Summary: The proteinaceous component of the pancreatic stone in patients with PANCREATITIS.

Top Publications

  1. Jin C, Hayakawa T, Ko S, Ishiguro H, Kitagawa M. Pancreatic stone protein/regenerating protein family in pancreatic and gastrointestinal diseases. Intern Med. 2011;50:1507-16 pubmed
    ..PSP had led to the idea that it might serve as an inhibitor in pancreatic stone formation and PSP was renamed lithostathine. Inhibitory effects of lithostathine in stone formation have been questioned...
  2. Dhar D, Udagawa J, Ishihara S, Otani H, Kinoshita Y, Takasawa S, et al. Expression of regenerating gene I in gastric adenocarcinomas: correlation with tumor differentiation status and patient survival. Cancer. 2004;100:1130-6 pubmed
    ..Determination of REG expression may help to identify aggressive gastric tumors and to tailor appropriate therapy for patients with REG-positive tumors. ..
  3. Lee B, Mustafi D, Cho W, Nakagawa Y. Characterization of calcium binding properties of lithostathine. J Biol Inorg Chem. 2003;8:341-7 pubmed
    The pancreas secretes primarily two types of metabolically important proteins: digestive enzymes and hormones. Lithostathine (LIT) is the only protein excreted from the pancreas that has no known digestive or hormonal activity...
  4. Minamiya Y, Kawai H, Saito H, Ito M, Hosono Y, Motoyama S, et al. REG1A expression is an independent factor predictive of poor prognosis in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Lung Cancer. 2008;60:98-104 pubmed
    ..46; 95% CI, 1.52-14.82; P=0.0012) to be independent factors affecting the 5-year over-all survival rate. High levels of REG1A expression by tumor cells are an independent predictor of a poor prognosis in patients with NSCLC. ..
  5. Motoyama S, Sugiyama T, Ueno Y, Okamoto H, Takasawa S, Nanjo H, et al. REG I expression predicts long-term survival among locally advanced thoracic squamous cell esophageal cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy followed by esophagectomy. Ann Surg Oncol. 2006;13:1724-31 pubmed
    ..0386) that increased the risk of death 8.4-fold. Evaluation of REG I expression in untreated endoscopic biopsy specimens may provide a basis for new treatments of locally advanced thoracic squamous cell esophageal cancers. ..
  6. Usami S, Motoyama S, Koyota S, Wang J, Hayashi Shibuya K, Maruyama K, et al. Regenerating gene I regulates interleukin-6 production in squamous esophageal cancer cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;392:4-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The elevated IL-6 expression seen in REG Ialpha transfectants was silenced by small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown. These finding suggest that REG I may act through IL-6 to exert effects on squamous esophageal cancer cell biology. ..
  7. Yamagishi H, Fukui H, Sekikawa A, Kono T, Fujii S, Ichikawa K, et al. Expression profile of REG family proteins REG Ialpha and REG IV in advanced gastric cancer: comparison with mucin phenotype and prognostic markers. Mod Pathol. 2009;22:906-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Profiling of REG protein expression is useful to for prognostication of patients with gastric cancer. ..
  8. Sasaki Y, Minamiya Y, Takahashi N, Nakagawa T, Katayose Y, Ito A, et al. REG1A expression is an independent factor predictive of poor prognosis in patients with breast cancer. Ann Surg Oncol. 2008;15:3244-51 pubmed publisher
    ..52 to 11.29; P = .0003) to be independent factors affecting the 10-year disease-specific survival rate. High levels of REG1A expression within tumors are an independent predictor of poor prognosis in patients with breast cancer. ..
  9. Kiji T, Dohi Y, Takasawa S, Okamoto H, Nonomura A, Taniguchi S. Activation of regenerating gene Reg in rat and human hearts in response to acute stress. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2005;289:H277-84 pubmed
    ..In view of emerging evidence of Reg for tissue regeneration in a variety of tissues/organs, it is proposed that the damaged heart may be a target for Reg action and that Reg may protect against acute heart stress. ..

More Information


  1. Grønborg M, Bunkenborg J, Kristiansen T, Jensen O, Yeo C, Hruban R, et al. Comprehensive proteomic analysis of human pancreatic juice. J Proteome Res. 2004;3:1042-55 pubmed
    ..The proteins identified in this study could be directly assessed for their potential as biomarkers for pancreatic cancer by quantitative proteomics methods or immunoassays...
