cd19 antigens


Summary: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.

Top Publications

  1. Biagi E, Marin V, Giordano Attianese G, Dander E, D Amico G, Biondi A. Chimeric T-cell receptors: new challenges for targeted immunotherapy in hematologic malignancies. Haematologica. 2007;92:381-8 pubmed
  2. Kowolik C, Topp M, Gonzalez S, Pfeiffer T, Olivares S, Gonzalez N, et al. CD28 costimulation provided through a CD19-specific chimeric antigen receptor enhances in vivo persistence and antitumor efficacy of adoptively transferred T cells. Cancer Res. 2006;66:10995-1004 pubmed
    ..These data imply that modifications to the CAR can result in improved therapeutic potential of CD19-specific T cells expressing this second-generation CAR. ..
  3. Brentjens R, Santos E, Nikhamin Y, Yeh R, Matsushita M, La Perle K, et al. Genetically targeted T cells eradicate systemic acute lymphoblastic leukemia xenografts. Clin Cancer Res. 2007;13:5426-35 pubmed
    ..The finding that modifications in CAR design as well as T-cell dosing allowed for the complete eradication of systemic disease affects the design of clinical trials using this treatment strategy. ..
  4. Marin V, Dander E, Biagi E, Introna M, Fazio G, Biondi A, et al. Characterization of in vitro migratory properties of anti-CD19 chimeric receptor-redirected CIK cells for their potential use in B-ALL immunotherapy. Exp Hematol. 2006;34:1219-29 pubmed
  5. Vera J, Savoldo B, Vigouroux S, Biagi E, Pule M, Rossig C, et al. T lymphocytes redirected against the kappa light chain of human immunoglobulin efficiently kill mature B lymphocyte-derived malignant cells. Blood. 2006;108:3890-7 pubmed
  6. Sasaki Y, Derudder E, Hobeika E, Pelanda R, Reth M, Rajewsky K, et al. Canonical NF-kappaB activity, dispensable for B cell development, replaces BAFF-receptor signals and promotes B cell proliferation upon activation. Immunity. 2006;24:729-39 pubmed
    ..Therefore, canonical NF-kappaB activity can substitute for BAFF-R signals in B cell development and pathogenesis. ..
  7. Huang X, Guo H, Kang J, Choi S, Zhou T, Tammana S, et al. Sleeping Beauty transposon-mediated engineering of human primary T cells for therapy of CD19+ lymphoid malignancies. Mol Ther. 2008;16:580-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data indicate that T cells from PB and UCB can be stably modified using a non-viral DNA transfer system, and that such modified T cells may be useful in the treatment of refractory leukemia and lymphoma. ..
  8. Brickner A, Evans A, Mito J, Xuereb S, Feng X, Nishida T, et al. The PANE1 gene encodes a novel human minor histocompatibility antigen that is selectively expressed in B-lymphoid cells and B-CLL. Blood. 2006;107:3779-86 pubmed
    ..These studies suggest distinct roles for different PANE1 isoforms in resting compared with activated CD19(+) cells, and identify PANE1 as a potential therapeutic target in B-CLL. ..
  9. Mansson R, Tsapogas P, Akerlund M, Lagergren A, Gisler R, Sigvardsson M. Pearson correlation analysis of microarray data allows for the identification of genetic targets for early B-cell factor. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:17905-13 pubmed

More Information


  1. Hase H, Kanno Y, Kojima M, Hasegawa K, Sakurai D, Kojima H, et al. BAFF/BLyS can potentiate B-cell selection with the B-cell coreceptor complex. Blood. 2004;103:2257-65 pubmed
  2. Imai C, Mihara K, Andreansky M, Nicholson I, Pui C, Geiger T, et al. Chimeric receptors with 4-1BB signaling capacity provoke potent cytotoxicity against acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Leukemia. 2004;18:676-84 pubmed
    ..We conclude that anti-CD19 chimeric receptors containing 4-1BB are a powerful new tool for T-cell therapy of B-lineage ALL and other CD19+ B-lymphoid malignancies. ..
