cd44 antigens


Summary: Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary THYMOCYTES; GRANULOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. Their interaction with HYALURONIC ACID mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial VENULES.

Top Publications

  1. Heino J, Kapyla J. Cellular receptors of extracellular matrix molecules. Curr Pharm Des. 2009;15:1309-17 pubmed
    ..Several other cellular receptors have also evolved to bind to various matrix components. Here, we review the basic facts about these receptors and shortly describe their role in human diseases, including cancer and inflammation. ..
  2. Harper L, Costea D, Gammon L, Fazil B, Biddle A, Mackenzie I. Normal and malignant epithelial cells with stem-like properties have an extended G2 cell cycle phase that is associated with apoptotic resistance. BMC Cancer. 2010;10:166 pubmed publisher
    ..Targeting G2 checkpoint proteins releases these cells from the G2-block and makes them more prone to apoptosis, implying an opportunity for improved therapeutic approaches. ..
  3. Zlobec I, Gunthert U, Tornillo L, Iezzi G, Baumhoer D, Terracciano L, et al. Systematic assessment of the prognostic impact of membranous CD44v6 protein expression in colorectal cancer. Histopathology. 2009;55:564-75 pubmed publisher
  4. Horst D, Kriegl L, Engel J, Kirchner T, Jung A. Prognostic significance of the cancer stem cell markers CD133, CD44, and CD166 in colorectal cancer. Cancer Invest. 2009;27:844-50 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that CD133 is the best sole marker to predict low patient survival, while the combined analysis of all three markers may be superior in identification of low-, intermediate-, and high-risk cases of colorectal cancer. ..
  5. Wang S, Wong G, de Heer A, Xia W, Bourguignon L. CD44 variant isoforms in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma progression. Laryngoscope. 2009;119:1518-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, expression of certain CD44 variants may be important molecular markers for HNSCC progression and should be investigated as potential therapeutic targets for therapy. ..
  6. Choi D, Lee H, Hur K, Kim J, Park G, Jang S, et al. Cancer stem cell markers CD133 and CD24 correlate with invasiveness and differentiation in colorectal adenocarcinoma. World J Gastroenterol. 2009;15:2258-64 pubmed
    ..001). Survival was not significantly related to CD133, CD24 and CD44 expression. CD markers were related to invasiveness and differentiation of colorectal adenocarcinoma. However, CD expression was not closely related to survival. ..
  7. Surace C, Arpicco S, Dufaÿ Wojcicki A, Marsaud V, Bouclier C, Clay D, et al. Lipoplexes targeting the CD44 hyaluronic acid receptor for efficient transfection of breast cancer cells. Mol Pharm. 2009;6:1062-73 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, cationic liposomes containing the HA-DOPE conjugate mediated good transfection on CD44 expressing cell lines in culture. ..
  8. Taetz S, Bochot A, Surace C, Arpicco S, Renoir J, Schaefer U, et al. Hyaluronic acid-modified DOTAP/DOPE liposomes for the targeted delivery of anti-telomerase siRNA to CD44-expressing lung cancer cells. Oligonucleotides. 2009;19:103-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, these novel lipoplexes could successfully be targeted to CD44-expressing A549 cells opening interesting perspectives for the treatment of lung cancer. ..
  9. Huh J, Kim H, Kim Y, Lee J, Park Y, Cho S, et al. Expression of standard CD44 in human colorectal carcinoma: association with prognosis. Pathol Int. 2009;59:241-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Further investigation, however, is necessary to assess the biological roles of CD44 in CRC, and validate their possible value as novel therapeutic targets. ..

More Information


  1. Bauerschmitz G, Ranki T, Kangasniemi L, Ribacka C, Eriksson M, Porten M, et al. Tissue-specific promoters active in CD44+CD24-/low breast cancer cells. Cancer Res. 2008;68:5533-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In vivo, these viruses had significant antitumor activity in CD44(+)CD24(-/low)-derived tumors. These findings may have relevance for elimination of cancer stem cells in humans. ..