  2. Hayashi K, Motoyama S, Koyota S, Koizumi Y, Wang J, Takasawa S, et al. REG I enhances chemo- and radiosensitivity in squamous cell esophageal cancer cells. Cancer Sci. 2008;99:2491-5 pubmed publisher
  3. Yonemura Y, Sakurai S, Yamamoto H, Endou Y, Kawamura T, Bandou E, et al. REG gene expression is associated with the infiltrating growth of gastric carcinoma. Cancer. 2003;98:1394-400 pubmed
    ..The results of the current study suggest that the expression of the REG gene is closely related to the infiltrating property of gastric carcinoma, and may be a prognostic indicator of differentiated adenocarcinoma of the stomach. ..
  4. Violette S, Festor E, Pandrea Vasile I, Mitchell V, Adida C, Dussaulx E, et al. Reg IV, a new member of the regenerating gene family, is overexpressed in colorectal carcinomas. Int J Cancer. 2003;103:185-93 pubmed
    ..Our results point out the potential role of Reg IV in colorectal tumors and its subsequent interest as a pronostic indicator of tumor survival. ..
  5. Gregoire C, Marco S, Thimonier J, Duplan L, Laurine E, Chauvin J, et al. Three-dimensional structure of the lithostathine protofibril, a protein involved in Alzheimer's disease. EMBO J. 2001;20:3313-21 pubmed
    ..We previously established that lithostathine is a protein overexpressed in the pre-clinical stages of Alzheimer's disease...
  6. Livesey F, O Brien J, Li M, Smith A, Murphy L, Hunt S. A Schwann cell mitogen accompanying regeneration of motor neurons. Nature. 1997;390:614-8 pubmed
  7. Hayashi K, Motoyama S, Sugiyama T, Izumi J, Anbai A, Nanjo H, et al. REG Ialpha is a reliable marker of chemoradiosensitivity in squamous cell esophageal cancer patients. Ann Surg Oncol. 2008;15:1224-31 pubmed publisher
    ..We anticipate that it will enable us to provide more appropriate and individualized treatment to patients of advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. ..
  8. Boeck L, Graf R, Eggimann P, Pargger H, Raptis D, Smyrnios N, et al. Pancreatic stone protein: a marker of organ failure and outcome in ventilator-associated pneumonia. Chest. 2011;140:925-932 pubmed publisher
    ..Serum PSP/reg is a biomarker related to organ failure and outcome in patients with VAP.; No.: ISRCTN61015974; URL: ..
  9. Sekikawa A, Fukui H, Fujii S, Ichikawa K, Tomita S, Imura J, et al. REG Ialpha protein mediates an anti-apoptotic effect of STAT3 signaling in gastric cancer cells. Carcinogenesis. 2008;29:76-83 pubmed
    ..The expression of REG Ialpha protein was significantly correlated with that of p-STAT3 in gastric cancer tissues. REG Ialpha protein may play a pivotal role in anti-apoptosis in gastric tumorigenesis under STAT3 activation. ..
  10. Bertrand J, Pignol D, Bernard J, Verdier J, Dagorn J, Fontecilla Camps J. Crystal structure of human lithostathine, the pancreatic inhibitor of stone formation. EMBO J. 1996;15:2678-84 pubmed
    Human lithostathine (HLIT) is a pancreatic glycoprotein which inhibits the growth and nucleation of calcium carbonate crystals. The crystal structure of the monomeric 17 kDa HLIT, determined to a resolution of 1...
  11. Higham A, Bishop L, Dimaline R, Blackmore C, Dobbins A, Varro A, et al. Mutations of RegIalpha are associated with enterochromaffin-like cell tumor development in patients with hypergastrinemia. Gastroenterology. 1999;116:1310-8 pubmed
    ..Gastrin regulates Reg mRNA abundance in human corpus. Mutations of Reg that prevent secretion are associated with ECL cell carcinoids, suggesting a function as an autocrine or paracrine tumor suppressor. ..
