cd20 antigens


Summary: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.

Top Publications

  1. Rehnberg M, Amu S, Tarkowski A, Bokarewa M, Brisslert M. Short- and long-term effects of anti-CD20 treatment on B cell ontogeny in bone marrow of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Res Ther. 2009;11:R123 pubmed publisher
    ..This reduction of CD27+ B cells does not prevent autoantibody production suggesting that mechanisms regulating the formation of auto reactive clones are not disrupted by rituximab. ..
  2. Mouquet H, Musette P, Gougeon M, Jacquot S, Lemercier B, Lim A, et al. B-cell depletion immunotherapy in pemphigus: effects on cellular and humoral immune responses. J Invest Dermatol. 2008;128:2859-69 pubmed publisher
  3. Roll P, Dorner T, Tony H. Anti-CD20 therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: predictors of response and B cell subset regeneration after repeated treatment. Arthritis Rheum. 2008;58:1566-75 pubmed publisher
    ..The effects on B cell homeostasis after repeated treatments and the relationship of certain B cell subsets to clinical response or relapse are currently not known...
  4. Al Shibli K, Donnem T, Al Saad S, Persson M, Bremnes R, Busund L. Prognostic effect of epithelial and stromal lymphocyte infiltration in non-small cell lung cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2008;14:5220-7 pubmed publisher
    ..High densities of CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes in the stroma are independent positive prognostic indicators for resected NSCLC patients. This may suggest that these cells are mediating a strong antitumor immune response in NSCLC. ..
  5. Polyak M, Li H, Shariat N, Deans J. CD20 homo-oligomers physically associate with the B cell antigen receptor. Dissociation upon receptor engagement and recruitment of phosphoproteins and calmodulin-binding proteins. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:18545-52 pubmed publisher
  6. Taylor R, Lindorfer M. Immunotherapeutic mechanisms of anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies. Curr Opin Immunol. 2008;20:444-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The application of these mAbs, potentially in combination with immune effector modifying drugs, may successfully address the shortcomings of current anti-CD20 immunotherapy. ..
  7. van Meerten T, Hagenbeek A. CD20-targeted therapy: a breakthrough in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Neth J Med. 2009;67:251-9 pubmed
    ..This review describes the development of CD20-targeted therapy from its historical background towards the next generation of anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies and explains new strategies to overcome resistance...
  8. Yu K, Hu Y, Tan Y, Shen Z, Jiang S, Qian H, et al. Immunotherapy of lymphomas with T cells modified by anti-CD20 scFv/CD28/CD3zeta recombinant gene. Leuk Lymphoma. 2008;49:1368-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that CD3 and CD28 signalling can be delivered in one molecule, which is sufficient for complete T cell activation without exogenous B7/CD28 costimulation. ..
  9. Arnold D, Dentali F, Crowther M, Meyer R, Cook R, Sigouin C, et al. Systematic review: efficacy and safety of rituximab for adults with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. Ann Intern Med. 2007;146:25-33 pubmed
    ..9% of cases. These data suggest that providers should avoid indiscriminate use of rituximab and that randomized, controlled trials of rituximab for ITP are urgently needed. ..

More Information


  1. Kavanaugh A, Rosengren S, Lee S, Hammaker D, Firestein G, Kalunian K, et al. Assessment of rituximab's immunomodulatory synovial effects (ARISE trial). 1: clinical and synovial biomarker results. Ann Rheum Dis. 2008;67:402-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, effects on synovial B cells may be necessary but not sufficient for inducing clinical efficacy. Other effects, such as on primary lymph organ B cell antigen presentation or cytokine production, may be operative. ..
  2. Hasegawa M, Hamaguchi Y, Yanaba K, Bouaziz J, Uchida J, Fujimoto M, et al. B-lymphocyte depletion reduces skin fibrosis and autoimmunity in the tight-skin mouse model for systemic sclerosis. Am J Pathol. 2006;169:954-66 pubmed
    ..Thereby, B-cell depletion during disease onset suppressed skin fibrosis, indicating that B cells contribute to the initiation of systemic sclerosis pathogenesis in tight-skin mice but are not required for disease maintenance. ..
