Genomes and Genes
Summary: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
- Van de Velde H, von Hoegen I, Luo W, Parnes J, Thielemans K. The B-cell surface protein CD72/Lyb-2 is the ligand for CD5. Nature. 1991;351:662-5 pubmed..The results demonstrate that the B-cell surface protein CD72 (Lyb-2 in mice) is the ligand for CD5. ..
- Lundy S, Boros D. Fas ligand-expressing B-1a lymphocytes mediate CD4(+)-T-cell apoptosis during schistosomal infection: induction by interleukin 4 (IL-4) and IL-10. Infect Immun. 2002;70:812-9 pubmed
- Yamaguchi M, Seto M, Okamoto M, Ichinohasama R, Nakamura N, Yoshino T, et al. De novo CD5+ diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: a clinicopathologic study of 109 patients. Blood. 2002;99:815-21 pubmed..Of particular interest is that CD5+ DLBCL was characterized by a survival curve significantly inferior to that for patients with CD5- DLBCL (P =.0026). These findings suggest that CD5+ DLBCL may constitute a unique subgroup of DLBCL. ..
- Hippen K, Tze L, Behrens T. CD5 maintains tolerance in anergic B cells. J Exp Med. 2000;191:883-90 pubmed..These data support the hypothesis that CD5 negatively regulates Ig receptor signaling in anergic B cells and functions to inhibit autoimmune B cell responses. ..
- Pena Rossi C, Zuckerman L, Strong J, Kwan J, Ferris W, Chan S, et al. Negative regulation of CD4 lineage development and responses by CD5. J Immunol. 1999;163:6494-501 pubmed..Taken together, the data support a general role for CD5 as a negative regulator of Ag receptor signaling in the development and immune responses of CD4 lineage T cells. ..
- Bikah G, Carey J, Ciallella J, Tarakhovsky A, Bondada S. CD5-mediated negative regulation of antigen receptor-induced growth signals in B-1 B cells. Science. 1996;274:1906-9 pubmed..In wild-type B-1 cells, prevention of association between CD5 and mIgM rescued their growth response to mIgM crosslinking. Thus the B cell receptor-mediated signaling is negatively regulated by CD5 in normal B-1 cells. ..
- Tarakhovsky A, Muller W, Rajewsky K. Lymphocyte populations and immune responses in CD5-deficient mice. Eur J Immunol. 1994;24:1678-84 pubmed..The mutant mice are able to mount effective immune responses to T cell-dependent and -independent antigens. ..
- Kanehira K, Braylan R, Lauwers G. Early phase of intestinal mantle cell lymphoma: a report of two cases associated with advanced colonic adenocarcinoma. Mod Pathol. 2001;14:811-7 pubmed..In both cases, immunohistochemistry (CD20+, CD5+, cyclin D1+, CD10-, and CD23-), and demonstration of clonal immunoglobulin heavy chain and bcl-1 gene rearrangements by PCR analysis confirmed the diagnosis of mantle cell lymphoma. ..
- Shores E, Huang K, Tran T, Lee E, Grinberg A, Love P. Role of TCR zeta chain in T cell development and selection. Science. 1994;266:1047-50 pubmed
- Tarakhovsky A, Kanner S, Hombach J, Ledbetter J, Muller W, Killeen N, et al. A role for CD5 in TCR-mediated signal transduction and thymocyte selection. Science. 1995;269:535-7 pubmed..These observations indicate that CD5 can influence the fate of developing thymocytes by acting as a negative regulator of TCR-mediated signal transduction. ..
- Izon D, Punt J, Xu L, Karnell F, Allman D, Myung P, et al. Notch1 regulates maturation of CD4+ and CD8+ thymocytes by modulating TCR signal strength. Immunity. 2001;14:253-64 pubmed
- Wong P, Barton G, Forbush K, Rudensky A. Dynamic tuning of T cell reactivity by self-peptide-major histocompatibility complex ligands. J Exp Med. 2001;193:1179-87 pubmed..Our results suggest that the endogenous peptide repertoire modulates T cell responsiveness in the thymus in order to enforce tolerance to self-antigens. ..
- Biancone L, Bowen M, Lim A, Aruffo A, Andres G, Stamenkovic I. Identification of a novel inducible cell-surface ligand of CD5 on activated lymphocytes. J Exp Med. 1996;184:811-9 pubmed..Injection of CD5Rg was found to abrogate development of the disease. Taken together, our results help identify a novel ligand of CD5 and propose a role for CD5 in the regulation of immune responses. ..
- Gary Gouy H, Lang V, Sarun S, Boumsell L, Bismuth G. In vivo association of CD5 with tyrosine-phosphorylated ZAP-70 and p21 phospho-zeta molecules in human CD3+ thymocytes. J Immunol. 1997;159:3739-47 pubmed..We conclude that CD5 may affect in vivo the signaling capacity of TCRs expressed by human thymocytes by altering the phosphorylation state of CD3 and/or by retaining ZAP-70 with the p21 species of zeta. ..