  12. Cerini C, Peyrot V, Garnier C, Duplan L, Veesler S, Le Caer J, et al. Biophysical characterization of lithostathine. Evidences for a polymeric structure at physiological pH and a proteolysis mechanism leading to the formation of fibrils. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:22266-74 pubmed
    b>Lithostathine is a calcium carbonate crystal habit modifier. It is found precipitated under the form of fibrils in chronic calcifying pancreatitis or Alzheimer's disease...
  13. Bimmler D, Angst E, Valeri F, Bain M, Scheele G, Frick T, et al. Regulation of PSP/reg in rat pancreas: immediate and steady-state adaptation to different diets. Pancreas. 1999;19:255-67 pubmed
    ..The regulation of PSP/reg thus differs from that of most other pancreatic secretory proteins. Our findings contradict earlier reports that had drawn conclusions based solely on messenger RNA levels. ..
  14. Takasawa S, Ikeda T, Akiyama T, Nata K, Nakagawa K, Shervani N, et al. Cyclin D1 activation through ATF-2 in Reg-induced pancreatic beta-cell regeneration. FEBS Lett. 2006;580:585-91 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the Reg-Reg receptor system stimulates the PI(3)K/ATF-2/cyclin D1 signaling pathway to induce beta-cell regeneration. ..
  15. Zhou L, Zhang R, Wang L, Shen S, Okamoto H, Sugawara A, et al. Upregulation of REG Ialpha accelerates tumor progression in pancreatic cancer with diabetes. Int J Cancer. 2010;127:1795-803 pubmed publisher
    ..This study would shed new insights for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the link between diabetes and PaC. ..
  16. Laurine E, Grégoire C, Fändrich M, Engemann S, Marchal S, Thion L, et al. Lithostathine quadruple-helical filaments form proteinase K-resistant deposits in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:51770-8 pubmed
    Autocatalytic cleavage of lithostathine leads to the formation of quadruple-helical fibrils (QHF-litho) that are present in Alzheimer's disease...
  17. Keel M, Härter L, Reding T, Sun L, Hersberger M, Seifert B, et al. Pancreatic stone protein is highly increased during posttraumatic sepsis and activates neutrophil granulocytes. Crit Care Med. 2009;37:1642-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, PSP/reg binds to and activates neutrophils. Therefore, PSP/reg might be an acute-phase protein that could serve as a marker for posttraumatic complications. ..
  18. Fukui H, Fujii S, Takeda J, Kayahara T, Sekikawa A, Nanakin A, et al. Expression of reg I alpha protein in human gastric cancers. Digestion. 2004;69:177-84 pubmed
    ..The expression of both Reg I alpha and Reg receptor mRNA was detected in all seven gastric cancer cell lines. Reg I alpha protein may play a role in the development of gastric cancers. ..
  19. Csillag C, Nielsen O, Vainer B, Olsen J, Dieckgraefe B, Hendel J, et al. Expression of the genes dual oxidase 2, lipocalin 2 and regenerating islet-derived 1 alpha in Crohn's disease. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2007;42:454-63 pubmed
    ..A global gene expression profile of non-inflamed colonic mucosal cells from patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and of colonic mucosal cells from controls was performed...
  20. Sekikawa A, Fukui H, Fujii S, Takeda J, Nanakin A, Hisatsune H, et al. REG Ialpha protein may function as a trophic and/or anti-apoptotic factor in the development of gastric cancer. Gastroenterology. 2005;128:642-53 pubmed
    ..REG Ialpha gene is inducible by cytokine stimulation and its gene product may function as a mitogenic and/or an antiapoptotic factor in the development of early gastric cancer. ..
  21. Granlund A, Beisvag V, Torp S, Flatberg A, Kleveland P, Ostvik A, et al. Activation of REG family proteins in colitis. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2011;46:1316-23 pubmed publisher
    ..REG protein expression also in pseudomembranous colitis shows that REG family proteins are regulated in inflammatory injury and repair, not specifically for IBD as previously thought. ..
  22. Mauro V, Carette D, Chevallier D, Michiels J, Segretain D, Pointis G, et al. Reg I protein in healthy and seminoma human testis. Histol Histopathol. 2008;23:1195-203 pubmed publisher
    ..These data showing for the first time the weak presence of Reg I in the normal testis and its strong expression in the testis cancer suggest a potential role of Reg I in normal and neoplastic germ cell proliferation. ..