  3. Roll P, Palanichamy A, Kneitz C, Dorner T, Tony H. Regeneration of B cell subsets after transient B cell depletion using anti-CD20 antibodies in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2006;54:2377-86 pubmed
    ..Our findings provide evidence for a characteristic regeneration pattern of B cell subpopulations, with long-lasting modulation of B cell subset composition, after selective anti-CD20-mediated B cell depletion. ..
  4. Teng Y, Levarht E, Hashemi M, Bajema I, Toes R, Huizinga T, et al. Immunohistochemical analysis as a means to predict responsiveness to rituximab treatment. Arthritis Rheum. 2007;56:3909-18 pubmed
    ..These data provide novel insights into the mechanisms of CD20-mediated B cell depletion in the lymphoid and solid tissues of RA patients and suggest a pivotal role for ACPA IgM-producing plasmablasts in RA. ..
  5. Bouaziz J, Yanaba K, Venturi G, Wang Y, Tisch R, Poe J, et al. Therapeutic B cell depletion impairs adaptive and autoreactive CD4+ T cell activation in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:20878-83 pubmed
    ..These results provide direct evidence that B cells contribute to T cell activation and expansion in vivo and offer insights into the mechanism of action for B cell depletion therapy in the treatment of autoimmunity. ..
  6. Binder M, Otto F, Mertelsmann R, Veelken H, Trepel M. The epitope recognized by rituximab. Blood. 2006;108:1975-8 pubmed
    ..We conclude that rituximab binds a discontinuous epitope in CD20, comprised of (170)ANPS(173) and (182)YCYSI(185), with both strings brought in steric proximity by a disulfide bridge between C(167) and C(183). ..
  7. Genberg H, Hansson A, Wernerson A, Wennberg L, Tyden G. Pharmacodynamics of rituximab in kidney transplantation. Transplantation. 2007;84:S33-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, single-dose rituximab in kidney transplant recipients evokes a long-term elimination of B-cells in peripheral blood as well as within the kidney transplant. ..
  8. Tanabe K. Japanese experience of ABO-incompatible living kidney transplantation. Transplantation. 2007;84:S4-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, rituximab as an alternative to splenectomy is definitely an effective regimen for successful ABO-ILKT. ..
  9. Pescovitz M. Rituximab, an anti-cd20 monoclonal antibody: history and mechanism of action. Am J Transplant. 2006;6:859-66 pubmed
    ..A need for controlled clinical trials is clearly indicated before the widespread use of this drug in transplant. ..
  10. Iida S, Misaka H, Inoue M, Shibata M, Nakano R, Yamane Ohnuki N, et al. Nonfucosylated therapeutic IgG1 antibody can evade the inhibitory effect of serum immunoglobulin G on antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity through its high binding to FcgammaRIIIa. Clin Cancer Res. 2006;12:2879-87 pubmed
    ..Hence, nonfucosylated IgG1 exhibits strong therapeutic potential through dramatically enhanced ADCC at low doses in humans in vivo. ..
  11. DiLillo D, Hamaguchi Y, Ueda Y, Yang K, Uchida J, Haas K, et al. Maintenance of long-lived plasma cells and serological memory despite mature and memory B cell depletion during CD20 immunotherapy in mice. J Immunol. 2008;180:361-71 pubmed
    ..Thereby, depleting mature and memory B cells does not have a dramatic negative effect on preexisting Ab levels. ..
  12. Matignon M, Tagnaouti M, Audard V, Dahan K, Lang P, Grimbert P. Failure of anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody therapy to prevent antibody-mediated rejection in three crossmatch-positive renal transplant recipients. Transplant Proc. 2007;39:2565-7 pubmed
    ..In these three cases of crossmatch-positive patients, rituximab failed to prevent antibody-mediated rejection. Others studies will be needed to determine the place of rituximab in these patients. ..
