön M, Kerl K, et al. Tumor Microenvironment and Checkpoint Molecules in Primary Cutaneous Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma-New Therapeutic Targets. Am J Surg Pathol. 2017;41:998-1004 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, targeting of tumor cells and MDSCs using anti-PD-1/anti-PD-L1 or anti-CD33 antibodies might be a worthwhile new approach to treat this aggressive form of cutaneous B-cell lymphoma. ..
  19. Ramamurthy C, Godwin J, Borghaei H. Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapy: What Line of Therapy and How to Choose?. Curr Treat Options Oncol. 2017;18:33 pubmed publisher
    ..At this time, this practice pattern for immunotherapy in the first- and second-line can be considered the standard of care, but new data are likely to impact the role of immunotherapy as monotherapy or in combination in the near future. ..
  20. Jing W, Gershan J, Holzhauer S, Weber J, Palen K, McOlash L, et al. T Cells Deficient in Diacylglycerol Kinase ζ Are Resistant to PD-1 Inhibition and Help Create Persistent Host Immunity to Leukemia. Cancer Res. 2017;77:5676-5686 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, they suggest that DGKζ targeting might decrease risks of antigen escape or resistance to immune checkpoint blockade. Cancer Res; 77(20); 5676-86. ©2017 AACR. ..
  21. Lee V, Le D. Efficacy of PD-1 blockade in tumors with MMR deficiency. Immunotherapy. 2016;8:1-3 pubmed publisher
  22. Yared J, Hardy N, Singh Z, Hajj S, Badros A, Kocoglu M, et al. Major clinical response to nivolumab in relapsed/refractory Hodgkin lymphoma after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2016;51:850-2 pubmed publisher
  23. Lim S, Menzies A, Rizos H. Mechanisms and strategies to overcome resistance to molecularly targeted therapy for melanoma. Cancer. 2017;123:2118-2129 pubmed publisher
    ..Cancer 2017;123:2118-29. © 2017 American Cancer Society. ..
  24. Berger K, Pu J. PD-1 pathway and its clinical application: A 20year journey after discovery of the complete human PD-1 gene. Gene. 2018;638:20-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Meanwhile, further efforts are still warranted in both basic scientific mechanism studies and clinical investigation using the principles of personalized and precision medicine. ..
  25. Lazar Molnar E, Scandiuzzi L, Basu I, Quinn T, Sylvestre E, Palmieri E, et al. Structure-guided development of a high-affinity human Programmed Cell Death-1: Implications for tumor immunotherapy. EBioMedicine. 2017;17:30-44 pubmed publisher
  26. Bartee M, Dunlap K, Bartee E. Tumor-Localized Secretion of Soluble PD1 Enhances Oncolytic Virotherapy. Cancer Res. 2017;77:2952-2963 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, they establish a feasible path to translate these findings against clinically relevant disease. Cancer Res; 77(11); 2952-63. ©2017 AACR. ..
  27. Park J, Cheung N. Limitations and opportunities for immune checkpoint inhibitors in pediatric malignancies. Cancer Treat Rev. 2017;58:22-33 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we will discuss immunologic and clinical difficulties in this young population, as well as future prospects for combination of ICI with other immune-based and conventional treatments. ..
  28. Uehara J, Ohkuri T, Kosaka A, Ishibashi K, Hirata Y, Ohara K, et al. Intratumoral injection of IFN-? induces chemokine production in melanoma and augments the therapeutic efficacy of anti-PD-L1 mAb. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;490:521-527 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that IFN-? induces the expression of CCL5 and CXCR3 ligands in melanoma, which could play a role in T-cell recruitment, and enhances the efficacy of anti-PD-L1 mAb treatment in a CD8-dependent manner. ..
  29. Ghoneim H, Fan Y, Moustaki A, Abdelsamed H, Dash P, Dogra P, et al. De Novo Epigenetic Programs Inhibit PD-1 Blockade-Mediated T Cell Rejuvenation. Cell. 2017;170:142-157.e19 pubmed publisher
    ..These data establish de novo DNA-methylation programming as a regulator of T cell exhaustion and barrier of ICB-mediated T cell rejuvenation. ..