- Yamaguchi M, Ohno T, Oka K, Taniguchi M, Ito M, Kita K, et al. De novo CD5-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: clinical characteristics and therapeutic outcome. Br J Haematol. 1999;105:1133-9 pubmed..These findings suggest that de novo CD5-positive DLBL forms a distinct subgroup of DLBL. ..
- Hayakawa K, Asano M, Shinton S, Gui M, Allman D, Stewart C, et al. Positive selection of natural autoreactive B cells. Science. 1999;285:113-6 pubmed..Thus, B cells can be subject to positive selection, generated, and maintained on the basis of their autoreactivity. ..
- Smith K, Seddon B, Purbhoo M, Zamoyska R, Fisher A, Merkenschlager M. Sensory adaptation in naive peripheral CD4 T cells. J Exp Med. 2001;194:1253-61 pubmed..Adaptation to peripheral pMHC contact may be important for regulating naive CD4 T cell responsiveness. ..
- Love P, Shores E, Johnson M, Tremblay M, Lee E, Grinberg A, et al. T cell development in mice that lack the zeta chain of the T cell antigen receptor complex. Science. 1993;261:918-21 pubmed..Thus, zeta chain expression influences thymocyte differentiation but is not absolutely required for the generation of single positive T cells. ..
- Azzam H, Grinberg A, Lui K, Shen H, Shores E, Love P. CD5 expression is developmentally regulated by T cell receptor (TCR) signals and TCR avidity. J Exp Med. 1998;188:2301-11 pubmed..Taken together, these observations suggest that the developmental regulation of CD5 in response to TCR signaling and TCR avidity represents a mechanism for fine tuning of the TCR signaling response. ..
- Perez Villar J, Whitney G, Bowen M, Hewgill D, Aruffo A, Kanner S. CD5 negatively regulates the T-cell antigen receptor signal transduction pathway: involvement of SH2-containing phosphotyrosine phosphatase SHP-1. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:2903-12 pubmed..These results suggest a critical role of the CD5 ITIM-like motif, which by binding to SHP-1 mediates the down-regulatory activity of this receptor. ..
- Azzam H, DeJarnette J, Huang K, Emmons R, Park C, Sommers C, et al. Fine tuning of TCR signaling by CD5. J Immunol. 2001;166:5464-72 pubmed..Together, these results indicate that inducible regulation of CD5 surface expression during thymocyte selection functions to fine tune the TCR signaling response. ..
- Santoni G, Boccanera M, Adriani D, Lucciarini R, Amantini C, Morrone S, et al. Immune cell-mediated protection against vaginal candidiasis: evidence for a major role of vaginal CD4(+) T cells and possible participation of other local lymphocyte effectors. Infect Immun. 2002;70:4791-7 pubmed..These results strongly suggest that distinct vaginal lymphocyte subsets participate in the adaptive anti-Candida immunity at the vaginal level, with the vaginal CD4(+) T cells probably playing a major role. ..
- Carulli G, Stacchini A, Marini A, Ciriello M, Zucca A, Cannizzo E, et al. Aberrant expression of CD8 in B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a multicenter study of 951 bone marrow samples with lymphomatous infiltration. Am J Clin Pathol. 2009;132:186-90; quiz 306 pubmed publisher..There was a 1.89% overall frequency of CD8 coexpression in which B-CLL/SLL had a higher frequency (3.03%) than did the other B-cell neoplasms (1.18%). Most cases were characterized by a favorable outcome...
- Corcione A, Arduino N, Ferretti E, Raffaghello L, Roncella S, Rossi D, et al. CCL19 and CXCL12 trigger in vitro chemotaxis of human mantle cell lymphoma B cells. Clin Cancer Res. 2004;10:964-71 pubmed..CCR7 and CXCR4 ligands may play a key role in tumor cell migration and spreading in vivo. CXCL12 may additionally contribute by sensitizing MCL B cells to respond to the ligands of other chemokine receptors. ..
- Abbasi F, Longo N, Lipsky P, Raveche E, Schleinitz T, Stetler Stevenson M, et al. B-cell repertoire and clonal analysis in unaffected first degree relatives in familial chronic lymphocytic leukaemia kindred. Br J Haematol. 2007;139:820-3 pubmed..Three of these individuals all showed evidence of hyper-somatic mutations. The B-cell repertoire in unaffected FDR in familial CLL offers a new area to investigate the interface between the immune system and lymphoid neoplasm. ..
