ly antigens


Summary: A group of lymphocyte surface antigens located on mouse LYMPHOCYTES. Specific Ly antigens are useful markers for distinguishing subpopulations of lymphocytes.

Top Publications

  1. Varol C, Yona S, Jung S. Origins and tissue-context-dependent fates of blood monocytes. Immunol Cell Biol. 2009;87:30-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In particular, we will focus on emerging evidence for monocyte recirculation to the BM and discuss its potential implications in health and disease. ..
  2. Sun J, Lanier L. Tolerance of NK cells encountering their viral ligand during development. J Exp Med. 2008;205:1819-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, if immature NK cells encounter ligands for their activating receptors, regulatory mechanisms exist to keep these cells in an unresponsive state. ..
  3. Regunathan J, Chen Y, Kutlesa S, Dai X, Bai L, Wen R, et al. Differential and nonredundant roles of phospholipase Cgamma2 and phospholipase Cgamma1 in the terminal maturation of NK cells. J Immunol. 2006;177:5365-76 pubmed
    ..Our results strongly demonstrate that PLCgamma1 and PLCgamma2 play nonredundant and obligatory roles in NK cell ontogeny and in its effector functions. ..
  4. Toyama Sorimachi N, Omatsu Y, Onoda A, Tsujimura Y, Iyoda T, Kikuchi Maki A, et al. Inhibitory NK receptor Ly49Q is expressed on subsets of dendritic cells in a cellular maturation- and cytokine stimulation-dependent manner. J Immunol. 2005;174:4621-9 pubmed
    ..Therefore, depending on IFN-alpha, our results imply that Ly49Q serves a role for the biological functions of certain DC subsets through recognition of MHC class I or related molecules. ..
  5. Sunderkotter C, Nikolic T, Dillon M, Van Rooijen N, Stehling M, Drevets D, et al. Subpopulations of mouse blood monocytes differ in maturation stage and inflammatory response. J Immunol. 2004;172:4410-7 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data identify distinct subpopulations of mouse blood monocytes that differ in maturation stage and capacity to become recruited to inflammatory sites. ..
  6. Takahashi T, Yawata M, Raudsepp T, Lear T, Chowdhary B, Antczak D, et al. Natural killer cell receptors in the horse: evidence for the existence of multiple transcribed LY49 genes. Eur J Immunol. 2004;34:773-784 pubmed publisher
    ..We also show that horse spleen expresses ILT-like genes with unique domain organizations. Radiation hybrid mapping and fluorescence in situ hybridization localized horse LY49 and KIR/ILT genes to chromosomes 6q13 and 10p12, respectively...
  7. Kishimoto H, Ohteki T, Yajima N, Kawahara K, Natsui M, Kawarasaki S, et al. The Pten/PI3K pathway governs the homeostasis of Valpha14iNKT cells. Blood. 2007;109:3316-24 pubmed
    ..Thus, the Pten/PI3K pathway is indispensable for the homeostasis and antitumor surveillance function of Valpha14iNKT cells. ..
  8. Coudert J, Scarpellino L, Gros F, Vivier E, Held W. Sustained NKG2D engagement induces cross-tolerance of multiple distinct NK cell activation pathways. Blood. 2008;111:3571-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The reversible suppression of the NK cells' cytolytic function probably reduces the NK cells' efficacy to control endogenous and exogenous stress yet may be needed to limit tissue damage. ..
  9. Swirski F, Libby P, Aikawa E, Alcaide P, Luscinskas F, Weissleder R, et al. Ly-6Chi monocytes dominate hypercholesterolemia-associated monocytosis and give rise to macrophages in atheromata. J Clin Invest. 2007;117:195-205 pubmed
    ..Conversely, the number of Ly-6C(lo) cells remained unaffected. Thus, we believe that Ly-6C(hi) monocytes represent a newly recognized component of the inflammatory response in experimental atherosclerosis. ..