  30. Heppt M, Heinzerling L, Kahler K, Forschner A, Kirchberger M, Loquai C, et al. Prognostic factors and outcomes in metastatic uveal melanoma treated with programmed cell death-1 or combined PD-1/cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 inhibition. Eur J Cancer. 2017;82:56-65 pubmed publisher
    ..001). Blood markers predict survival in metastatic UM treated with immune checkpoint blockade. Normal serum levels of LDH and CRP and a high REC may help identify patients with better prognosis. ..
  31. Kamekura R, Takano K, Yamamoto M, Kawata K, Shigehara K, Jitsukawa S, et al. Cutting Edge: A Critical Role of Lesional T Follicular Helper Cells in the Pathogenesis of IgG4-Related Disease. J Immunol. 2017;199:2624-2629 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicate that anomalous Tfh cells in tissue lesions of IgG4-RD have features distinct from those in lymphoid counterparts or blood and potentially regulate local IgG4 production in IgG4-RD. ..
  32. Sznol M, Postow M, Davies M, Pavlick A, Plimack E, Shaheen M, et al. Endocrine-related adverse events associated with immune checkpoint blockade and expert insights on their management. Cancer Treat Rev. 2017;58:70-76 pubmed publisher
    ..An awareness of the symptoms and management of immune-related endocrine events may aid in the safe and appropriate use of immune checkpoint inhibitors in clinical practice. ..
  33. Queirolo P, Spagnolo F. Atypical responses in patients with advanced melanoma, lung cancer, renal-cell carcinoma and other solid tumors treated with anti-PD-1 drugs: A systematic review. Cancer Treat Rev. 2017;59:71-78 pubmed publisher
  34. Granados H, Draghi A, Tsurutani N, Wright K, Fernandez M, Sylvester F, et al. Programmed cell death-1, PD-1, is dysregulated in T cells from children with new onset type 1 diabetes. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0183887 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, insulin therapy in T1D children is associated with normal PD1 expression and heightened glycolytic capacity in PBMC. ..
  35. Mullard A. New checkpoint inhibitors ride the immunotherapy tsunami. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2013;12:489-92 pubmed publisher
  36. Cyranoski D. Chinese scientists to pioneer first human CRISPR trial. Nature. 2016;535:476-7 pubmed publisher
  37. Pattarini L, Trichot C, Bogiatzi S, Grandclaudon M, Meller S, Keuylian Z, et al. TSLP-activated dendritic cells induce human T follicular helper cell differentiation through OX40-ligand. J Exp Med. 2017;214:1529-1546 pubmed publisher
    ..Mechanistically, TSLP-induced Tfh differentiation depended on OX40-ligand, but not on ICOS-ligand. Our results delineate a pathway of human Tfh differentiation in Th2 environments. ..
  38. Okiyama N, Tanaka R. Varied immuno-related adverse events induced by immune-check point inhibitors - Nivolumab-associated psoriasiform dermatitis related with increased serum level of interleukin-6. Nihon Rinsho Meneki Gakkai Kaishi. 2017;40:95-101 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, MM patients who achieved good responses to nivolumab significantly exhibited decreased serum TNF-? levels after nivolumab treatment compared to progressive MM patients. ..
  39. Brandt D, Sergon M, Abraham S, Mäbert K, Hedrich C. TCR+CD3+CD4-CD8- effector T cells in psoriasis. Clin Immunol. 2017;181:51-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Our observations offer additional insight into the molecular pathophysiology of plaque psoriasis and show promise as potential disease biomarkers and/or therapeutic targets for future interventions. ..
  40. Gao W, Zhou J, Ji B. Evidence of Interleukin 21 Reduction in Osteosarcoma Patients Due to PD-1/PD-L1-Mediated Suppression of Follicular Helper T Cell Functionality. DNA Cell Biol. 2017;36:794-800 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, this study demonstrated a dysregulated pathway that should be targeted for future immunotherapies in osteosarcoma. ..
  41. Wolchok J, Chan T. Cancer: Antitumour immunity gets a boost. Nature. 2014;515:496-8 pubmed publisher
  42. de Velasco G, Bermas B, Choueiri T. Autoimmune Arthropathy and Uveitis as Complications of Programmed Death 1 Inhibitor Treatment. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2016;68:556-7 pubmed publisher
  43. Arce Vargas F, Furness A, Solomon I, Joshi K, Mekkaoui L, Lesko M, et al. Fc-Optimized Anti-CD25 Depletes Tumor-Infiltrating Regulatory T Cells and Synergizes with PD-1 Blockade to Eradicate Established Tumors. Immunity. 2017;46:577-586 pubmed publisher
  44. Watanabe R, Shirai T, Namkoong H, Zhang H, Berry G, Wallis B, et al. Pyruvate controls the checkpoint inhibitor PD-L1 and suppresses T cell immunity. J Clin Invest. 2017;127:2725-2738 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding indicates that metabolite-based immunotherapy may be a potential strategy for restoring adaptive immunity in CAD. ..