  13. Bokarewa M, Lindholm C, Zendjanchi K, Nadali M, Tarkowski A. Efficacy of anti-CD20 treatment in patients with rheumatoid arthritis resistant to a combination of methotrexate/anti-TNF therapy. Scand J Immunol. 2007;66:476-83 pubmed
    ..The treatment is well tolerated and may be used repeatedly in the same patient and potentially increase sensitivity to previously inefficient treatment modalities. ..
  14. Becker Y, Samaniego Picota M, Sollinger H. The emerging role of rituximab in organ transplantation. Transpl Int. 2006;19:621-8 pubmed
    ..Rituximab demonstrates promise in this regard and warrants additional consideration in prospective clinical trials. ..
  15. Teeling J, Mackus W, Wiegman L, van den Brakel J, Beers S, French R, et al. The biological activity of human CD20 monoclonal antibodies is linked to unique epitopes on CD20. J Immunol. 2006;177:362-71 pubmed
    ..We conclude that recognition of the novel epitope cooperates with slow off-rate in determining the activity of CD20 Ab in activation of complement and induction of tumor cell lysis. ..
  16. Leandro M, Cooper N, Cambridge G, Ehrenstein M, Edwards J. Bone marrow B-lineage cells in patients with rheumatoid arthritis following rituximab therapy. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2007;46:29-36 pubmed
    ..These differences suggest variation in the degree of depletion achieved and correlate with time to relapse. Although pro-B-cells are not targeted directly by rituximab as they do not express CD20, the levels were unexpectedly low. ..
  17. Bosello S, De Santis M, Lama G, Spanò C, Angelucci C, Tolusso B, et al. B cell depletion in diffuse progressive systemic sclerosis: safety, skin score modification and IL-6 modulation in an up to thirty-six months follow-up open-label trial. Arthritis Res Ther. 2010;12:R54 pubmed publisher
    ..The clear fall in IL-6 levels could contribute to the skin fibrosis improvement, while the presence of B cells in the skin seems to be irrelevant with respect to the outcome after B cell depletion. ISRCTN77554566. ..
  18. Beltran B, Castillo J, Salas R, Quinones P, Morales D, Hurtado F, et al. ALK-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: report of four cases and review of the literature. J Hematol Oncol. 2009;2:11 pubmed publisher
    ..ALK-DLBCL does not seem associated to immunosuppression or the presence of EBV or HHV8. Further prospective studies are needed to optimize therapies for this entity. ..
  19. Sato Y, Takata K, Ichimura K, Tanaka T, Morito T, Tamura M, et al. IgG4-producing marginal zone B-cell lymphoma. Int J Hematol. 2008;88:428-433 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study indicates that, not only can malignant lymphomas occur in the setting of IgG4-related disease, but IgG4-producing cells can also be neoplastic. ..
  20. Laudenschlager M, Tyler K, Geis M, Koch M, Graham D. A rare case of synchronous invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast and follicular lymphoma. S D Med. 2010;63:123-5 pubmed
    ..The characteristic immunohistochemical profile of the lymphoma is described. ..
  21. Liu F, Chen Z, Jiang W, Yang C, Xiong D, Zhu Z. Improvement in soluble expression levels of a diabody by exchanging expression vectors. Protein Expr Purif. 2008;62:15-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that changing expression vectors may be an alternative strategy to accomplish high-level expression of active BsAb proteins from E. coli. ..
  22. Yamamoto F, Narimatsu H, Ito M, Yamashita S, Kurahashi S, Sugimoto T, et al. Prediction of clinical outcome in patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura by evaluating bone marrow clot CD20+ B lymphocytes and morphological changes of megakaryocytes. J Clin Exp Hematop. 2008;48:11-5 pubmed
    ..04 ; odds ratio, 14.26 ; 95% confidence interval, 1.08 to 188.02). Thus, ITP patients can be classified with different clinical outcomes based on immunohistopathological examination of bone marrow clots. ..
