cd86 antigens


Summary: A costimulatory ligand glycoprotein that contains a C2 and V-type IMMUNOGLOBULIN DOMAIN. It is expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS and binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.

Top Publications

  1. Ohman L, Lindmark A, Isaksson S, Posserud I, Strid H, Sjovall H, et al. B-cell activation in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2009;21:644-50, e27 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that B-cell antigen presentation in IBS patients is associated with altered capacity of providing costimulation to T cells. ..
  2. Li Q, Feng C, Gao S, Ma J, Wang Y, Wang Y, et al. [Evaluation of immune reconstitution with in vitro-activated T cells from a tumor-bearing host]. Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2010;26:533-5 pubmed
  3. Ohmura Hoshino M, Matsuki Y, Mito Yoshida M, Goto E, Aoki Kawasumi M, Nakayama M, et al. Cutting edge: requirement of MARCH-I-mediated MHC II ubiquitination for the maintenance of conventional dendritic cells. J Immunol. 2009;183:6893-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the accumulation of MHC II resulting from loss of ubiquitination caused cDC abnormality; therefore, MARCH-I may function as a housekeeper of cDC in the steady state. ..
  4. Cook C, Chen L, Wen J, Zimmerman P, Zhang Y, Trgovcich J, et al. CD28/B7-mediated co-stimulation is critical for early control of murine cytomegalovirus infection. Viral Immunol. 2009;22:91-103 pubmed publisher
    ..Cytokine evaluations confirm that CD28/B7 co-stimulation is not required for non-specific antiviral responses. We conclude that CD28-mediated co-stimulation is critical for early viral control during acute MCMV infection. ..
  5. Xu L, Qi J, Zhao P, Liang X, Ju Y, Liu P, et al. T cell immunoglobulin- and mucin-domain-containing molecule-4 attenuates concanavalin A-induced hepatitis by regulating macrophage. J Leukoc Biol. 2010;88:329-36 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, these findings indicate that Tim-4 plays an important role in alleviating liver damage by inhibition of macrophage activity. Tim-4 pathway could be a potential target for the treatment of acute hepatitis. ..
  6. Merant C, Breathnach C, Kohler K, Rashid C, Van Meter P, Horohov D. Young foal and adult horse monocyte-derived dendritic cells differ by their degree of phenotypic maturity. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2009;131:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This may mean that the lack of IFN-gamma in foals is not due to decreased levels of IL-12, IL-15 or IL-18, but rather to lower constitutive levels of TNF-alpha. ..
  7. Usui Y, Takeuchi M, Hattori T, Okunuki Y, Nagasawa K, Kezuka T, et al. Suppression of experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis by regulatory dendritic cells in mice. Arch Ophthalmol. 2009;127:514-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Administration of regulatory DCs potentially inhibited the development of EAU. Application of regulatory DCs may be a novel candidate for immunotherapy for human endogenous uveitis. ..
  8. Khan S, Malik F, Suri K, Singh J. Molecular insight into the immune up-regulatory properties of the leaf extract of Ashwagandha and identification of Th1 immunostimulatory chemical entity. Vaccine. 2009;27:6080-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies demonstrate the possible usefulness of WSL and its major constituent WSL-2 as Th1 immune adjuvants for chronic infectious ailments where patients suffer from weakened Th1 immunity. ..
  9. Bamboat Z, Ocuin L, Balachandran V, Obaid H, Plitas G, Dematteo R. Conventional DCs reduce liver ischemia/reperfusion injury in mice via IL-10 secretion. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:559-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results implicate inflammatory monocytes as mediators of liver I/R injury and reveal that cDCs respond to DAMPS during sterile inflammation, providing the host with protection from progressive tissue damage. ..

More Information


  1. Sommaggio R, Manez R, Costa C. TNF, pig CD86, and VCAM-1 identified as potential targets for intervention in xenotransplantation of pig chondrocytes. Cell Transplant. 2009;18:1381-93 pubmed publisher
    ..These molecules together with TNF could be considered potential targets for intervention in order to develop xenogeneic therapies for cartilage repair. ..