  45. Syed Khaja A, Toor S, El Salhat H, Faour I, Ul Haq N, Ali B, et al. Preferential accumulation of regulatory T cells with highly immunosuppressive characteristics in breast tumor microenvironment. Oncotarget. 2017;8:33159-33171 pubmed publisher
  46. Byrne E, Fisher D. Immune and molecular correlates in melanoma treated with immune checkpoint blockade. Cancer. 2017;123:2143-2153 pubmed publisher
    ..Cancer 2017;123:2143-53. © 2017 American Cancer Society. ..
  47. Hassel J, Heinzerling L, Aberle J, Bähr O, Eigentler T, Grimm M, et al. Combined immune checkpoint blockade (anti-PD-1/anti-CTLA-4): Evaluation and management of adverse drug reactions. Cancer Treat Rev. 2017;57:36-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Combined ICB has considerable toxicities, therefore close monitoring and high experience in diagnosis and treatment of ADR is necessary. ..
  48. Kløverpris H, McGregor R, McLaren J, Ladell K, Stryhn A, Koofhethile C, et al. Programmed death-1 expression on HIV-1-specific CD8+ T cells is shaped by epitope specificity, T-cell receptor clonotype usage and antigen load. AIDS. 2014;28:2007-21 pubmed
    ..These findings are important because they provide evidence that PD-1 expression levels are influenced by peptide/HLA class I antigen exposure. ..
  49. Sato K, Kato A, Sekai M, Hamazaki Y, Minato N. Physiologic Thymic Involution Underlies Age-Dependent Accumulation of Senescence-Associated CD4+ T Cells. J Immunol. 2017;199:138-148 pubmed publisher
    ..SA-T cells may provide a suitable biomarker of immune aging, as well as a potential target for controlling aging-related disorders. ..
  50. Santini F, Rudin C. Atezolizumab for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol. 2017;10:935-945 pubmed publisher
    ..Atezolizumab represents a step forward in the treatment of advanced NSCLC, nonetheless PD1:PD-L1 blockade in early-stage lung cancer is still a matter of debate. ..
  51. Ribas A, Dummer R, Puzanov I, VanderWalde A, Andtbacka R, Michielin O, et al. Oncolytic Virotherapy Promotes Intratumoral T Cell Infiltration and Improves Anti-PD-1 Immunotherapy. Cell. 2017;170:1109-1119.e10 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that oncolytic virotherapy may improve the efficacy of anti-PD-1 therapy by changing the tumor microenvironment. VIDEO ABSTRACT. ..
  52. Bagley S, Kothari S, Aggarwal C, Bauml J, Alley E, Evans T, et al. Pretreatment neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio as a marker of outcomes in nivolumab-treated patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. Lung Cancer. 2017;106:1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..It is unclear whether this marker is predictive or prognostic. Prospective studies are warranted to determine the utility of NLR in the context of other biomarkers of programmed death-1 (PD-1) therapy. ..
  53. Bonotto M, Garattini S, Basile D, Ongaro E, Fanotto V, Cattaneo M, et al. Immunotherapy for gastric cancers: emerging role and future perspectives. Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol. 2017;10:609-619 pubmed publisher
    ..While anti-CTLA-4 antibodies are minimally active, there is growing evidence for the efficacy of PD1/-L1 inhibitors. The search of predictive factors for immunotherapy will provide key hints towards the optimal use of these agents. ..
  54. Farina M, Lundgren K, Bellmunt J. Immunotherapy in Urothelial Cancer: Recent Results and Future Perspectives. Drugs. 2017;77:1077-1089 pubmed publisher
  55. Ganesan A, Clarke J, Wood O, Garrido Martin E, Chee S, Mellows T, et al. Tissue-resident memory features are linked to the magnitude of cytotoxic T cell responses in human lung cancer. Nat Immunol. 2017;18:940-950 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we define the 'molecular fingerprint' of tumor-infiltrating CTLs and identify potentially new targets for immunotherapy. ..