  23. Zhou Q, Leng D, Zhang Z, Zhou H, Shi Q, Zhou X. [Burkitt's lymphoma of the spermatic cord: a case report and review of the literature]. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue. 2008;14:624-7 pubmed
    ..Diagnosis of the tumor relies on its pathological characteristics and immunohistochemical staining. It is essential to differentiate BL from other types of lymphomas and malignant small-cell tumors of the non-lymphatic system. ..
  24. Lee S, Hsu P, Juan K, Chang H, Huang W, Lai P. Successful treatment of autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura with rituximab in a dialysis patient with systemic lupus erythematosus. Int Immunopharmacol. 2010;10:632-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, no severe side effects were noted during the treatment period, suggesting that rituximab can be administered safely in dialysis patients. ..
  25. Kuhrt D, Faith S, Leone A, Rohankedkar M, Sodora D, Picker L, et al. Evidence of early B-cell dysregulation in simian immunodeficiency virus infection: rapid depletion of naïve and memory B-cell subsets with delayed reconstitution of the naïve B-cell population. J Virol. 2010;84:2466-76 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that dynamic B-cell population changes in SIV-infected macaques arise very early after infection at the precise time when an effective adaptive immune response is needed. ..
  26. Milne K, Köbel M, Kalloger S, Barnes R, Gao D, Gilks C, et al. Systematic analysis of immune infiltrates in high-grade serous ovarian cancer reveals CD20, FoxP3 and TIA-1 as positive prognostic factors. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6412 pubmed publisher
    ..Host immune responses to EOC vary widely according to histological subtype and the extent of residual disease. TIA-1, FoxP3 and CD20 emerge as new positive prognostic factors in high-grade serous EOC from optimally debulked patients. ..
  27. Kotłowska Kmieć A, Bakowska A, Szarszewski A, Kaminska B, Łuczak G, Radys W, et al. Helicobacter pylori increases expression of proapoptotic markers Fas and FasL on CD4 lymphocytes in children. Acta Biochim Pol. 2009;56:433-8 pubmed
    ..pylori were shown. It was demonstrated that there is a correlation between CD4 and Fas receptor expression that may induce apoptosis of the helper lymphocytes in infected children. ..
  28. Weitzman J, Betancur M, Boissel L, Rabinowitz A, Klein A, Klingemann H. Variable contribution of monoclonal antibodies to ADCC in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Leuk Lymphoma. 2009;50:1361-8 pubmed publisher
    ..ADCC was not influenced by the FcR genotype expressed by autologous NK cells. Allogeneic NK cells were superior to autologous NK cells in killing primary CLL cells. ..
  29. Caporali R, Caprioli M, Bobbio Pallavicini F, Bugatti S, Montecucco C. Long term treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with rituximab. Autoimmun Rev. 2009;8:591-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of rituximab in clinical practice has highlighted its efficacy and safety over more than 5 years of treatment, as well as to try to understand the timing for retreatment of patients relapsing after a good initial response. ..
  30. Forrer F, Chen J, Fani M, Powell P, Lohri A, Muller Brand J, et al. In vitro characterization of (177)Lu-radiolabelled chimeric anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody and a preliminary dosimetry study. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2009;36:1443-52 pubmed publisher
    ..177)Lu-DOTA-rituximab is an interesting, well-tolerated radiolabelled antibody with clinical activity in a low dose range, and provides an approach to the efficient treatment with few side effects for patients with relapsed NHL. ..
  31. Delgado W, Almeida O, Vargas P, Leon J. Oral ulcers in HIV-positive Peruvian patients: an immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization study. J Oral Pathol Med. 2009;38:120-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The clinicopathological and immunoprofile features of the present cases are similar to NOS ulcers/NUS in HIV-positive patients. ..