  2. Hughes G, Martin D, Zhang K, Hudkins K, Alpers C, Clark E, et al. Decrease in glomerulonephritis and Th1-associated autoantibody production after progesterone treatment in NZB/NZW mice. Arthritis Rheum. 2009;60:1775-84 pubmed publisher
    ..These data also suggest that treatment of SLE patients with DMPA may have therapeutic benefit. ..
  3. Shumilina E, Xuan N, Schmid E, Bhavsar S, Szteyn K, Gu S, et al. Zinc induced apoptotic death of mouse dendritic cells. Apoptosis. 2010;15:1177-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Higher concentrations of Zn(2+) led to a marked increase of propidium iodide incorporation in DCs of both genotypes. The present study reveals that in DCs Zn(2+) triggers ceramide formation, which in turn compromises cell survival. ..
  4. Dunne M, Madrigal Estebas L, Tobin L, Doherty D. (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2 enyl pyrophosphate-stimulated Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells possess T helper type 1-promoting adjuvant activity for human monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2010;59:1109-20 pubmed publisher
    ..This adjuvant activity may prove useful in DC-based cancer therapies. ..
  5. Migdal C, Foggia L, Tailhardat M, Courtellemont P, Haftek M, Serres M. Sensitization effect of thimerosal is mediated in vitro via reactive oxygen species and calcium signaling. Toxicology. 2010;274:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A cross-talk between ROS and Ca2+ influx was demonstrated. ..
  6. Jones H, Wang Y, Aldridge B, Weiss J. Lung and splenic B cells facilitate diverse effects on in vitro measures of antitumor immune responses. Cancer Immun. 2008;8:4 pubmed
    ..These findings provide additional evidence of the importance of pulmonary B cell responses in tumor defenses. ..
  7. Sarrabayrouse G, Pich C, Moriez R, Armand Labit V, Rochaix P, Favre G, et al. Melanoma cells treated with GGTI and IFN-gamma allow murine vaccination and enhance cytotoxic response against human melanoma cells. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9043 pubmed publisher
  8. Mollov J, Lucas C, Haspot F, Gaspar J, Guzman A, Sykes M. Recipient dendritic cells, but not B cells, are required antigen-presenting cells for peripheral alloreactive CD8+ T-cell tolerance. Am J Transplant. 2010;10:518-526 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, recipient IDO and IL-10 were not required. Thus, antigen presentation by recipient DCs and not by B cells is critical for peripheral alloreactive CD8 T cell tolerance. ..
  9. Ainai A, Ichinohe T, Tamura S, Kurata T, Sata T, Tashiro M, et al. Zymosan enhances the mucosal adjuvant activity of poly(I:C) in a nasal influenza vaccine. J Med Virol. 2010;82:476-84 pubmed publisher
    ..J. Med. Virol. 82:476-484, 2010. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. ..
  10. Bekeredjian Ding I, Schäfer M, Hartmann E, Pries R, Parcina M, Schneider P, et al. Tumour-derived prostaglandin E and transforming growth factor-beta synergize to inhibit plasmacytoid dendritic cell-derived interferon-alpha. Immunology. 2009;128:439-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on these data, cyclooxygenase inhibitors and TGF-beta antagonists may improve TLR7- and TLR9-based tumour immunotherapy. ..
  11. Bimczok D, Verdonck F, Hartig R, Cox E, Rothkötter H. Primary porcine CD11R1+ antigen-presenting cells isolated from small intestinal mucosa mature but lose their T cell stimulatory function in response to cholera toxin treatment. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2010;134:239-48 pubmed publisher
    ..5-fold increase in the expression of maturation markers CD80/CD86, but significant loss of T cell stimulatory function, corroborating previous results obtained with MoDC. ..