  23. Steele I, Dimaline R, Pritchard D, Peek R, Wang T, Dockray G, et al. Helicobacter and gastrin stimulate Reg1 expression in gastric epithelial cells through distinct promoter elements. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2007;293:G347-54 pubmed
    ..Stimulation of Reg1 by H. pylori required the virulence factor CagA. These data indicate that expression of the putative growth factor Reg1 is controlled through separate promoter elements by gastrin and Helicobacter. ..
  24. Astrosini C, Roeefzaad C, Dai Y, Dieckgraefe B, Jöns T, Kemmner W. REG1A expression is a prognostic marker in colorectal cancer and associated with peritoneal carcinomatosis. Int J Cancer. 2008;123:409-413 pubmed publisher
    ..REG1A turned out to be already significantly raised in peritumoral normal tissue compared to mucosa from healthy individuals, suggesting a molecular field effect of secreted REG1A. ..
  25. Cavard C, Terris B, Grimber G, Christa L, Audard V, Radenen Bussiere B, et al. Overexpression of regenerating islet-derived 1 alpha and 3 alpha genes in human primary liver tumors with beta-catenin mutations. Oncogene. 2006;25:599-608 pubmed
    ..Thus, we report strong evidence that both genes are downstream targets of the Wnt pathway during liver tumorigenesis. ..
  26. Sekikawa A, Fukui H, Fujii S, Nanakin A, Kanda N, Uenoyama Y, et al. Possible role of REG Ialpha protein in ulcerative colitis and colitic cancer. Gut. 2005;54:1437-44 pubmed
    ..The REG Ialpha gene is inducible by cytokines and its gene product may function as a mitogenic and/or an antiapoptotic factor in the UC-colitic cancer sequence. ..
  27. Graf R, Schiesser M, Lussi A, Went P, Scheele G, Bimmler D. Coordinate regulation of secretory stress proteins (PSP/reg, PAP I, PAP II, and PAP III) in the rat exocrine pancreas during experimental acute pancreatitis. J Surg Res. 2002;105:136-44 pubmed
    ..However, PSP/reg regulation appears to sustain high levels while PAP levels are more transient. Since the regulation of this protein family is affected even under mild stress, we define them as secretory stress proteins. ..
  28. Gerbaud V, Pignol D, Loret E, Bertrand J, Berland Y, Fontecilla Camps J, et al. Mechanism of calcite crystal growth inhibition by the N-terminal undecapeptide of lithostathine. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:1057-64 pubmed
    ..Calcite crystals therefore may occur, obstruct pancreatic ducts, and finally cause a lithiasis. Human lithostathine, a protein synthesized by the pancreas, inhibits the growth of calcite crystals by inducing a habit ..
  29. Sekikawa A, Fukui H, Suzuki K, Karibe T, Fujii S, Ichikawa K, et al. Involvement of the IL-22/REG Ialpha axis in ulcerative colitis. Lab Invest. 2010;90:496-505 pubmed publisher
    ..The IL-22-responsive element was located between -142 and -134 in the REG Ialpha promoter region. REG Ialpha protein may have a pathophysiological role as a biological mediator for immune cell-derived IL-22 in the UC mucosa. ..
  30. Tanaka H, Fukui H, Fujii S, Sekikawa A, Yamagishi H, Ichikawa K, et al. Immunohistochemical analysis of REG I? expression in ulcerative colitis-associated neoplastic lesions. Digestion. 2011;83:204-9 pubmed publisher
    ..0001) associated with p53 overexpression. Immunohistochemical analysis of REG I? expression is useful for differential diagnosis of non-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions in UC tissues. ..
  31. Watanabe T, Yonekura H, Terazono K, Yamamoto H, Okamoto H. Complete nucleotide sequence of human reg gene and its expression in normal and tumoral tissues. The reg protein, pancreatic stone protein, and pancreatic thread protein are one and the same product of the gene. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:7432-9 pubmed
    ..L., and Wands, J. R. (1985) J. Clin. Invest. 76, 2115-2126), indicating that the reg protein, pancreatic stone protein, and pancreatic thread protein are simply different names for a single protein deriving from the reg gene. ..