  3. Arce S, Luger E, Muehlinghaus G, Cassese G, Hauser A, Horst A, et al. CD38 low IgG-secreting cells are precursors of various CD38 high-expressing plasma cell populations. J Leukoc Biol. 2004;75:1022-8 pubmed
    ..These data are compatible with a multistep model for plasma cell differentiation and imply that a common CD38 low IgG-secreting precursor gives rise to a diverse plasma cell compartment. ..
  4. Balciunaite G, Ceredig R, Massa S, Rolink A. A B220+ CD117+ CD19- hematopoietic progenitor with potent lymphoid and myeloid developmental potential. Eur J Immunol. 2005;35:2019-30 pubmed
    ..The relationship between B220+ CD117+ CD19- NK1.1- cells of wild-type mice and other multi-lineage BM progenitors is discussed. ..
  5. Cooper L, Al Kadhimi Z, Serrano L, Pfeiffer T, Olivares S, Castro A, et al. Enhanced antilymphoma efficacy of CD19-redirected influenza MP1-specific CTLs by cotransfer of T cells modified to present influenza MP1. Blood. 2005;105:1622-31 pubmed
    ..Engineered T-APCs are a novel and versatile antigen-delivery system for generating antigen-specific T cells in vitro and enhancing the in vivo effector functioning of CAR-redirected antitumor effector cells. ..
  6. Tedder T, Poe J, Fujimoto M, Haas K, Sato S. The CD19-CD21 signal transduction complex of B lymphocytes regulates the balance between health and autoimmune disease: systemic sclerosis as a model system. Curr Dir Autoimmun. 2005;8:55-90 pubmed
    ..Thus, chronic B cell activation resulting from augmented CD19 expression or signaling through the CD19 pathway may reveal a prototype autoimmune disease susceptibility pathway in mice and humans. ..
  7. Ulivieri C, Baldari C. The BCR signalosome: where cell fate is decided. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2005;19:1-16 pubmed
    ..Here we briefly review the current knowledge on the molecules which participate in the BCR signalosome and on the response modulators which control the final signal output by enhancing or dampening BCR signaling. ..
  8. Imai C, Iwamoto S, Campana D. Genetic modification of primary natural killer cells overcomes inhibitory signals and induces specific killing of leukemic cells. Blood. 2005;106:376-83 pubmed
    ..Our findings indicate that enforced expression of signaling receptors by NK cells might circumvent inhibitory signals, providing a novel means to enhance the effectiveness of allogeneic stem cell transplantation. ..
  9. Bancos S, Phipps R. Memory B cells from older people express normal levels of cyclooxygenase-2 and produce higher levels of IL-6 and IL-10 upon in vitro activation. Cell Immunol. 2010;266:90-7 pubmed publisher
    ..However, we found that activated memory B cells from older people produce higher levels of IL-6 and IL-10 compared to young adults. Therefore, the dysregulated cytokine production could contribute to immune senescence in the elderly. ..
  10. Schuh W, Meister S, Herrmann K, Bradl H, Jack H. Transcriptome analysis in primary B lymphoid precursors following induction of the pre-B cell receptor. Mol Immunol. 2008;45:362-75 pubmed
    ..Hence, pre-BCR signals establish the molecular network for BCR signaling even before the production of an IgLC and induce the expression of KLF2, a candidate for controlling clonal expansion and migration of functional pre-B cells. ..
  11. Cano F, Drynan L, Pannell R, Rabbitts T. Leukaemia lineage specification caused by cell-specific Mll-Enl translocations. Oncogene. 2008;27:1945-50 pubmed
  12. Carson W, Guernsey L, Singh A, Vella A, Schramm C, Thrall R. Accumulation of regulatory T cells in local draining lymph nodes of the lung correlates with spontaneous resolution of chronic asthma in a murine model. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2008;145:231-43 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that lymphocytes with regulatory functions are increased and sustained in local lung compartments at LIT and that their appearance correlates with the resolution of lung inflammation. ..