  12. Cutolo M, Soldano S, Montagna P, Sulli A, Seriolo B, Villaggio B, et al. CTLA4-Ig interacts with cultured synovial macrophages from rheumatoid arthritis patients and downregulates cytokine production. Arthritis Res Ther. 2009;11:R176 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, macrophages would appear to be a sensitive target for CTLA4-Ig treatment in RA. ..
  13. Ohta N, Ohashi Y, Fujino Y. Ketamine inhibits maturation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells and priming of the Th1-type immune response. Anesth Analg. 2009;109:793-800 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that ketamine inhibits the functional maturation of DCs and interferes with DC induction of Th1 immunity in the whole animal. These novel findings provide new insight into the immunopharmacological role of ketamine. ..
  14. Bertelsen L, Petersen C, Kofod Olsen E, Oster B, Höllsberg P, Agger R, et al. Human herpesvirus 6B induces phenotypic maturation without IL-10 and IL-12p70 production in dendritic cells. Scand J Immunol. 2010;71:431-9 pubmed publisher
    ..However, infected DC were still able to react to bacteria-derived stimuli such as lipopolysaccaharide by an even more pronounced production of IL-10 and IL-12p70 when compared to that of uninfected DC. ..
  15. Hemati B, Contreras V, Urien C, Bonneau M, Takamatsu H, Mertens P, et al. Bluetongue virus targets conventional dendritic cells in skin lymph. J Virol. 2009;83:8789-99 pubmed publisher
    ..BTV initially targets cDCs while preserving their functional properties, reflecting the optimal adaptation of the virus to its host cells for its first spread...
  16. Durães F, Carvalho N, Melo T, Oliveira S, Fonseca C. IL-12 and TNF-alpha production by dendritic cells stimulated with Schistosoma mansoni schistosomula tegument is TLR4- and MyD88-dependent. Immunol Lett. 2009;125:72-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, our findings lead us to conclude that TLR4 is a key receptor involved in Smteg induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines. ..
  17. Grujic M, Bartholdy C, Remy M, Pinschewer D, Christensen J, Thomsen A. The role of CD80/CD86 in generation and maintenance of functional virus-specific CD8+ T cells in mice infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. J Immunol. 2010;185:1730-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, virus-specific T cell memory was more impaired in the absence of B7 molecules than in the absence of the CD28 receptor, supporting earlier data suggesting the existence of additional stimulatory receptors for B7. ..
  18. Boudreau J, Bridle B, Stephenson K, Jenkins K, Brunellière J, Bramson J, et al. Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus transduction of dendritic cells enhances their ability to prime innate and adaptive antitumor immunity. Mol Ther. 2009;17:1465-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings identify DeltaM51-VSV as both an efficient gene-delivery vector and a maturation agent allowing DC vaccines to overcome immunosuppression in the tumor-bearing host. ..
  19. Rudnicka W, Burakowski T, Warnawin E, Jastrzebska M, Bik M, Kontny E, et al. Functional TLR9 modulates bone marrow B cells from rheumatoid arthritis patients. Eur J Immunol. 2009;39:1211-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our data indicate that TLR9 may participate in direct activation and proliferation of B cells in BM, and therefore could play a role in the pathogenesis of RA. ..
  20. Nie Y, Mok M, Chan G, Chan A, Jin O, Kavikondala S, et al. Phenotypic and functional abnormalities of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Res Ther. 2010;12:R91 pubmed publisher
    ..Defects of these cells are evident during their development in BM. BM mDCs are deficient, whereas BM pDCs, which are part of BM FLDCs, are the likely culprit in inducing autoimmunity in SLE. ..
  21. Bühligen J, Himmel M, Gebhardt C, Simon J, Ziegler W, Averbeck M. Lysophosphatidylcholine-mediated functional inactivation of syndecan-4 results in decreased adhesion and motility of dendritic cells. J Cell Physiol. 2010;225:905-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, these DC are defective in adhesion and migration. Based on our results, we hypothesize that LysoPC released during apoptosis might delay DC migration to lymphoid organs and thus prevent autoimmunity. ..