  32. Lu Y, Ponton A, Okamoto H, Takasawa S, Herrera P, Liu J. Activation of the Reg family genes by pancreatic-specific IGF-I gene deficiency and after streptozotocin-induced diabetes in mouse pancreas. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006;291:E50-8 pubmed
    ..These uncharacterized Reg proteins may play a similar but more potent role, not only in normal islet cell growth in PID mice, but also in islet cell regeneration after T1D. ..
  33. Kimura T, Fukui H, Sekikawa A, Yamagishi H, Ichikawa K, Tomita S, et al. Involvement of REG Ialpha protein in the regeneration of ductal epithelial cells in the minor salivary glands of patients with Sjögren's syndrome. Clin Exp Immunol. 2009;155:16-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, these labelling indices were significantly higher in REG Ialpha-positive than in negative SS patients. REG Ialpha protein may play a role in the regeneration of ductal epithelial cells in the MSGs of patients with SS...
  34. Viterbo D, Callender G, DiMaio T, Mueller C, Smith Norowitz T, Zenilman M, et al. Administration of anti-Reg I and anti-PAPII antibodies worsens pancreatitis. JOP. 2009;10:15-23 pubmed
    ..Administration of anti-Reg/PAP antibody worsened taurocholate-induced organ specific pancreatitis. These data suggest that the Reg family of proteins is protective in acute pancreatitis. ..
  35. Sanchez D, Mueller C, Zenilman M. Pancreatic regenerating gene I and acinar cell differentiation: influence on cellular lineage. Pancreas. 2009;38:572-7 pubmed
    ..Reg I expression in acinar cells is important in maintaining pancreatic cell lineage, and when decreased, cells can dedifferentiate and move toward becoming other pancreatic cells. ..
  36. Luo C, Li B, Liu L, Yin H, Wang M, Liu J. Transcriptional activation of Reg2 and Reg3? genes by glucocorticoids and interleukin-6 in pancreatic acinar and islet cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2013;365:187-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Prominent stimulation of specific Reg genes by glucocorticoids may constitute a functional synergism. ..
  37. de la Monte S, Wands J. Neurodegeneration changes in primary central nervous system neurons transfected with the Alzheimer-associated neuronal thread protein gene. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2001;58:844-9 pubmed
    ..In addition, we demonstrate that primary post-mitotic neurons can be efficiently transfected with conventional recombinant plasmid DNA to evaluate the effects of gene over-expression in relevant in vitro models. ..
  38. Rouimi P, Bonicel J, Rovery M, De caro A. Cleavage of the Arg-Ile bond in the native polypeptide chain of human pancreatic stone protein. FEBS Lett. 1987;216:195-9 pubmed
  39. De Reggi M, Capon C, Gharib B, Wieruszeski J, Michel R, Fournet B. The glycan moiety of human pancreatic lithostathine. Structure characterization and possible pathophysiological implications. Eur J Biochem. 1995;230:503-10 pubmed
    b>Lithostathine, also known as pancreatic stone protein, pancreatic thread protein or regenerating protein, is a glycoprotein which is normally found in the exocrine pancreas, whereas in other tissues it appears either only under ..
  40. Perfetti R, Hawkins A, Griffin C, Egan J, Zenilman M, Shuldiner A. Assignment of the human pancreatic regenerating (REG) gene to chromosome 2p12. Genomics. 1994;20:305-7 pubmed
    ..With these approaches, we show that the human reg gene is located on the short arm of chromosome 2 near the centromere at band 2p12. ..
  41. Sanchez D, Figarella C, Marchand Pinatel S, Bruneau N, Guy Crotte O. Preferential expression of reg I beta gene in human adult pancreas. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001;284:729-37 pubmed
    ..In human pancreatic cell lines we showed the only expression of reg I beta gene and protein. All these data suggest that the two reg genes and proteins could play different roles in the pancreas. ..
  42. Kazumori H, Ishihara S, Fukuda R, Kinoshita Y. Localization of Reg receptor in rat fundic mucosa. J Lab Clin Med. 2002;139:101-8 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that regenerating protein may act not only as a regulator of gastric epithelial cell proliferation but also as a modifier of other multiple physiologic functions. ..
  43. Verbeek M, De Jong D, Kremer H. Brain-specific proteins in cerebrospinal fluid for the diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases. Ann Clin Biochem. 2003;40:25-40 pubmed
    ..Development of disease-specific CSF biomarkers will undoubtedly add to the process of differential diagnosis early in the course of the disease. ..