More Information


  1. Mildner A, Schmidt H, Nitsche M, Merkler D, Hanisch U, Mack M, et al. Microglia in the adult brain arise from Ly-6ChiCCR2+ monocytes only under defined host conditions. Nat Neurosci. 2007;10:1544-53 pubmed
    ..Our results identify Ly-6C(hi)CCR2(+) monocytes as direct precursors of microglia in the adult brain and establish the importance of local factors in the adult CNS for microglia engraftment. ..
  2. Holmes C, Stanford W. Concise review: stem cell antigen-1: expression, function, and enigma. Stem Cells. 2007;25:1339-47 pubmed
    ..Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is found at the end of this article. ..
  3. Satoh Takayama N, Vosshenrich C, Lesjean Pottier S, Sawa S, Lochner M, Rattis F, et al. Microbial flora drives interleukin 22 production in intestinal NKp46+ cells that provide innate mucosal immune defense. Immunity. 2008;29:958-70 pubmed publisher
    ..RORgammat-driven diversification of intestinal NKp46+ cells thereby specifies an innate cellular defense mechanism that operates at mucosal surfaces...
  4. Tassi I, Presti R, Kim S, Yokoyama W, Gilfillan S, Colonna M. Phospholipase C-gamma 2 is a critical signaling mediator for murine NK cell activating receptors. J Immunol. 2005;175:749-54 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that PLCgamma2 is crucial for development of the NK cell receptor repertoire and signaling of activating NK cell receptors, mediating optimal NK cell function in vivo. ..
  5. Serbina N, Pamer E. Monocyte emigration from bone marrow during bacterial infection requires signals mediated by chemokine receptor CCR2. Nat Immunol. 2006;7:311-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, CCR2-mediated signals in bone marrow determine the frequency of Ly6C(hi) monocytes in the circulation. ..
  6. Sanos S, Bui V, Mortha A, Oberle K, Heners C, Johner C, et al. RORgammat and commensal microflora are required for the differentiation of mucosal interleukin 22-producing NKp46+ cells. Nat Immunol. 2009;10:83-91 pubmed publisher
    ..IL-22 released by these cells promoted the production of antimicrobial molecules important in the maintenance of mucosal homeostasis. ..
  7. Vosshenrich C, Ranson T, Samson S, Corcuff E, Colucci F, Rosmaraki E, et al. Roles for common cytokine receptor gamma-chain-dependent cytokines in the generation, differentiation, and maturation of NK cell precursors and peripheral NK cells in vivo. J Immunol. 2005;174:1213-21 pubmed
    ..Surprisingly, the few residual NK cells generated in absence of IL-15 appear relatively mature, expressing a variety of Ly49 receptors and demonstrating lytic and cytokine production capacity. ..
  8. Taieb J, Chaput N, Menard C, Apetoh L, Ullrich E, Bonmort M, et al. A novel dendritic cell subset involved in tumor immunosurveillance. Nat Med. 2006;12:214-9 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, we identified IKDCs as pivotal sensors and effectors of the innate antitumor immune response. ..
  9. Bubic I, Wagner M, Krmpotic A, Saulig T, Kim S, Yokoyama W, et al. Gain of virulence caused by loss of a gene in murine cytomegalovirus. J Virol. 2004;78:7536-44 pubmed
    ..The Deltam157 inhibitory phenotype was weak because MCMV encodes a number of proteins that mediate NK inhibition, whose contribution could be shown by another mutant. ..
  10. Mallya M, Campbell R, Aguado B. Characterization of the five novel Ly-6 superfamily members encoded in the MHC, and detection of cells expressing their potential ligands. Protein Sci. 2006;15:2244-56 pubmed
    ..This characterization of the five MHC class III region Ly-6 family members is of great relevance, as they represent 18% of the human Ly-6 protein family and 50% of the secreted ones. ..