  22. Schreiber H, Hulseberg P, Lee J, Prechl J, Barta P, Szlavik N, et al. Dendritic cells in chronic mycobacterial granulomas restrict local anti-bacterial T cell response in a murine model. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11453 pubmed publisher
    ..This DC shield may explain why mycobacteria are adapted for long-term survival in granulomatous lesions. ..
  23. Tamayo I, Irache J, Mansilla C, Ochoa Reparaz J, Lasarte J, Gamazo C. Poly(anhydride) nanoparticles act as active Th1 adjuvants through Toll-like receptor exploitation. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2010;17:1356-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results provide a better understanding of how NPs act as active Th1 adjuvants in immunoprophylaxis and immunotherapy through TLR exploitation. ..
  24. Vincenti F, Blancho G, Durrbach A, Friend P, Grinyo J, Halloran P, et al. Five-year safety and efficacy of belatacept in renal transplantation. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010;21:1587-96 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, this study demonstrated high patient persistence with intravenous belatacept, stable renal function, predictable pharmacokinetics, and good safety with belatacept over 5 years. ..
  25. Pedersen C, Fang J, Pedersen A. A comparative study of transfection methods for RNA interference in bone marrow-derived murine dendritic cells. Scand J Immunol. 2009;70:447-56 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, this protocol was effective for manipulation of murine BM-DC function through the use of specific siRNA and such methods can be important for the future study of DC-T cell interactions. ..
  26. Bros M, Wiechmann N, Besche V, Art J, Pautz A, Grabbe S, et al. The RNA binding protein tristetraprolin influences the activation state of murine dendritic cells. Mol Immunol. 2010;47:1161-70 pubmed publisher
  27. Yates N, Alexander Miller M. Vaccinia virus infection of mature dendritic cells results in activation of virus-specific naïve CD8+ T cells: a potential mechanism for direct presentation. Virology. 2007;359:349-61 pubmed
  28. Lee J, Shin S, Collins M, Jung I, Jeong Y, Lee C, et al. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis fibronectin attachment protein activates dendritic cells and induces a Th1 polarization. Infect Immun. 2009;77:2979-88 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that FAP modulates the adaptive immune responses to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis by inducing maturation and activation of dendritic cells, which drives Th1 polarization. ..
  29. Pène F, Courtine E, Ouaaz F, Zuber B, Sauneuf B, Sirgo G, et al. Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 contribute to sepsis-induced depletion of spleen dendritic cells. Infect Immun. 2009;77:5651-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, although dispensable for the DC maturation process, TLR2 and TLR4 are involved in the mechanisms leading to depletion of spleen DC following polymicrobial sepsis. ..
  30. Zhang Y, Hikima J, Li J, LaPatra S, Luo Y, Sunyer J. Conservation of structural and functional features in a primordial CD80/86 molecule from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), a primitive teleost fish. J Immunol. 2009;183:83-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Significantly, this finding indicates that the capacity to modulate IL-2 expression is a primordial function that has been conserved both in fish and mammalian CD80/CD86 molecules throughout 350 million years of evolution...
  31. Craig D, Shiratsuchi H, Basson M. Increased extracellular pressure provides a novel adjuvant stimulus for enhancement of conventional dendritic cell maturation strategies. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;387:174-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Cytokine-matured DCs appeared less responsive to pressure. T-cell proliferation correlated with MHC expression. Results suggest mechanical stimulation of DCs may provide a useful adjuvant to TLR-agonist maturation strategies. ..
  32. Jirmo A, Koya R, Sundarasetty B, Pincha M, Yu G, Lai M, et al. Monocytes transduced with lentiviral vectors expressing hepatitis C virus non-structural proteins and differentiated into dendritic cells stimulate multi-antigenic CD8(+) T cell responses. Vaccine. 2010;28:922-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, lentiviral-mediated expression of the multi-antigenic HCV-NS cluster in monocytes subsequently differentiated into DC is a novel potential anti-HCV vaccine modality. ..