  13. Nicholas M, Dooley M, Hogan S, Anolik J, Looney J, Sanz I, et al. A novel subset of memory B cells is enriched in autoreactivity and correlates with adverse outcomes in SLE. Clin Immunol. 2008;126:189-201 pubmed
    ..Thus, CD19(hi) B cells are precursors to anti-self PCs, and identify an SLE patient subset likely to experience poor clinical outcomes. ..
  14. Burge D, Bookbinder S, Kivitz A, Fleischmann R, Shu C, Bannink J. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of TRU-015, a CD20-directed small modular immunopharmaceutical protein therapeutic, in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a Phase I, open-label, dose-escalation clinical study. Clin Ther. 2008;30:1806-16 pubmed publisher
    ..The mean t((1/2)) ranged from 12 to 19 days. TRU-015 was associated with dose-dependent B-cell depletion and an acceptable tolerability profile. ..
  15. Harwood N, Batista F. Visualizing the molecular and cellular events underlying the initiation of B-cell activation. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2009;334:153-77 pubmed publisher
    ..These investigations visualize the presentation of larger antigens to B cells via cell-mediated strategies, involving macrophages in the subcapsular sinus and dendritic cells in the paracortex. ..
  16. Yang J, Fichtner I, Becker M, Lemm M, Wang X. Anti-proliferative efficacy of icariin on HepG2 hepatoma and its possible mechanism of action. Am J Chin Med. 2009;37:1153-65 pubmed
    ..Icariin showed anticancer efficacy both in vitro and in vivo. The possible mechanism of action could be related to its anti-angiogenesis and anti-proliferative effects in tumors...
  17. Foster A, Okur F, Biagi E, Lu A, Dotti G, Yvon E, et al. Selective elimination of a chemoresistant side population of B-CLL cells by cytotoxic T lymphocytes in subjects receiving an autologous hCD40L/IL-2 tumor vaccine. Leukemia. 2010;24:563-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, malignant B cells with a primary drug-resistant phenotype can be targeted by T- cell-mediated effector activity after immunization of human subjects...
  18. Culpin R, Proctor S, Angus B, Crosier S, Anderson J, Mainou Fowler T. A 9 series microRNA signature differentiates between germinal centre and activated B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cell lines. Int J Oncol. 2010;37:367-76 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the present study identified a microRNA signature that correctly classified GC and ABC phenotypes in DLBCL cell lines. This signature has yet to be assessed for prediction in clinical samples. ..
  19. Zirger J, Liu C, Barcia C, Castro M, Lowenstein P. Immune regulation of transgene expression in the brain: B cells regulate an early phase of elimination of transgene expression from adenoviral vectors. Viral Immunol. 2006;19:508-17 pubmed
  20. Viallard J, Blanco P, Andre M, Etienne G, Liferman F, Neau D, et al. CD8+HLA-DR+ T lymphocytes are increased in common variable immunodeficiency patients with impaired memory B-cell differentiation. Clin Immunol. 2006;119:51-8 pubmed
    ..Combining the set of markers described herein might better define homogeneous groups of patients for etiological studies and clearly segregate patients with clinical complications. ..
  21. Cailliod R, Quantin C, Carli P, Jooste V, Le Teuff G, Binquet C, et al. A population-based assessment of the prognostic value of the CD19 positive lymphocyte count in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia using Cox and Markov models. Eur J Epidemiol. 2005;20:993-1001 pubmed
    ..An increased CD19 positive lymphocyte count at diagnosis is a marker of an increased risk of disease progression in stage A patients. Thus, it can be a useful tool for the clinical management of these patients. ..
  22. Lang P, Schumm M, Greil J, Bader P, Klingebiel T, Muller I, et al. A comparison between three graft manipulation methods for haploidentical stem cell transplantation in pediatric patients: preliminary results of a pilot study. Klin Padiatr. 2005;217:334-8 pubmed
    ..Since effector cell with potential antileukemic activity are cotransfused, such grafts may be suited in particular for patients with insufficient remission. ..