  2. Misra S, Hascall V, Berger F, Markwald R, Ghatak S. Hyaluronan, CD44, and cyclooxygenase-2 in colon cancer. Connect Tissue Res. 2008;49:219-24 pubmed publisher
    ..This review includes a summary of the authors work over the past years as well as citations of specific reviews related to role of hyaluronan in the pathogenesis of colon cancer. ..
  3. Huang M, Zhang F, Zhang Y. [Influence factors on the formation of mammospheres from breast cancer stem cells]. Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2008;40:500-4 pubmed
    ..The expression of CD44+/CD24(-/low) in MDA-MB-231 and primary breast cancer epithelial cells did not correlate with mammosphere formation positively. ..
  4. Du L, Wang H, He L, Zhang J, Ni B, Wang X, et al. CD44 is of functional importance for colorectal cancer stem cells. Clin Cancer Res. 2008;14:6751-60 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that CD44 is a robust marker and is of functional importance for colorectal CSC for cancer initiation. ..
  5. Huang E, Hynes M, Zhang T, Ginestier C, Dontu G, Appelman H, et al. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 is a marker for normal and malignant human colonic stem cells (SC) and tracks SC overpopulation during colon tumorigenesis. Cancer Res. 2009;69:3382-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings also support our original hypothesis, derived previously from mathematical modeling of crypt dynamics, that progressive colonic SC overpopulation occurs during colon tumorigenesis and drives CRC development. ..
  6. Palapattu G, Wu C, Silvers C, Martin H, Williams K, Salamone L, et al. Selective expression of CD44, a putative prostate cancer stem cell marker, in neuroendocrine tumor cells of human prostate cancer. Prostate. 2009;69:787-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Selective expression of the stem cell-associated marker CD44 in NE tumor cells of PC, in combination with their other known features, further supports the significance of such cells in therapy resistance and tumor recurrence. ..
  7. Zhang Y, Yao F, Yao X, Yi C, Tan C, Wei L, et al. Role of CCL5 in invasion, proliferation and proportion of CD44+/CD24- phenotype of MCF-7 cells and correlation of CCL5 and CCR5 expression with breast cancer progression. Oncol Rep. 2009;21:1113-21 pubmed
  8. Robbins E, Travanty E, Yang K, Iczkowski K. MAP kinase pathways and calcitonin influence CD44 alternate isoform expression in prostate cancer cells. BMC Cancer. 2008;8:260 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings could be used in the formulation of therapeutic methods for PC targeting CD44 alternate splicing. ..
  9. Hill J, Hall J, Sun C, Cai Q, Ghyselinck N, Chambon P, et al. Retinoic acid enhances Foxp3 induction indirectly by relieving inhibition from CD4+CD44hi Cells. Immunity. 2008;29:758-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, cytokine-producing CD44(hi) cells actively restrain TGF-beta-mediated Foxp3 expression in naive T cells, and this balance can be shifted or fine-tuned by RA. ..
  10. Marcato P, Dean C, Giacomantonio C, Lee P. Oncolytic reovirus effectively targets breast cancer stem cells. Mol Ther. 2009;17:972-9 pubmed publisher
    ..More important, the CSC population was equally reduced and was as susceptible to reovirus treatment as the non-CSC population. ..
  11. Marangoni E, Lecomte N, Durand L, de Pinieux G, Decaudin D, Chomienne C, et al. CD44 targeting reduces tumour growth and prevents post-chemotherapy relapse of human breast cancers xenografts. Br J Cancer. 2009;100:918-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, treatment with this antibody prevents tumour relapse after chemotherapy-induced remission in a basal-like HBCx. ..
  12. Patel B, Yu Y, Du J, Levi E, Phillip P, Majumdar A. Age-related increase in colorectal cancer stem cells in macroscopically normal mucosa of patients with adenomas: a risk factor for colon cancer. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;378:344-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, our observation of the age-related rise in CSC in macroscopically normal colonic mucosa suggests a predisposition of the organ to developing colorectal cancer. ..