  56. Yin H, Liao C, Wang Y, Li Z, Fan L, Qian M, et al. [The expression of programmed death receptor 1 in non-small cell lung cancer and its clinicopathological features and prognosis showed a connection with epidermal growth factor receptor gene mutations]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi. 2017;39:419-423 pubmed publisher
    ..21?38.24???????????(p?0.024)??egfr?????????pd?1??????????????????????21.23?31.44???????????(p?0.128)? ??? pd?1?egfr?????????nsclc???????????????????????pd?1?nsclc???????????????????????????. ..
  57. Wang G, Guo L, Gainor J, Fintelmann F. Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Lung Cancer: Imaging Considerations. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2017;209:567-575 pubmed publisher
  58. Memarnejadian A, Meilleur C, Shaler C, Khazaie K, Bennink J, Schell T, et al. PD-1 Blockade Promotes Epitope Spreading in Anticancer CD8+ T Cell Responses by Preventing Fratricidal Death of Subdominant Clones To Relieve Immunodomination. J Immunol. 2017;199:3348-3359 pubmed publisher
  59. Webster R. The immune checkpoint inhibitors: where are we now?. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2014;13:883-4 pubmed publisher
  60. Hughes J, Vudattu N, Sznol M, Gettinger S, Kluger H, Lupsa B, et al. Precipitation of autoimmune diabetes with anti-PD-1 immunotherapy. Diabetes Care. 2015;38:e55-7 pubmed publisher
  61. Ribas A. Releasing the Brakes on Cancer Immunotherapy. N Engl J Med. 2015;373:1490-2 pubmed publisher
  62. Saha A, O Connor R, Thangavelu G, Lovitch S, Dandamudi D, Wilson C, et al. Programmed death ligand-1 expression on donor T cells drives graft-versus-host disease lethality. J Clin Invest. 2016;126:2642-60 pubmed publisher
  63. Pollack S, He Q, Yearley J, Emerson R, Vignali M, Zhang Y, et al. T-cell infiltration and clonality correlate with programmed cell death protein 1 and programmed death-ligand 1 expression in patients with soft tissue sarcomas. Cancer. 2017;123:3291-3304 pubmed publisher
  64. June C, Warshauer J, Bluestone J. Is autoimmunity the Achilles' heel of cancer immunotherapy?. Nat Med. 2017;23:540-547 pubmed publisher
    ..We then explore approaches to limit immunotoxicity, and discuss the future directions of research and reporting that are needed to diminish it. ..
  65. Fernandez Poma S, Salas Benito D, Lozano T, Casares N, Riezu Boj J, Mancheño U, et al. Expansion of Tumor-Infiltrating CD8+ T cells Expressing PD-1 Improves the Efficacy of Adoptive T-cell Therapy. Cancer Res. 2017;77:3672-3684 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our data provide a rationale for the use of PD-1-selected TILs in ACT. Cancer Res; 77(13); 3672-84. ©2017 AACR. ..
  66. Sia D, Jiao Y, Martinez Quetglas I, Kuchuk O, Villacorta Martin C, Castro de Moura M, et al. Identification of an Immune-specific Class of Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Based on Molecular Features. Gastroenterology. 2017;153:812-826 pubmed publisher
  67. Michot J, Lazarovici J, Ghez D, Danu A, Ferme C, Bigorgne A, et al. Challenges and perspectives in the immunotherapy of Hodgkin lymphoma. Eur J Cancer. 2017;85:67-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we review recent attempts to understand the defects in immune recognition in HL and to design an optimal evidence-based treatment for combination with anti-PD1. ..
  68. Fessas P, Lee H, Ikemizu S, Janowitz T. A molecular and preclinical comparison of the PD-1-targeted T-cell checkpoint inhibitors nivolumab and pembrolizumab. Semin Oncol. 2017;44:136-140 pubmed publisher
    ..We acknowledge the limitations of such comparisons, but suggest that based on the available data, differences in clinical trial outcomes between nivolumab and pembrolizumab are more likely drug-independent than drug-dependent. ..