  23. Boross P, Breukel C, Van Loo P, van der Kaa J, Claassens J, Bujard H, et al. Highly B lymphocyte-specific tamoxifen inducible transgene expression of CreER T2 by using the LC-1 locus BAC vector. Genesis. 2009;47:729-35 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the LC-1-hCD19-CreER(T2) strain is a powerful tool to study gene function specifically in B lymphocytes at any chosen time point in the lifecycle of the mouse. ..
  24. Ning B, Tang Y, Chen Y, Shen H, Qian B. Comparison between CD19 and CD20 expression patterns on acute leukemic cells. Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi. 2005;13:943-7 pubmed
    ..These indicate that CD19 may be a better antibody targeting molecule than CD20 for patients with B-lineage acute leukemia. ..
  25. Conley M, Dobbs A, Farmer D, Kilic S, Paris K, Grigoriadou S, et al. Primary B cell immunodeficiencies: comparisons and contrasts. Annu Rev Immunol. 2009;27:199-227 pubmed publisher
    ..Identifying the genetic and environmental factors that influence the clinical phenotype may enhance patient care and our understanding of normal B cell development. ..
  26. Blimkie D, Fortuno E, Thommai F, Xu L, Fernandes E, Crabtree J, et al. Identification of B cells through negative gating-An example of the MIFlowCyt standard applied. Cytometry A. 2010;77:546-51 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate how a MIFlowCyt-compliant report can be prepared with minimal effort, and yet provide the reader with a much clearer picture of the portrayed FCM experiment and data. ..
  27. Li L, Tang Y, Zhang H, Shen H, Qian B, Luo C. [Preparation of the immunotoxin 2E8-norcantharidin and its targeting killing effect in vitro]. Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi. 2008;46:493-7 pubmed
    ..The binding activity of the immunoconjugate (2E8-NCTD) against CD19 antigens on cell surface and the expression levels of CD19 antigens on Nalm-6 and K562 cells were examined by flow ..
  28. Torchilin V. Antibody-modified liposomes for cancer chemotherapy. Expert Opin Drug Deliv. 2008;5:1003-25 pubmed
    ..The papers published on the subject of cancer-targeted liposomes mainly over the last 10 - 15 years are discussed. Antibody-targeted liposomes loaded with anticancer drugs demonstrate high potential for clinical applications. ..
  29. Lee W, Huang J, Kuo M, Lin S, Chen L, Chen M, et al. Analysis of genetic defects in patients with the common variable immunodeficiency phenotype in a single Taiwanese tertiary care hospital. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2007;99:433-42 pubmed
    ..No mutations of SAP, ICOS, TACI, BAFFR, and CD19 were identified in this study, although selection bias among the small study population and genetic variation may exist. ..
  30. Moratto D, Gulino A, Fontana S, Mori L, Pirovano S, Soresina A, et al. Combined decrease of defined B and T cell subsets in a group of common variable immunodeficiency patients. Clin Immunol. 2006;121:203-14 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that a combined defect in generation of B and T subpopulations may account for the abnormal immunophenotype characterizing this subgroup of CVID patients. ..
  31. Vo A, Lukovsky M, Toyoda M, Wang J, Reinsmoen N, Lai C, et al. Rituximab and intravenous immune globulin for desensitization during renal transplantation. N Engl J Med. 2008;359:242-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Larger and longer trials are needed to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of this approach. ( number, NCT00642655.) ..
  32. Koehl U, Esser R, Zimmermann S, Tonn T, Kotchetkov R, Bartling T, et al. Ex vivo expansion of highly purified NK cells for immunotherapy after haploidentical stem cell transplantation in children. Klin Padiatr. 2005;217:345-50 pubmed
    ..High dose NK cell application may be a new treatment option for pediatric patients with leukemia or solid tumors in case of minimal residual disease or unbalanced chimerism post haplo-SCT as we could show for the first three patients . ..