  13. Mine T, Matsueda S, Li Y, Tokumitsu H, Gao H, Danes C, et al. Breast cancer cells expressing stem cell markers CD44+ CD24 lo are eliminated by Numb-1 peptide-activated T cells. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2009;58:1185-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Their peptides are presented alternatively. Targeting both antagonistic proteins should be useful to prevent metastases in patients whose tumors are resistant to conventional treatments. ..
  14. Misra S, Hascall V, De Giovanni C, Markwald R, Ghatak S. Delivery of CD44 shRNA/nanoparticles within cancer cells: perturbation of hyaluronan/CD44v6 interactions and reduction in adenoma growth in Apc Min/+ MICE. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:12432-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data provide insight into the novel therapeutic strategies of short hairpin RNA/nanoparticle technology and its potential for silencing genes associated with colon tumor cells. ..
  15. Klingbeil P, Marhaba R, Jung T, Kirmse R, Ludwig T, Zoller M. CD44 variant isoforms promote metastasis formation by a tumor cell-matrix cross-talk that supports adhesion and apoptosis resistance. Mol Cancer Res. 2009;7:168-79 pubmed publisher
  16. Alvero A, Chen R, Fu H, Montagna M, Schwartz P, Rutherford T, et al. Molecular phenotyping of human ovarian cancer stem cells unravels the mechanisms for repair and chemoresistance. Cell Cycle. 2009;8:158-66 pubmed
    ..The identification and cloning of human OCSCs can aid in the development of better therapeutic approaches for ovarian cancer patients. ..
  17. Lee J, Wang M, Sudhir P, Chen J. CD44 engagement promotes matrix-derived survival through the CD44-SRC-integrin axis in lipid rafts. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:5710-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, this study demonstrates an important role of the dynamic raft reorganization induced by CD44 clustering in eliciting the matrix-derived survival signal. ..
  18. Godar S, Ince T, Bell G, Feldser D, Donaher J, Bergh J, et al. Growth-inhibitory and tumor- suppressive functions of p53 depend on its repression of CD44 expression. Cell. 2008;134:62-73 pubmed publisher
    ..They also suggest that the derepression of CD44 resulting from inactivation of p53 can potentially aid the survival of immortalized, premalignant cells. ..
  19. Mori T, Kitano K, Terawaki S, Maesaki R, Fukami Y, Hakoshima T. Structural basis for CD44 recognition by ERM proteins. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:29602-12 pubmed publisher
  20. Simon R, di Sant agnese P, Huang L, Xu H, Yao J, Yang Q, et al. CD44 expression is a feature of prostatic small cell carcinoma and distinguishes it from its mimickers. Hum Pathol. 2009;40:252-8 pubmed publisher
  21. Slomiany M, Grass G, Robertson A, Yang X, Maria B, Beeson C, et al. Hyaluronan, CD44, and emmprin regulate lactate efflux and membrane localization of monocarboxylate transporters in human breast carcinoma cells. Cancer Res. 2009;69:1293-301 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data indicate that constitutive interactions among hyaluronan, CD44, and emmprin contribute to regulation of MCT localization and function in the plasma membrane of breast carcinoma cells. ..
  22. Deng T, Liu J, Pritchard K, Eisen A, Zacksenhaus E. Preferential killing of breast tumor initiating cells by N,N-diethyl-2-[4-(phenylmethyl)phenoxy]ethanamine/tesmilifene. Clin Cancer Res. 2009;15:119-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that continuous treatment with DPPE alone directly targets breast TICs, and provide rationale to test for cooperation between DPPE and known drugs with efficacy toward breast cancer subtypes. ..
  23. Giannopoulos K, Mertens D, Buhler A, Barth T, Idler I, Moller P, et al. The candidate immunotherapeutical target, the receptor for hyaluronic acid-mediated motility, is associated with proliferation and shows prognostic value in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Leukemia. 2009;23:519-27 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, RHAMM expression appears to be of prognostic value, as well as may reflect the proliferative capacity of CLL cells, and might therefore represent interesting target for immunotherapy. ..