- Xu Z, Butfiloski E, Sobel E, Morel L. Mechanisms of peritoneal B-1a cells accumulation induced by murine lupus susceptibility locus Sle2. J Immunol. 2004;173:6050-8 pubmed..Rag2(-/-) mice. This suggests that peritoneal B-1a cells are replenished throughout the animal life span in B6.Sle2 mice. These results show that Sle2 regulates the size of the B-1a cell compartment at multiple developmental checkpoints. ..
- Koide N, Morikawa A, Ito H, Sugiyama T, Hassan F, Islam S, et al. Defective responsiveness of CD5+ B1 cells to lipopolysaccharide in cytokine production. J Endotoxin Res. 2006;12:346-51 pubmed..Defective responsiveness of TH2.52 B1 cells to LPS in cytokine production might be responsible for the failure of IFN-beta production due to the lack of molecules participating in the MyD88-independent pathway. ..
- Plaza J, Comfere N, Gibson L, Colgan M, Davis D, Pittelkow M, et al. Unusual cutaneous manifestations of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2009;60:772-80 pubmed publisher..Additional investigations into the behavior of B-CLL in the skin may elucidate further the evolution of cutaneous lesions in this disease. ..
- Golardi N, Velasco M, Elghetany M. Marginal zone variant of mantle cell lymphoma: CD5-negative cyclin D1-positive variant posing a diagnostic dilemma. Pathol Int. 2009;59:317-21 pubmed publisher..Differentiating MCL from MZL has prognostic and therapeutic implications, particularly when considering the potential role of targeted therapy and cell cycle modulators. ..
- Gujral S, Agarwal A, Gota V, Nair R, Gupta S, Pai S, et al. A clinicopathologic study of mantle cell lymphoma in a single center study in India. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2008;51:315-22 pubmed..Bone marrow was involved in 25 (59%) cases. Thirty-two patients could be treated. Median recurrence-free survival was 22.23 months. Diffuse pattern of nodal involvement had a lower overall survival. ..
- Tagawa H. [Detection for subtype-specific genomic/genetic alterations in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL)]. Rinsho Ketsueki. 2008;49:73-81 pubmed
- Sayala H, Rawstron A, Hillmen P. Minimal residual disease assessment in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Best Pract Res Clin Haematol. 2007;20:499-512 pubmed..In this chapter we briefly review the existing methods for MRD assessment, the clinical relevance of MRD eradication in CLL, and the therapies available to attain this endpoint. ..
- de Jong D, Rosenwald A, Chhanabhai M, Gaulard P, Klapper W, Lee A, et al. Immunohistochemical prognostic markers in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: validation of tissue microarray as a prerequisite for broad clinical applications--a study from the Lunenburg Lymphoma Biomarker Consortium. J Clin Oncol. 2007;25:805-12 pubmed..Harmonization of techniques and centralized consensus review appears mandatory when using immunohistochemical biomarkers for treatment stratification. ..
- Rossmann E, Lundin J, Lenkei R, Mellstedt H, Osterborg A. Variability in B-cell antigen expression: implications for the treatment of B-cell lymphomas and leukemias with monoclonal antibodies. Hematol J. 2001;2:300-6 pubmed..Caution must be taken when interpreting in vitro results on cytokine-mediated receptor intensity up-regulation. ..
- Karnan S, Tagawa H, Suzuki R, Suguro M, Yamaguchi M, Okamoto M, et al. Analysis of chromosomal imbalances in de novo CD5-positive diffuse large-B-cell lymphoma detected by comparative genomic hybridization. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2004;39:77-81 pubmed..This indicates that CD5+ DLBCL constitutes a disease category distinct from that of CD5- DLBCL and other CD5+ malignancies. ..
- Karandikar N, Kroft S, Yegappan S, Rogers B, Aquino V, Lee K, et al. Unusual immunophenotype of CD8+ T cells in familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Blood. 2004;104:2007-9 pubmed..This case provides an instructive example of uncontrolled reactive proliferation of CD8+ T cells in FHL, resulting in atypical morphology and unusual immunophenotypic features that might suggest malignancy in other clinical settings. ..
- Yuling H, Ruijing X, Xiang J, Yanping J, Lang C, Li L, et al. CD19+CD5+ B cells in primary IgA nephropathy. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2008;19:2130-9 pubmed publisher..In conclusion, these results strongly suggest that CD19(+)CD5(+) B cells play a prominent role in the pathogenesis of primary IgA nephropathy. ..
- Inaba T, Shimazaki C, Sumikuma T, Nakagawa M. T-cell associated antigen-positive B-cell lymphoma. Leuk Lymphoma. 2001;42:1161-71 pubmed..In addition, two-color FCM for detecting such aberrant T-Ag expression in B-NHL is useful for monitoring the minimal residual disease in the subgroup with T-Ag(+) B-NHL. ..