  33. Sims G, Lipsky P. Isolation of human B cell populations. Curr Protoc Immunol. 2006;Chapter 7:Unit 7.5 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we detail three methods of isolating B cells from human blood or mononuclear cells and describe how these techniques can be combined with fluorescent cell sorting for the characterization of specific B cell populations. ..
  34. Reddy K. Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia profiled for prognosis using a fluorescence in situ hybridisation panel. Br J Haematol. 2006;132:705-22 pubmed
    ..The FISH panel could also serve to monitor 13q deletion for secondary changes with adverse prognosis. Understanding prognosis in specific types of 13q deletion would enhance outcome prediction. ..
  35. Hasegawa M. B lymphocytes: shedding new light on the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis. J Dermatol. 2010;37:3-10 pubmed publisher
    ..As B cells have a variety of functions, further investigation into the pathogenic roles of B cells, as well as trials of B-cell-targeting therapies, may shed new light on the pathogenesis of SSc. ..
  36. van Zelm M, Reisli I, van der Burg M, CastaƱo D, van Noesel C, van Tol M, et al. An antibody-deficiency syndrome due to mutations in the CD19 gene. N Engl J Med. 2006;354:1901-12 pubmed
    ..Mutation of the CD19 gene causes a type of hypogammaglobulinemia in which the response of mature B cells to antigenic stimulation is defective. ..
  37. van Zelm M, Smet J, Adams B, Mascart F, Schandene L, Janssen F, et al. CD81 gene defect in humans disrupts CD19 complex formation and leads to antibody deficiency. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:1265-74 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings may contribute to unraveling the genetic basis of antibody deficiency syndromes and the nonredundant functions of CD81 in humans...
  38. Zhang J, Tang Y, Shen H, Qian B. Targeting and internalization of sterically stabilized liposome modified with ZCH-4-2E8. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2009;29:273-80 pubmed publisher
    ..It is suggested that 2E8-SL may serve as useful delivery carrier of anti-cancer drugs targeting to hematological malignant tumors with CD19 high expression. ..
  39. Thilo B, Stingele R, Knudsen K, Boor R, Bien C, Deuschl G, et al. A case of Rasmussen encephalitis treated with rituximab. Nat Rev Neurol. 2009;5:458-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The patient remained on antiepileptic therapy (levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine, zonisamide and phenobarbital) throughout treatment. ..
  40. Markley J, Sadelain M. IL-7 and IL-21 are superior to IL-2 and IL-15 in promoting human T cell-mediated rejection of systemic lymphoma in immunodeficient mice. Blood. 2010;115:3508-19 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support the use of gamma(c)-cytokines in cancer immunotherapy, and establish that there exists more than 1 human T-cell memory phenotype associated with long-term tumor immunity. ..
  41. Yong P, Orange J, Sullivan K. Pediatric common variable immunodeficiency: immunologic and phenotypic associations with switched memory B cells. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2010;21:852-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Segregation of pediatric patients into high risk (Group I) and average risk (Group II) may assist in targeting surveillance appropriately. ..
  42. Hoyos V, Savoldo B, Quintarelli C, Mahendravada A, Zhang M, Vera J, et al. Engineering CD19-specific T lymphocytes with interleukin-15 and a suicide gene to enhance their anti-lymphoma/leukemia effects and safety. Leukemia. 2010;24:1160-70 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, this strategy safely increases the anti-lymphoma/leukemia effects of CAR.19-redirected T lymphocytes and may be a useful approach for treatment of patients with B-cell malignancies. ..
  43. Iwata Y, Yoshizaki A, Komura K, Shimizu K, Ogawa F, Hara T, et al. CD19, a response regulator of B lymphocytes, regulates wound healing through hyaluronan-induced TLR4 signaling. Am J Pathol. 2009;175:649-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, this study is the first to reveal a critical role of B cells and novel mechanisms in wound healing. ..
  44. Kin N, Sanders V. CD86 regulates IgG1 production via a CD19-dependent mechanism. J Immunol. 2007;179:1516-23 pubmed
    ..Thus, our findings suggest that CD86 plays a key role in regulating the level of IgG(1) produced in vitro and in vivo, and that Lyn and CD19 may be the signaling intermediates activated by CD86 proximal to PI3K. ..