  32. Kotłowska Kmieć A, Korzon M, Łuczak G, Bakowska A, Kozielska E, Galinska A, et al. [Evaluation of selected immunocompetent cells expression in gastric mucosa in children with Helicobacter pylori infection before and after eradication treatment--a preliminary study]. Med Wieku Rozwoj. 2007;11:393-9 pubmed
    ..Degree of T cells CD4 and CD20 expression decreases after eradication treatment. ..
  33. Kashimura M, Noro M, Akikusa B, Okuhara A, Momose S, Miura I, et al. Primary splenic diffuse large B-cell lymphoma manifesting in red pulp. Virchows Arch. 2008;453:501-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Because these cases had some unique clinical features and occurred in distinct splenic sites, we proposed that primary splenic DLBCL manifesting in red pulp is a distinct clinicopathological entity. ..
  34. Tran L, Baars J, Maessen H, Hoefnagel C, Beijnen J, Huitema A. A simple and safe method for 131I radiolabeling of rituximab for myeloablative high-dose radioimmunotherapy. Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2009;24:103-10 pubmed publisher
    ..9 mSv. We have developed a simple labeling technique for the preparation of high-dose (131)I-rituximab. The method offers a high purity and retained immunoreactivity with minimal radiation exposure for involved personnel. ..
  35. Aimetti M, Romano F, Marsico A, Navone R. Non-surgical periodontal treatment of cyclosporin A-induced gingival overgrowth: immunohistochemical results. Oral Dis. 2008;14:244-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, plaque-induced inflammation would seem to modulate the drug-gingival tissue interaction. A strict plaque control program play a pivotal role in the management of transplant patients exhibiting cyclosporin A-GO. ..
  36. Thaunat O, Morelon E, Defrance T. Am"B"valent: anti-CD20 antibodies unravel the dual role of B cells in immunopathogenesis. Blood. 2010;116:515-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Caution should therefore be exercised when considering B-cell depletion because the therapeutic effect will depend on the relative contributions of the opposing B-cell activities at the time of the drug administration. ..
  37. Ahuja A, Anderson S, Khalil A, Shlomchik M. Maintenance of the plasma cell pool is independent of memory B cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:4802-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This observation settles an important controversy in B cell biology and has implications for the design of vaccines and for B cell depletion therapy in patients. ..
  38. Osterborg A. Ofatumumab, a human anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2010;10:439-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Results for single-agent ofatumumab and other new CD20 mAbs, in different lines of therapy and in combination with chemotherapy, will guide optimal use of these alternative therapies for B-cell malignancies. ..
  39. Boffano P, Gallesio C, Campisi P, Roccia F. Traumatic ulcerative granuloma with stromal eosinophilia of the retromolar region. J Craniofac Surg. 2009;20:2150-2 pubmed publisher
    ..A malignant lymphoid proliferation should be suspected when atypical histologic findings and monoclonality are observed. Given the benign nature of TUGSE, overtreatment should be prevented in patients affected by this disease. ..
  40. Schmidt E, Goebeler M, Zillikens D. Rituximab in severe pemphigus. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009;1173:683-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we review mechanisms of action, different treatment protocols, clinical responses, and the safety profile of rituximab. ..
  41. Philips J, Keymeulen B, Mathieu C, Scheen A. [Monoclonal antibodies in diabetes: almost approaching the dream?]. Rev Med Liege. 2009;64:327-33 pubmed
  42. Lee H, Chae S, Lee Y, Kim M, Lee H, Lee B, et al. Prognostic implications of type and density of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes in gastric cancer. Br J Cancer. 2008;99:1704-11 pubmed publisher
    ..549 (0.317-0.951), 0.574 (0.347-0.949), and 0.507 (0.298-0.862), respectively. In conclusion, density of TILs was found to be independently predictive of regional lymph node metastasis and patient survival in gastric cancer. ..