- Aguado E, Richelme S, Nunez Cruz S, Miazek A, Mura A, Richelme M, et al. Induction of T helper type 2 immunity by a point mutation in the LAT adaptor. Science. 2002;296:2036-40 pubmed..This paradoxical phenotype establishes an unanticipated inhibitory function for LAT that is critical for the differentiation and homeostasis of TH cells. ..
- Ulivieri C, Valensin S, Majolini M, Matthews R, Baldari C. Normal B-1 cell development but defective BCR signaling in Lck-/- mice. Eur J Immunol. 2003;33:441-5 pubmed..The data suggest a potential role for Lck in the achievement of the higher activation threshold required for productive BCR signaling in B-1 as compared to B-2 cells. ..
- Veneri D, Franchini M, de Sabata D, Ledro S, Vella A, Ortolani R, et al. Peripheral blood CD5-positive B lymphocytes (B-1a cells) after allogeneic stem cell transplantation for acute myeloid leukaemia in humans. Blood Transfus. 2008;6:220-4 pubmed..Further studies are necessary in order to clarify the origin of B-1a cells in humans in health and illness. ..
- Jin M, Liu B, Wang L, Xu J. [Clinicopathologic study of metaplastic thymoma]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi. 2006;35:285-8 pubmed..They were not detected within the spindle cells. Metaplastic thymoma is a rarely encountered indolent or low-grade thymic tumor and may represent a distinct clinicopathologic entity. ..
- Ennishi D, Takeuchi K, Yokoyama M, Asai H, Mishima Y, Terui Y, et al. CD5 expression is potentially predictive of poor outcome among biomarkers in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma receiving rituximab plus CHOP therapy. Ann Oncol. 2008;19:1921-6 pubmed publisher..Further studies with larger numbers are warranted to confirm the prognostic significance of CD5 expression for patients with DLBCL receiving rituximab-containing chemotherapy. ..
- Pajor L, Lacza A, Kereskai L, Jáksó P, Egyed M, Iványi J, et al. Increased incidence of monoclonal B-cell infiltrate in chronic myeloproliferative disorders. Mod Pathol. 2004;17:1521-30 pubmed..Modern Pathology (2004) 17, 1521-1530, advance online publication, 16 July 2004; doi:10.1038/modpathol.3800225. ..
- Ek S, Dictor M, Jerkeman M, Jirstrom K, Borrebaeck C. Nuclear expression of the non B-cell lineage Sox11 transcription factor identifies mantle cell lymphoma. Blood. 2008;111:800-5 pubmed
- Tagawa H, Tsuzuki S, Suzuki R, Karnan S, Ota A, Kameoka Y, et al. Genome-wide array-based comparative genomic hybridization of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: comparison between CD5-positive and CD5-negative cases. Cancer Res. 2004;64:5948-55 pubmed..These results suggest that array-based comparative genomic hybridization analysis provides a platform of genomic aberrations of DLBCL both common and specific to clinically distinct subgroups. ..
- Lai S, Lin J, Lai S, Wu Y. Influence of Ganoderma lucidum on blood biochemistry and immunocompetence in horses. Am J Chin Med. 2004;32:931-40 pubmed..001). Experimental result on humoral immunity showed that G. lucidum could help the horses to produce a significantly higher quantity of specific antibodies in a shorter time (p < 0.001). ..
- Marti G, Rawstron A, Ghia P, Hillmen P, Houlston R, Kay N, et al. Diagnostic criteria for monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis. Br J Haematol. 2005;130:325-32 pubmed..Future studies of MBL should be directed towards determining its relationship to clinical disease, particularly in individuals from families with a genetic predisposition to developing CLL. ..
- Suguro M, Tagawa H, Kagami Y, Okamoto M, Ohshima K, Shiku H, et al. Expression profiling analysis of the CD5+ diffuse large B-cell lymphoma subgroup: development of a CD5 signature. Cancer Sci. 2006;97:868-74 pubmed
- Nguyen L, Ramanathan M, Weinstock Guttman B, Baier M, Brownscheidle C, Jacobs L. Sex differences in in vitro pro-inflammatory cytokine production from peripheral blood of multiple sclerosis patients. J Neurol Sci. 2003;209:93-9 pubmed..49, P=0.018). The secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha, is influenced by gender in MS patients and may contribute to the sexual dimorphism of MS. ..
- Barr P, Lazarus H, Cooper B, Schluchter M, Panneerselvam A, Jacobberger J, et al. Phase II study of bryostatin 1 and vincristine for aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma relapsing after an autologous stem cell transplant. Am J Hematol. 2009;84:484-7 pubmed publisher..Future investigations of agents targeting the protein kinase C pathway may benefit from early response assessment using flow cytometry to evaluate T-cell apoptosis. ..