  11. Regunathan J, Chen Y, Wang D, Malarkannan S. NKG2D receptor-mediated NK cell function is regulated by inhibitory Ly49 receptors. Blood. 2005;105:233-40 pubmed
    ..Thus, NKG2D-mediated cytotoxicity and cytokine secretion results from the fine balance between activating and inhibitory receptors, thereby defining the NK cell-mediated immune responses. ..
  12. Tripathy S, Keyel P, Yang L, Pingel J, Cheng T, Schneeberger A, et al. Continuous engagement of a self-specific activation receptor induces NK cell tolerance. J Exp Med. 2008;205:1829-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, engagement of self-specific activation receptors in vivo induces an NK cell tolerance effect that is not affected by self-MHC-specific inhibitory receptors...
  13. Wilhelm B, Mager D. Rapid expansion of the Ly49 gene cluster in rat. Genomics. 2004;84:218-21 pubmed
    ..Thus, the rodent Ly49 locus is subject to extremely rapid gene amplification and diversification. ..
  14. Vremec D, O Keeffe M, Hochrein H, Fuchsberger M, Caminschi I, Lahoud M, et al. Production of interferons by dendritic cells, plasmacytoid cells, natural killer cells, and interferon-producing killer dendritic cells. Blood. 2007;109:1165-73 pubmed
    ..However, IKDCs, which efficiently produced IFN-gamma and showed immediate cytotoxicity on NK target cells, did not produce IFN-alpha under these conditions. ..
  15. Dorner B, Smith H, French A, Kim S, Poursine Laurent J, Beckman D, et al. Coordinate expression of cytokines and chemokines by NK cells during murine cytomegalovirus infection. J Immunol. 2004;172:3119-31 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that both virus-specific and nonspecific NK cells play crucial roles in activating and directing other inflammatory cells during MCMV infection. ..
  16. Walzer T, Blery M, Chaix J, Fuseri N, Chasson L, Robbins S, et al. Identification, activation, and selective in vivo ablation of mouse NK cells via NKp46. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:3384-9 pubmed
    ..DT injection in these mice leads to a complete and selective NK cell ablation. This model paves a way for the in vivo characterization and preclinical assessment of NK cell biological function. ..
  17. Adams E, Juo Z, Venook R, Boulanger M, Arase H, Lanier L, et al. Structural elucidation of the m157 mouse cytomegalovirus ligand for Ly49 natural killer cell receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:10128-33 pubmed
    ..Collectively, our results show that m157 represents a structurally divergent form of MHC class I-like proteins that directly engage Ly49 receptors with appreciable affinity in a noncanonical fashion. ..
  18. Malarkannan S, Regunathan J, Chu H, Kutlesa S, Chen Y, Zeng H, et al. Bcl10 plays a divergent role in NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity and cytokine generation. J Immunol. 2007;179:3752-62 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that Bcl10 represents an exclusive "molecular switch" that links the upstream receptor-mediated signaling to cytokine and chemokine generations. ..
  19. Gadue P, Stein P. NK T cell precursors exhibit differential cytokine regulation and require Itk for efficient maturation. J Immunol. 2002;169:2397-406 pubmed
    ..1 up-regulation and hence final maturation of NK T cells. The itk(-/-) mice also display a progressive decrease in NK T cells in older animals, suggesting a further role in peripheral maintenance. ..
  20. Asakura A, Seale P, Girgis Gabardo A, Rudnicki M. Myogenic specification of side population cells in skeletal muscle. J Cell Biol. 2002;159:123-34 pubmed
  21. Ranson T, Vosshenrich C, Corcuff E, Richard O, Muller W, Di Santo J. IL-15 is an essential mediator of peripheral NK-cell homeostasis. Blood. 2003;101:4887-93 pubmed
    ..Finally, although NK cells bear functional inhibitory Ly49 receptors for MHC class I molecules, the presence or absence of specific ligands on host cells did not influence the survival or homeostatic expansion of donor NK cells. ..