  44. Iovanna J, Dagorn J. The multifunctional family of secreted proteins containing a C-type lectin-like domain linked to a short N-terminal peptide. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005;1723:8-18 pubmed
    PSP/Lithostathine/PTP/regI, PAP/p23/HIP, reg1L, regIV and "similar to PAP" are the members of a multifunctional family of secreted proteins containing a C-type lectin-like domain linked to a short N-terminal peptide...
  45. Yoshino N, Ishihara S, Rumi M, Ortega Cava C, Yuki T, Kazumori H, et al. Interleukin-8 regulates expression of Reg protein in Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric mucosa. Am J Gastroenterol. 2005;100:2157-66 pubmed
    ..Further, our findings provide evidence of a novel link between Reg protein and H. pylori infection, which may help explain the molecular mechanisms underlying H. pylori-associated diseases, including gastric cancer. ..
  46. Banchuin N, Boonyasrisawat W, Pulsawat P, Vannasaeng S, Deerochanawong C, Sriussadaporn S, et al. No abnormalities of reg1 alpha and reg1 beta gene associated with diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2002;55:105-11 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, using PCR-SSCP and nucleotide sequence analyses, we did not find any association between abnormalities of either reg1 alpha or reg1 beta gene with any type of diabetes studied. ..
  47. Chinuki D, Amano Y, Ishihara S, Moriyama N, Ishimura N, Kazumori H, et al. REG Ialpha protein expression in Barrett's esophagus. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008;23:296-302 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study is the first to show REG expression in Barrett's esophagus. Expression of REG Ialpha was more frequently observed in patients who showed squamous re-epithelialization of Barrett's esophagus at biopsy sites. ..
  48. Sanchez D, Gmyr V, Kerr Conte J, Kloppel G, Zenilman M, Guy Crotte O, et al. Implication of Reg I in human pancreatic duct-like cells in vivo in the pathological pancreas and in vitro during exocrine dedifferentiation. Pancreas. 2004;29:14-21 pubmed
    ..We postulate that Reg I might be used as a marker to understand the events leading to phenotypic changes of acinar cells to address the physiological role of Reg I in the pancreas. ..
  49. Renugopalakrishnan V, Dobbs J, Collette T, Carreira L, Hutson T, Garduno Juarez R. Human pancreatic thread protein, an exocrine thread protein with possible implications to Alzheimer's disease: secondary structure in solution at acid pH. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999;258:653-6 pubmed
    ..The secondary structure of HPTP and its globule-fibril transformation lend credence to the belief that AD may be viewed as a conformational disease. ..
  50. Nakae Y, Naruse S, Kitagawa M, Ishiguro H, Kato M, Hayakawa S, et al. Molecular forms of serum pancreatic stone protein in acute pancreatitis. Int J Pancreatol. 1999;25:17-21 pubmed
    ..05), and the cutoff value to distinguish the two groups was 30 ng/mL. Serum PSP-S1 did not show significant correlation with total PSP, immunoreactive trypsin, or C-reactive protein. ..
  51. Baeza N, Moriscot C, Renaud W, Okamoto H, Figarella C, Vialettes B. Pancreatic regenerating gene overexpression in the nonobese diabetic mouse during active diabetogenesis. Diabetes. 1996;45:67-70 pubmed
    ..All of these data suggest that there is a strong correlation between reg gene expression in the pancreas of the NOD mouse and the likelihood of developing diabetes. ..
  52. Unno M, Yonekura H, Nakagawara K, Watanabe T, Miyashita H, Moriizumi S, et al. Structure, chromosomal localization, and expression of mouse reg genes, reg I and reg II. A novel type of reg gene, reg II, exists in the mouse genome. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:15974-82 pubmed
    ..It is remarkable that in the gallbladder reg I is expressed, but reg II is not. ..
  53. Shanmukhappa K, Mourya R, Sabla G, Degen J, Bezerra J. Hepatic to pancreatic switch defines a role for hemostatic factors in cellular plasticity in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:10182-7 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these data reveal a regulatory role for the hemostatic factors plasmin(ogen) and fibrin(ogen) in cellular plasticity within adult tissues of the digestive system. ..