  43. Sieber S, Gdynia G, Roth W, Bonavida B, Efferth T. Combination treatment of malignant B cells using the anti-CD20 antibody rituximab and the anti-malarial artesunate. Int J Oncol. 2009;35:149-58 pubmed
    ..The effects of rituximab on antioxidant genes represent a novel mechanism of rituximab for chemosensitization. ..
  44. Pagel J, Orgun N, Hamlin D, Wilbur D, Gooley T, Gopal A, et al. A comparative analysis of conventional and pretargeted radioimmunotherapy of B-cell lymphomas by targeting CD20, CD22, and HLA-DR singly and in combinations. Blood. 2009;113:4903-13 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesize that clinical implementation of pretargeted RIT methods will provide a meaningful prolongation of survival for patients with relapsed lymphomas compared with currently available treatment strategies. ..
  45. Aue G, Lindorfer M, Beum P, Pawluczkowycz A, Vire B, Hughes T, et al. Fractionated subcutaneous rituximab is well-tolerated and preserves CD20 expression on tumor cells in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Haematologica. 2010;95:329-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Subcutaneous RTX largely preserved CD20 expression on leukemic cells but the most effective therapeutic dosing regimen needs to be established ( Identifier: NCT00366418). ..
  46. Sediva A, Kayserová J, Vernerová E, Poloucková A, Capková S, Spisek R, et al. Anti-CD20 (rituximab) treatment for atopic eczema. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008;121:1515-6; author reply 1516-7 pubmed publisher
  47. Shih T, Hsieh S, Hsieh Y, Chen T, Yeh C, Lin C, et al. Aberrant activation of nuclear factor of activated T cell 2 in lamina propria mononuclear cells in ulcerative colitis. World J Gastroenterol. 2008;14:1759-67 pubmed
  48. Okamoto H, Hoshi D, Kiire A, Yamanaka H, Kamatani N. Molecular targets of rheumatoid arthritis. Inflamm Allergy Drug Targets. 2008;7:53-66 pubmed
    ..In this review, we will summarize the use of biologics, the pros and cons of the use of biologics, and discuss on the potential molecular targets of RA. ..
  49. Sugimoto T, Tomita A, Hiraga J, Shimada K, Kiyoi H, Kinoshita T, et al. Escape mechanisms from antibody therapy to lymphoma cells: downregulation of CD20 mRNA by recruitment of the HDAC complex and not by DNA methylation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;390:48-53 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that recruitment of the Sin3A-HDAC1 complex is related to downregulation of CD20 expression in CD20-negative B-cells after treatment with rituximab...
  50. Natsume A, In M, Takamura H, Nakagawa T, Shimizu Y, Kitajima K, et al. Engineered antibodies of IgG1/IgG3 mixed isotype with enhanced cytotoxic activities. Cancer Res. 2008;68:3863-72 pubmed publisher
  51. Pawluczkowycz A, Beurskens F, Beum P, Lindorfer M, van de Winkel J, Parren P, et al. Binding of submaximal C1q promotes complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) of B cells opsonized with anti-CD20 mAbs ofatumumab (OFA) or rituximab (RTX): considerably higher levels of CDC are induced by OFA than by RTX. J Immunol. 2009;183:749-58 pubmed publisher
  52. Schroder A, Ellrichmann G, Chehab G, Schneider M, Linker R, Gold R. [Rituximab in treatment for neuroimmunological diseases]. Nervenarzt. 2009;80:155-6, 158-60, 162-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review we summarize available data from these reports and also discuss possible underlying molecular mechanisms...
  53. Liu H, Koyanagi I, Chiba H, Wanibuchi M, Honmou O, Yamaki T, et al. Spinal cord infarct as the initial clinical presentation of intravascular malignant lymphomatosis. J Clin Neurosci. 2009;16:570-3 pubmed publisher
    ..IML can be an important differential diagnosis of progressive paraparesis of unknown etiology. ..