  24. Sasaki N, Itakura Y, Toyoda M. Sialylation regulates myofibroblast differentiation of human skin fibroblasts. Stem Cell Res Ther. 2017;8:81 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, regulation of sialylation may be an attractive strategy for the prevention and regenerative therapy of age-related skin diseases, cosmetic skin alterations, and chronic wounds caused by delayed healing in elderly people. ..
  25. Yasuda T. Hyaluronan inhibits prostaglandin E2 production via CD44 in U937 human macrophages. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2010;220:229-35 pubmed
    ..Administration of HA into RA joints may decrease PGE(2) production by activated macrophages, which could result in improvement of arthritic pain. ..
  26. Tanikawa R, Tanikawa T, Hirashima M, Yamauchi A, Tanaka Y. Galectin-9 induces osteoblast differentiation through the CD44/Smad signaling pathway. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;394:317-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Because Smad1 is phosphorylated by BMP receptors, we propose that formation of the CD44/BMP receptor complex induced by galectin-9 may provide a trigger for the activation of Smads. ..
  27. Heyse T, Malcherczyk D, Moll R, Timmesfeld N, Wapelhorst J, Fuchs Winkelmann S, et al. CD44: survival and metastasis in chondrosarcoma. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2010;18:849-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Overexpression of CD44s correlated significantly with metastatic potential and with poorer survival in patients with chondrosarcoma. CD44s might be an independent additional marker, but small sample size remains to be considered. ..
  28. Garraway I, Sun W, Tran C, Perner S, Zhang B, Goldstein A, et al. Human prostate sphere-forming cells represent a subset of basal epithelial cells capable of glandular regeneration in vivo. Prostate. 2010;70:491-501 pubmed publisher
    ..Human prostate sphere-forming cells self-renew, have tissue regeneration capability, and represent a subpopulation of basal cells. ..
  29. Shi M, Jiao J, Lu W, Ye F, Ma D, Dong Q, et al. Identification of cancer stem cell-like cells from human epithelial ovarian carcinoma cell line. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2010;67:3915-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings may provide the evidence needed to explore a new strategy in the treatment of ovarian cancer...
  30. Lee J, Greenwich J, Zhanel G, Han X, Cumming A, Saward L, et al. Modulation of the local neutrophil response by a novel hyaluronic acid-binding peptide reduces bacterial burden during staphylococcal wound infection. Infect Immun. 2010;78:4176-86 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose a novel role for a HABP as an innate immunomodulator in the treatment of MSSA and MRSA surgical wound infection through enhancement of the local CXC chemokine-driven neutrophil response. ..
  31. Chua R, Setzer S, Govindarajan B, Sexton D, Cohen C, Arbiser J. Maspin expression, angiogenesis, prognostic parameters, and outcome in malignant melanoma. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2009;60:758-66 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, maspin is correlated with decreased angiogenesis and tumor thickness less than 0.76 mm in MM. These results indicate maspin may function as a tumor suppressor in MM. ..
  32. Hart F. Cytoskeletal forces produced by extremely low-frequency electric fields acting on extracellular glycoproteins. Bioelectromagnetics. 2010;31:77-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Mechanical forces of similar magnitude have been observed to produce physiological effects. Hence, this electromechanical transduction process is a plausible mechanism for the production of physiological effects by such electric fields. ..
  33. Liu S, Cheng C. Akt Signaling Is Sustained by a CD44 Splice Isoform-Mediated Positive Feedback Loop. Cancer Res. 2017;77:3791-3801 pubmed publisher
    ..i>Cancer Res; 77(14); 3791-801. ©2017 AACR. ..
  34. Kers J, Xu Dubois Y, Rondeau E, Claessen N, Idu M, Roelofs J, et al. Intragraft tubular vimentin and CD44 expression correlate with long-term renal allograft function and interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy. Transplantation. 2010;90:502-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Further area under receiver operator characteristic curve analysis has to establish the predictive value for both biomarkers. ..