  33. Pulko V, Liu X, Krco C, Harris K, Frigola X, Kwon E, et al. TLR3-stimulated dendritic cells up-regulate B7-H1 expression and influence the magnitude of CD8 T cell responses to tumor vaccination. J Immunol. 2009;183:3634-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Selective blockade of negative regulatory molecules in combination with TLR3 agonist may be an effective strategy for increasing the efficacy of tumor vaccines. ..
  34. Hwang S, Actor J. Lactoferrin modulation of BCG-infected dendritic cell functions. Int Immunol. 2009;21:1185-97 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies suggest a mechanism in which lactoferrin may exert adjuvant activity by enhancing DC function to promote generation of antigen-specific T cells. ..
  35. Shi L, Zhou Y, Wang Y, Liang Y, Zhang Z. [Effect of Schistosoma japonicum Mr 22 600 particulated-antigen on dendritic cells and CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells]. Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi. 2010;28:161-5 pubmed
    ..To study the role of Schistosoma japonicum Mr 22 600 particulated-antigen on dendritic cells (DCs) and CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells...
  36. Shi J, Wang M, Wan Y, Ikeda K. [The biological characteristics of peripheral blood CD123+ myeloid dendritic cell]. Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2009;25:204-7 pubmed
    ..05). CD123(+)DC induced with GM-CSF and IL-4 might be more early phase of immature myeloid DC along with the DC differentiation, with special biological characteristics. ..
  37. Niino M, Hirotani M, Miyazaki Y, Sasaki H. Memory and naïve B-cell subsets in patients with multiple sclerosis. Neurosci Lett. 2009;464:74-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that memory and naïve B-cell subsets, especially CD86(+) naïve B cells, CCR5(+) naïve B cells, and CD5(+) memory B cells, might be useful in the study of the pathogenesis of and therapy for MS. ..
  38. Su W, Sun A, Xu D, Zhang H, Yang L, Yuan L, et al. Tongxinluo inhibits oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced maturation of human dendritic cells via activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma pathway. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2010;56:177-83 pubmed publisher
    ..These inhibitory effects of TXL could be partly reversed by silencing the expression of PPAR gamma in DCs. In conclusion, TXL could inhibit OX-LDL-induced maturation of DCs through activating PPAR gamma pathway. ..
  39. Tomura M, Mori Y, Watanabe R, Tanaka M, Miyawaki A, Kanagawa O. Time-lapse observation of cellular function with fluorescent probe reveals novel CTL-target cell interactions. Int Immunol. 2009;21:1145-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, time-lapse observation of cellular interaction with functional probe, SCAT3.1 provides new kinetic information and demonstrates that co-stimulatory molecules regulate the kinetics of CTL-target cell interaction. ..
  40. Kim S, Lee J, Kim S, Jee Y, Kim Y, Park H, et al. Allelic variants of CD40 and CD40L genes interact to promote antibiotic-induced cutaneous allergic reactions. Clin Exp Allergy. 2009;39:1852-6 pubmed publisher
    ..017, odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval)=2.93 (1.20-7.97)]. Our findings suggest that a genetic interaction between CD40 and CD40L favours the development of AICARs. ..
  41. Zouggari Y, Ait Oufella H, Waeckel L, Vilar J, Loinard C, Cochain C, et al. Regulatory T cells modulate postischemic neovascularization. Circulation. 2009;120:1415-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Treg cell response modulates postischemic neovascularization. ..
  42. Csillag A, Boldogh I, Pazmandi K, Magyarics Z, Gogolak P, Sur S, et al. Pollen-induced oxidative stress influences both innate and adaptive immune responses via altering dendritic cell functions. J Immunol. 2010;184:2377-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these data show that pollen exposure-induced oxidative stress may contribute to local innate immunity and participate in the initiation of adaptive immune responses to pollen Ags. ..