  69. Razzak M. From ASCO-targeted therapies: Anti-PD-1 approaches--important steps forward in metastatic melanoma. Nat Rev Clin Oncol. 2013;10:365 pubmed publisher
  70. Sznol M, Longo D. Release the hounds! Activating the T-cell response to cancer. N Engl J Med. 2015;372:374-5 pubmed publisher
  71. Johnson D, Sullivan R, Menzies A. Immune checkpoint inhibitors in challenging populations. Cancer. 2017;123:1904-1911 pubmed publisher
    ..Cancer 2017;123:1904-1911. © 2017 American Cancer Society. ..
  72. Zhu Y, Yue F, He Y, Li P, Yang Y, Han Y, et al. Prokaryotic expression of the extracellular domain of porcine programmed death 1 (PD-1) and its ligand PD-L1 and identification of the binding with peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro. Can J Vet Res. 2017;81:147-154 pubmed
    ..Ces résultats suggèrent que les protéines recombinantes solubles pourraient être utilisées afin de préparer des anticorps monoclonaux pour bloquer la voie PD-1/PD-L1.(Traduit par Docteur Serge Messier). ..
  73. Moreno Ayala M, Gottardo M, Asad A, Zuccato C, Nicola A, Seilicovich A, et al. Immunotherapy for the treatment of breast cancer. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2017;17:797-812 pubmed publisher
  74. Overacre Delgoffe A, Chikina M, Dadey R, Yano H, Brunazzi E, Shayan G, et al. Interferon-? Drives Treg Fragility to Promote Anti-tumor Immunity. Cell. 2017;169:1130-1141.e11 pubmed publisher
    ..We also show that IFN?-induced Treg fragility is required for response to anti-PD1, suggesting that cancer therapies promoting Treg fragility may be efficacious. ..
  75. Trsan T, Vuković K, Filipović P, Brizić A, Lemmermann N, Schober K, et al. Cytomegalovirus vector expressing RAE-1? induces enhanced anti-tumor capacity of murine CD8+ T cells. Eur J Immunol. 2017;47:1354-1367 pubmed publisher
  76. Friend B, Venick R, McDiarmid S, Zhou X, Naini B, Wang H, et al. Fatal orthotopic liver transplant organ rejection induced by a checkpoint inhibitor in two patients with refractory, metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2017;64: pubmed publisher
    ..While checkpoint inhibitors clearly have tremendous potential as a targeted therapy, they should be avoided or used with extreme caution in the context of an organ transplant. ..
  77. Nawaf M, Ulvmar M, Withers D, McConnell F, Gaspal F, Webb G, et al. Concurrent OX40 and CD30 Ligand Blockade Abrogates the CD4-Driven Autoimmunity Associated with CTLA4 and PD1 Blockade while Preserving Excellent Anti-CD8 Tumor Immunity. J Immunol. 2017;199:974-981 pubmed publisher
    ..By dissociating autoimmune side effects from anticancer immune responses, this potentially shifts this antitumor approach to patients with far less advanced disease. ..
  78. Nan J, Liang L, Li L, Xiaoqin S, Xing J, Yang C. [Soluble programmed death-1 and soluble programmed death ligand 1 protein expression and immune status in patients with recurrent aphthous ulcer]. Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2017;35:286-290 pubmed publisher
    ..05??????rau?????????????p>0.05??rau??spd-1????cd19+?c4????????r?=?0.389?p?=0.034?r?=0.382?p?=0.037???? rau????????????????????????????rau??spd-1?spd-l1???????????????pd-1/pd-l1??????rau???????????rau???????????????. ..
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    ..Preclinical and clinical results show that RT in combination with checkpoint blockade may be a promising therapeutic option in breast cancer. ..
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    ..They also support the use of 3D spheroids as a predictive alternative to in vivo models for evaluating T-cell functions. Cancer Res; 77(19); 5384-94. ©2017 AACR. ..
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    ..PD-1 identifies "exhausted" CD8 T cells with impaired HIV-specific effector functions, but its role on CD4 T cells and in HIV-infected children is poorly understood...
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    ..We believe that these fundamental principles set the standard for future immunotherapies and will guide our efforts to develop more efficacious and less toxic immune therapeutics to treat human cancers. ..
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    ..By making smart, evidence-based decisions in developing next generation immunotherapies, cancer should become an imminently treatable, curable and even preventable disease. ..
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    ..The PD-1/CD8 ratio may, therefore, be a useful prognostic marker for stage II/III CRC. What is important for predicting the prognosis may be the PD-1/CD8 ratio rather than the absolute number of PD-1+ TILs. ..