  22. Lee S, Zafer A, De Repentigny Y, Kothary R, Tremblay M, Gros P, et al. Transgenic expression of the activating natural killer receptor Ly49H confers resistance to cytomegalovirus in genetically susceptible mice. J Exp Med. 2003;197:515-26 pubmed
    ..This panel of transgenic animals provides a unique resource to study possible pleiotropic effect of Cmv1. ..
  23. Zhao Y, Ohdan H, Manilay J, Sykes M. NK cell tolerance in mixed allogeneic chimeras. J Immunol. 2003;170:5398-405 pubmed
    ..Thus, the present studies demonstrate that NK cells in mixed chimeras are stably tolerant to both donor and host Ags, by mechanisms that are as yet unexplained. ..
  24. Brady J, Hayakawa Y, Smyth M, Nutt S. IL-21 induces the functional maturation of murine NK cells. J Immunol. 2004;172:2048-58 pubmed
    ..These developmental changes suggested that IL-21 functions to induce the terminal differentiation of mouse NK cells, resulting in heightened NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity and immune surveillance. ..
  25. Andrews D, Scalzo A, Yokoyama W, Smyth M, Degli Esposti M. Functional interactions between dendritic cells and NK cells during viral infection. Nat Immunol. 2003;4:175-81 pubmed
    ..This study provides evidence for a functional interrelationship between DCs and NK cells during viral infection and defines some of the critical cytokines. ..
  26. McQueen K, Parham P. Variable receptors controlling activation and inhibition of NK cells. Curr Opin Immunol. 2002;14:615-21 pubmed
    ..All known ligands for these diverse receptors are MHC class I molecules, or molecules of host or pathogen origin that are homologous to MHC class I. ..
  27. Doucey M, Scarpellino L, Zimmer J, Guillaume P, Luescher I, Bron C, et al. Cis association of Ly49A with MHC class I restricts natural killer cell inhibition. Nat Immunol. 2004;5:328-36 pubmed
    ..By lowering the threshold at which NK cell activation exceeds NK cell inhibition, cis interaction allows optimal discrimination of normal and abnormal host cells. ..
  28. Abi Rached L, Parham P. Natural selection drives recurrent formation of activating killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor and Ly49 from inhibitory homologues. J Exp Med. 2005;201:1319-32 pubmed
  29. Glodek A, Le Y, Dykxhoorn D, Park S, Mostoslavsky G, Mulligan R, et al. Focal adhesion kinase is required for CXCL12-induced chemotactic and pro-adhesive responses in hematopoietic precursor cells. Leukemia. 2007;21:1723-32 pubmed
    ..These studies suggest that FAK may function as a key intermediary in signaling pathways controlling hematopoietic cell lodgment and lineage development. ..
  30. Dimasi N, Biassoni R. Structural and functional aspects of the Ly49 natural killer cell receptors. Immunol Cell Biol. 2005;83:1-8 pubmed
  31. Whitmire J, Eam B, Whitton J. Mice deficient in stem cell antigen-1 (Sca1, Ly-6A/E) develop normal primary and memory CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses to virus infection. Eur J Immunol. 2009;39:1494-504 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that Sca1, although perhaps a useful marker of virus-specific memory T cells, is not required for the regulation of T-cell quantity or quality, or for the development of a competent pool of memory cells. ..
  32. Li G, Peng H, Corsi K, Usas A, Olshanski A, Huard J. Differential effect of BMP4 on NIH/3T3 and C2C12 cells: implications for endochondral bone formation. J Bone Miner Res. 2005;20:1611-23 pubmed
    ..These findings could have important implications for the development of tissue engineering applications focused on bone and cartilage repair. ..
  33. Flanagan K, Modrusan Z, Cornelius J, Chavali A, Kasman I, Komuves L, et al. Intestinal epithelial cell up-regulation of LY6 molecules during colitis results in enhanced chemokine secretion. J Immunol. 2008;180:3874-81 pubmed
    ..As such, LY6 molecules represent novel targets to down-regulate chemokine expression in the colon and limit subsequent inflammation associated with IBD. ..