  35. Yang H, Zhang D, Deng H, Peng F, Wei Y. Antitumor and anti-angiogenesis immunity induced by CR-SEREX-identified Xenopus RHAMM. Cancer Sci. 2010;101:862-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, a xenogenic vaccine based on xRHAMM induced an effective immunity against B16 melanoma cells and endothelial cells. ..
  36. Doherty R, Sisley K, Hammond D, Rennie I, Cross N. Phenotypic Plasticity in Uveal Melanoma Is Not Restricted to a Tumor Subpopulation and Is Unrelated to Cancer Stem Cell Characteristics. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:5387-5395 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesize that this capacity to undergo phenotypic plasticity may be a consequence of neural crest lineage and renders the exploration of the CSC hypothesis extremely challenging in UM. ..
  37. Patki S, Kadam S, Chandra V, Bhonde R. Human breast milk is a rich source of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells. Hum Cell. 2010;23:35-40 pubmed publisher
    ..The presence of multipotent stem cells in human milk suggests that breast milk could be an alternative source of stem cells for autologous stem cell therapy although the significance of these cells needs to be determined. ..
  38. Horiguchi K, Toi M, Horiguchi S, Sugimoto M, Naito Y, Hayashi Y, et al. Predictive value of CD24 and CD44 for neoadjuvant chemotherapy response and prognosis in primary breast cancer patients. J Med Dent Sci. 2010;57:165-75 pubmed
    ..0001). We found a significant correlation between CD44 expression and prognosis and between CD24 expression and response to chemotherapy. CD24 and CD44 expressions would be useful predictive markers, although further studies are needed. ..
  39. Campo G, Avenoso A, Campo S, D Ascola A, Nastasi G, Calatroni A. Small hyaluronan oligosaccharides induce inflammation by engaging both toll-like-4 and CD44 receptors in human chondrocytes. Biochem Pharmacol. 2010;80:480-90 pubmed publisher
    ..CD44 expression was unaffected. The addition of both CD44 and TLR-4 blocking antibodies significantly reduced CD44, TLR-4 and inflammatory cytokine expression. ..
  40. Yin G, Chen R, Alvero A, Fu H, Holmberg J, Glackin C, et al. TWISTing stemness, inflammation and proliferation of epithelial ovarian cancer cells through MIR199A2/214. Oncogene. 2010;29:3545-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that Twist1 may be an important regulator of 'stemness' in EOC cells. The regulation of MIR199A2/214 expression may be used as a potential therapeutic approach in EOC patients. ..
  41. Glezer I, Bittencourt J, Rivest S. Neuronal expression of Cd36, Cd44, and Cd83 antigen transcripts maps to distinct and specific murine brain circuits. J Comp Neurol. 2009;517:906-24 pubmed publisher
    ..The data also suggest that these surface proteins, or their associated mRNA, could be used to label neurons in specific circuits/regions. ..
  42. Fernandez M, Gonzalez Cappa S, Solana M. Trypanosoma cruzi: Immunological predictors of benznidazole efficacy during experimental infection. Exp Parasitol. 2010;124:172-80 pubmed publisher
    ..cruzi infection. Bz treatment was able to modulate the immunological response by reducing the deleterious effect of the acute phase in all T. cruzi-infected mice. ..
  43. Bartusik D, Tomanek B, Lattova E, Perreault H, Fallone G. Combined treatment of human MCF-7 breast carcinoma with antibody, cationic lipid and hyaluronic acid using ex vivo assays. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2010;51:192-201 pubmed publisher
    ..The data also demonstrate that HA could be used to enhance treatment efficacy of trastuzumab and anti-HER-2 (clone CB11) in breast cancer cell cultures. ..
  44. Germani R, Civantos F, Elgart G, Roberts B, Franzmann E. Molecular markers of micrometastasis in oral cavity carcinomas. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2009;141:52-8 pubmed publisher
    ..016, RR=7.33). Preliminary results suggest that MT1-MMP positivity in primary tumor specimens may identify aggressive tumor types, evidenced by the presence of micrometastasis or PNI. ..