  45. Hus I, Kawiak J, Hoser G, Tabarkiewicz J, Radej S, Dmoszynska A, et al. SCID mice model in vivo evaluation of autologous and allogeneic dendritic cells activity on B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Folia Histochem Cytobiol. 2009;47:563-70 pubmed publisher
    ..We found, that mean numbers of CD19+CD5+ leukemic cells as well as human T cells were lowered in peritoneal fluid of mice treated with allogeneic APCs. However, we did not observe similar effects with autologous DCs. ..
  46. Fujimori F, Shimizu T, Takada T, Narita J, Suzuki E, Gejyo F. Differences in lymphocyte profile between BAL fluid and human lung tissue from patients with interstitial lung disease. Br J Biomed Sci. 2008;65:63-7 pubmed
    ..05). The results suggest that lymphocyte immunophenotype profiles from BAL may not reflect those in the inflammatory tissue of ILD. ..
  47. Barbin K, Stieglmaier J, Saul D, Stieglmaier K, Stockmeyer B, Pfeiffer M, et al. Influence of variable N-glycosylation on the cytolytic potential of chimeric CD19 antibodies. J Immunother. 2006;29:122-33 pubmed
    ..The data demonstrate the influence of the N-glycosylation pattern on the ADCC activity of chimeric CD19 antibodies and point to the importance of suitable expression systems for the production of highly active therapeutic antibodies. ..
  48. Comoli P, Ginevri F, Maccario R, Avanzini M, Marconi M, Groff A, et al. Human mesenchymal stem cells inhibit antibody production induced in vitro by allostimulation. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2008;23:1196-202 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that third-party MSC are able to suppress allo-specific antibody production in vitro, and may therefore help overcome a positive cross-match in sensitized transplant recipients. ..
  49. Mourad W, Rawas F, Shoukri M, Tbakhi A, Al Omari M, Tulbah A, et al. Grading of follicular lymphoma using flow cytometry. Ann Saudi Med. 2006;26:205-10 pubmed
    ..22% to 51.95% (median, 21%; P=0.00001). Our findings suggest that using a CD19/forward scatter dot plot can help identify centroblasts in FL making grading possible on FCM, especially in small biopsies and fine needle aspirates. ..
  50. Maeda K, Malykhin A, Teague Weber B, Sun X, Farris A, Coggeshall K. Interleukin-6 aborts lymphopoiesis and elevates production of myeloid cells in systemic lupus erythematosus-prone B6.Sle1.Yaa animals. Blood. 2009;113:4534-40 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that chronic inflammatory conditions accompanied by increased IL-6 production bias uncommitted progenitors to a myeloid fate by inducing Id1 expression. ..
  51. Blaas S, Stieber Gunckel M, Falk W, Obermeier F, Rogler G. CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides stimulate immunoglobulin A secretion in intestinal mucosal B cells. Clin Exp Immunol. 2009;155:534-40 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that CD19(+) mucosal B cells express TLR-9 and secrete increased levels of IgA upon stimulation with CpG-ODN, indicating an additional link between adaptive and innate intestinal immune responses. ..
  52. Du X, Beers R, FitzGerald D, Pastan I. Differential cellular internalization of anti-CD19 and -CD22 immunotoxins results in different cytotoxic activity. Cancer Res. 2008;68:6300-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that the rapid internalization of large amounts of BL22 bound to CD22 makes CD22 a better therapeutic target than CD19 for immunotoxins and probably for other immunoconjugates that act inside cells. ..
  53. Kimura M, Yamaguchi M, Nakamura S, Imai H, Ueno S, Ogawa S, et al. Clinicopathologic significance of loss of CD19 expression in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Int J Hematol. 2007;85:41-8 pubmed
    ..034, generalized Wilcoxon test). Our findings demonstrate that loss of CD19 expression in DLBCL is associated with elevated serum LDH levels and a poor prognosis, especially during the early follow-up period. ..