  43. Peyrefitte C, Perret M, Garcia S, Rodrigues R, Bagnaud A, Lacote S, et al. Differential activation profiles of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus- and Dugbe virus-infected antigen-presenting cells. J Gen Virol. 2010;91:189-98 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that CCHFV is able to inhibit the activation of inflammatory mediators selectively in infection in vitro and that these differences could be relevant in pathogenesis. ..
  44. Ge C, Li H, He Z, Zhang G, Sun M, Wu N. [Effect of simian vacuolating virus 40 on development and differentiation of dendritic cells from Rhesus macaque]. Bing Du Xue Bao. 2009;25:344-8 pubmed
    ..Down-regulation of expressions of these cell surface molecules indicated that infective SV40 might hamper differentiation and maturation of dendritic cells from rhesus monkey. ..
  45. Migdal C, Tailhardat M, Courtellemont P, Haftek M, Serres M. Responsiveness of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells to thimerosal and mercury derivatives. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2010;246:66-73 pubmed publisher
    ..These data are in agreement with several clinical observations of the high relevance of thimerosal in patch-test reactions and prove that human mono-DCs are useful in vitro tools for determining the allergenic potency of chemicals. ..
  46. Hall K, Blair Zajdel M, Blair G. Defining the role of CD46, CD80 and CD86 in mediating adenovirus type 3 fiber interactions with host cells. Virology. 2009;392:222-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Anti-CD46 antibodies and siRNAs had almost no effect on Ad3 fiber binding or Ad3-EGFP transduction of HeLa cells. However, treatment of A549 cells with CD46 siRNA resulted in some decrease of transduction with Ad3-EGFP. ..
  47. Williams E, Williams C, McLeod J. Identification of PDL-1 as a novel biomarker of sensitizer exposure in dendritic-like cells. Toxicol In Vitro. 2010;24:1727-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings highlight novel biomarkers which, in MUTZ-3 cells, could be taken forward within a multiple biomarker in vitro assay ensuring strong and reliable predictability. ..
  48. Garaud S, Le Dantec C, de Mendoza A, Mageed R, Youinou P, Renaudineau Y. IL-10 production by B cells expressing CD5 with the alternative exon 1B. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009;1173:280-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that E1B-CD5-expressing B cells have the capacity to interfere with the immune response through their ability to produce high levels of IL-10. ..
  49. An S, Kim S, Huh Y, Lee T, Kim H, Park K, et al. Expression of surface markers on the human monocytic leukaemia cell line, THP-1, as indicators for the sensitizing potential of chemicals. Contact Dermatitis. 2009;60:185-92 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that the THP-1 cells are good model for screening contact sensitizers and CD40 could be a useful marker complementary to CD54 and CD86. ..
  50. Huang H, Chiang B. siRNA as a therapy for asthma. Curr Opin Mol Ther. 2009;11:652-63 pubmed
    ..Data from studies with siRNA against molecules involved in allergic responses are summarized, and the potential and limitations of RNAi as a novel therapeutic approach are discussed. ..
  51. Fujimi S, Lapchak P, Zang Y, MacConmara M, Maung A, Delisle A, et al. Murine dendritic cell antigen-presenting cell function is not altered by burn injury. J Leukoc Biol. 2009;85:862-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these findings support the conclusion that DC do not acquire a suppressive phenotype following severe injury in mice. ..
  52. Kohler M, Johnson B, Palen K, Chen Q, Khan J, Orentas R. Tumor antigen analysis in neuroblastoma by serological interrogation of bioinformatic data. Cancer Sci. 2010;101:2316-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Direct testing of serum from patients newly diagnosed with neuroblastoma showed specific serological responses in two of 20 patients. Although NEK2 was not universally recognized, it may serve as a tumor antigen for some patients. ..