  34. Spindler K, Welton A, Lim E, Duvvuru S, Althaus I, Imperiale J, et al. The major locus for mouse adenovirus susceptibility maps to genes of the hematopoietic cell surface-expressed LY6 family. J Immunol. 2010;184:3055-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicate that a major host factor in mouse adenovirus type 1 susceptibility is likely to be a member of the Ly6 gene family. ..
  35. Langwieser N, Schwarz J, Reichenbächer C, Stemmer B, Massberg S, Langwieser N, et al. Role of bone marrow-derived cells in the genetic control of restenosis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2009;29:1551-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The genetically controlled mechanisms leading to lumen narrowing in vascular remodeling are dependent on mobilization and recruitment capacities of particular BMCs. ..
  36. Moriwaki Y, Watanabe Y, Shinagawa T, Kai M, Miyazawa M, Okuda T, et al. Primary sensory neuronal expression of SLURP-1, an endogenous nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ligand. Neurosci Res. 2009;64:403-12 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that SLURP-1 is expressed in a subset of primary peptidergic sensory neurons. ..
  37. Rosas M, Thomas B, Stacey M, Gordon S, Taylor P. The myeloid 7/4-antigen defines recently generated inflammatory macrophages and is synonymous with Ly-6B. J Leukoc Biol. 2010;88:169-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The definition of the 7/4:Ly-6B antigen will allow further characterization and specific modulation of Ly-6B-expressing cells in vivo. ..
  38. Daley J, Thomay A, Connolly M, Reichner J, Albina J. Use of Ly6G-specific monoclonal antibody to deplete neutrophils in mice. J Leukoc Biol. 2008;83:64-70 pubmed
    ..The loss of non-neutrophil Gr-1+ populations in RB6-8C5-treated animals is associated with increased TNF-alpha responses, suggesting these cells may function to suppress TNF-alpha production. ..
  39. Salem M, Kadima A, El Naggar S, Rubinstein M, Chen Y, Gillanders W, et al. Defining the ability of cyclophosphamide preconditioning to enhance the antigen-specific CD8+ T-cell response to peptide vaccination: creation of a beneficial host microenvironment involving type I IFNs and myeloid cells. J Immunother. 2007;30:40-53 pubmed
    ..Specific targeting of these components may enhance the effectiveness of CTX preconditioning for adoptive immunotherapy. ..
  40. Wahle J, Paraiso K, Costello A, Goll E, Sentman C, Kerr W. Cutting edge: dominance by an MHC-independent inhibitory receptor compromises NK killing of complex targets. J Immunol. 2006;176:7165-9 pubmed
  41. Mason L, Willette Brown J, Taylor L, McVicar D. Regulation of Ly49D/DAP12 signal transduction by Src-family kinases and CD45. J Immunol. 2006;176:6615-23 pubmed
  42. Gao Z, Tibbles L, Yilmaz S, Gao Y, MacDonald A. Prolonged skin allograft survival in Scid mice reconstituted with isogeneic bone marrow stem cell antigen-1-positive cells and thymus tissue. Transplant Proc. 2005;37:2300-2 pubmed
    ..The results suggest direct persistent contact of bone marrow Sca-1-positive cells with graft alloantigen may be a feasible approach to prolong allograft survival and induce tolerance in a small fraction of adult animals. ..
  43. Nylenna O, Naper C, Vaage J, Woon P, Gauguier D, Dissen E, et al. The genes and gene organization of the Ly49 region of the rat natural killer cell gene complex. Eur J Immunol. 2005;35:261-72 pubmed
    ..When comparing the lectin-like domains, the receptors form smaller subgroups, most containing at least one inhibitory and one activating or 'bifunctional' receptor, where close sequence similarities suggest recent homogenization events. ..