  45. Webber J, Jenkins R, Meran S, Phillips A, Steadman R. Modulation of TGFbeta1-dependent myofibroblast differentiation by hyaluronan. Am J Pathol. 2009;175:148-60 pubmed publisher
    ..While hyaluronan synthesis was both essential and necessary for differentiation, exogenously provided hyaluronan antagonized differentiation, underscoring a pathological role for hyaluronan in such cell fate processes. ..
  46. Agelopoulos K, Greve B, Schmidt H, Pospisil H, Kurtz S, Bartkowiak K, et al. Selective regain of egfr gene copies in CD44+/CD24-/low breast cancer cellular model MDA-MB-468. BMC Cancer. 2010;10:78 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, this process might also be involved in adaptive growth factor receptor intracellular signaling which support survival and migration during cancer development and progression. ..
  47. Oliveras Ferraros C, Vazquez Martin A, Martin Castillo B, Cufí S, del Barco S, Lopez Bonet E, et al. Dynamic emergence of the mesenchymal CD44(pos)CD24(neg/low) phenotype in HER2-gene amplified breast cancer cells with de novo resistance to trastuzumab (Herceptin). Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;397:27-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Intrinsic genetic plasticity to efficiently drive the emergence of the CD44(pos)/CD24(neg/low) mesenchymal phenotype may account for de novo resistance to HER2 targeting therapies in basal-like BC carrying HER2 gene amplification. ..
  48. Rennstam K, McMichael N, Berglund P, Honeth G, Hegardt C, Rydén L, et al. Numb protein expression correlates with a basal-like phenotype and cancer stem cell markers in primary breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010;122:315-24 pubmed publisher
    ..01). Taken together, our results indicate that loss of Numb expression is a marker of tumor aggressiveness, potentially linked to BRCA1 status and a cancer stem cell phenotype in primary breast cancer. ..
  49. Aytekin M, Caylak E. [Hyaluronan and the importance of hyaluronan in diagnosis and treatment]. Tuberk Toraks. 2009;57:356-64 pubmed
    ..In this review, we discussed the structure of hyaluronan and its role in diseases. ..
  50. Pozdnyakova O, Hoang M, Dresser K, Mahalingam M. Prognostic value of E-cadherin, beta-catenin, CD44v6, and HER2/neu in metastatic cutaneous adenocarcinoma. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2009;133:1285-90 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reinforce the complexities of the metastatic cascade and imply that the variation in adhesive properties of tumor cells is, perhaps, a consequence of the difference in density of the molecules mediating this process. ..
  51. Jian Y, Chen C, Lin C, Yu H, Lin H, Liao M, et al. Hyaluronic acid-nimesulide conjugates as anticancer drugs against CD44-overexpressing HT-29 colorectal cancer in vitro and in vivo. Int J Nanomedicine. 2017;12:2315-2333 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicated that HA-nimesulide with improved selectivity through HA/CD44 receptor interactions has the potential to enhance the therapeutic efficacy and safety of nimesulide for cancer treatment. ..
  52. Chang S, Xing R, Zhang F, Duan Y. Serum soluble CD44v6 levels in patients with oral and maxillofacial malignancy. Oral Dis. 2009;15:570-2 pubmed publisher
    ..05). The possible roles of CD44v6 in the diagnosis of oral and maxillofacial malignancy deserve further elucidation and evaluation. Serum sCD44v6 may be a valuable marker in monitoring treatment response in patients with OSCC. ..
  53. Shi H, Fang W, Liu M, Fu D. Complement component 1, q subcomponent binding protein (C1QBP) in lipid rafts mediates hepatic metastasis of pancreatic cancer by regulating IGF-1/IGF-1R signaling. Int J Cancer. 2017;141:1389-1401 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings about C1QBP in lipid rafts provide a novel strategy to block IGF-1/IGF-1R signaling in pancreatic cancer and a reliable premise for more efficient combined modality therapies. ..