  44. Wu W, Mosteller R, Broek D. Sphingosine kinase protects lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages from apoptosis. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:7359-69 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate the critical role of SPK1 in LPS signaling in macrophages and suggest that SPK1 is a potential therapeutic target to block hyperimmune responses induced by gram-negative bacteria. ..
  45. Guo X, Ni D. [Expression and clinical significance of lymphoid differentiation antigens in acute myeloid leukemia]. Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi. 2004;12:329-31 pubmed
    ..The overexpression of CD34(+) may be responsible for the relatively low level of long term survival rate in Ly(+)AML patients. ..
  46. Drevets D, Dillon M, Schawang J, Van Rooijen N, Ehrchen J, Sunderkotter C, et al. The Ly-6Chigh monocyte subpopulation transports Listeria monocytogenes into the brain during systemic infection of mice. J Immunol. 2004;172:4418-24 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that the Ly-6C(high) monocyte subset transports L. monocytogenes into the brain and establish their role as Trojan horses in vivo. ..
  47. Moriwaki Y, Yoshikawa K, Fukuda H, Fujii Y, Misawa H, Kawashima K. Immune system expression of SLURP-1 and SLURP-2, two endogenous nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ligands. Life Sci. 2007;80:2365-8 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that both SLURP-1 and SLURP-2 are expressed in various immune cells and organs, and that not only ACh but also SLURPs may be involved in regulating lymphocyte function via nAChR-mediated pathways. ..
  48. Jensen U, Yan X, Triel C, Woo S, Christensen R, Owens D. A distinct population of clonogenic and multipotent murine follicular keratinocytes residing in the upper isthmus. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:609-17 pubmed publisher
    ..These cells are non-quiescent and possess a unique transcript profile compared with bulge stem cells and may represent a distinct reservoir of epidermal stem or progenitor cells...
  49. Burgos J, Serrano Saiz E, Sastre I, Valdivieso F. ICP47 mediates viral neuroinvasiveness by induction of TAP protein following intravenous inoculation of herpes simplex virus type 1 in mice. J Neurovirol. 2006;12:420-7 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that ICP47 plays a role in infection, and that TAP1 production is regulated during viral challenge. ..
  50. Kveberg L, Dai K, Dissen E, Ryan J, Rolstad B, Vaage J, et al. Strain-dependent expression of four structurally related rat Ly49 receptors; correlation with NK gene complex haplotype and NK alloreactivity. Immunogenetics. 2006;58:905-16 pubmed
    ..These data support the notion that Ly49s3 functions as a triggering MHC receptor both in vitro and in vivo. MHC ligands for the other three Ly49 receptors remain to be determined. ..
  51. Yamada Y, Nishimoto E, Mitsuya H, Yonemura Y. In vitro transdifferentiation of adult bone marrow Sca-1+ cKit- cells cocultured with fetal liver cells into hepatic-like cells without fusion. Exp Hematol. 2006;34:97-106 pubmed
  52. Shinde Patil V, Friedrich E, Wolley A, Gerszten R, Allport J, Weissleder R. Bone marrow-derived lin(-)c-kit(+)Sca-1+ stem cells do not contribute to vasculogenesis in Lewis lung carcinoma. Neoplasia. 2005;7:234-40 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, our results support the hypothesis that new vessel formation in carcinomas occurs primarily through endothelialization from adjacent and preexisting vasculature...
  53. Hall S, Chen S, Gysin R, Gridley D, Mohan S, Lau K. Stem cell antigen-1+ cell-based bone morphogenetic protein-4 gene transfer strategy in mice failed to promote endosteal bone formation. J Gene Med. 2009;11:877-88 pubmed publisher
    ..It emphasizes the importance of choosing an appropriate bone growth factor gene for delivery by this Sca-1+ cell-based ex vivo systemic gene transfer strategy to promote bone formation. ..