thymidine phosphorylase

Summary

Summary: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of 2-deoxy-D-ribose from THYMIDINE to orthophosphate, thereby liberating thymidine.

Top Publications

  1. Thanasai J, Limpaiboon T, Jearanaikoon P, Sripa B, Pairojkul C, Tantimavanich S, et al. Effects of thymidine phosphorylase on tumor aggressiveness and 5-fluorouracil sensitivity in cholangiocarcinoma. World J Gastroenterol. 2010;16:1631-8 pubmed
    To evaluate the role of thymidine phosphorylase (TP) in cholangiocarcinoma using small interfering RNA (siRNA)...
  2. Ciaparrone M, Quirino M, Schinzari G, Zannoni G, Corsi D, Vecchio F, et al. Predictive role of thymidylate synthase, dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase and thymidine phosphorylase expression in colorectal cancer patients receiving adjuvant 5-fluorouracil. Oncology. 2006;70:366-77 pubmed
    The combined assessment of thymidylate synthase (TS), dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) and thymidine phosphorylase (TP) gene expressions in metastatic colorectal cancer has been reported to be able to predict the efficacy of ..
  3. Ichikawa W. Prediction of clinical outcome of fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy for gastric cancer patients, in terms of the 5-fluorouracil metabolic pathway. Gastric Cancer. 2006;9:145-55 pubmed
    ..The gene expressions of thymidylate synthase, dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase, thymidine phosphorylase, and orotate phosphoribosyltransferase are discussed in relation to the efficacy of fluoropyrimidine ..
  4. Ezaki T, Ikegami T, Maeda T, Yamada T, Ishida T, Hashizume M, et al. Prognostic value of thymidine phosphorylase activity in liver tissue adjacent to hepatocellular carcinoma. Int J Clin Oncol. 2005;10:171-6 pubmed
    Measurement of thymidine phosphorylase (TP) activity in normal liver tissue adjacent to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) may predict multicentric recurrence a long time after an operation...
  5. Nonomura N, Nakai Y, Nakayama M, Inoue H, Nishimura K, Hatanaka E, et al. The expression of thymidine phosphorylase is a prognostic predictor for the intravesical recurrence of superficial bladder cancer. Int J Clin Oncol. 2006;11:297-302 pubmed
    b>Thymidine phosphorylase (TP), also known as platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor, has been implicated in the angiogenesis of bladder cancer...
  6. Bakker J, Schlesser P, Smeets H, Francois B, Bierau J. Biochemical abnormalities in a patient with thymidine phosphorylase deficiency with fatal outcome. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2010;33 Suppl 3:S139-43 pubmed publisher
    Deficiency of the cytosolic enzyme thymidine phosphorylase (TP) causes a multisystem disorder called mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE) syndrome...
  7. Uchida K, Danenberg P, Danenberg K, Grem J. Thymidylate synthase, dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase, ERCC1, and thymidine phosphorylase gene expression in primary and metastatic gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma tissue in patients treated on a phase I trial of oxaliplatin and capecitabine. BMC Cancer. 2008;8:386 pubmed publisher
    ..Over-expression of ERCC1 correlates with insensitivity to oxaliplatin (OX) therapy, while high thymidine phosphorylase (TP) levels predict for increased sensitivity to capecitabine (Xel)...
  8. Nakajima Y, Haraguchi M, Furukawa T, Yamamoto M, Nakanishi H, Tatematsu M, et al. 2-Deoxy-L-ribose inhibits the invasion of thymidine phosphorylase-overexpressing tumors by suppressing matrix metalloproteinase-9. Int J Cancer. 2006;119:1710-6 pubmed
    b>Thymidine phosphorylase (TP), an enzyme involved in pyrimidine metabolism, is identical with an angiogenic factor, platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor...
  9. Kuramochi H, Hayashi K, Uchida K, Miyakura S, Shimizu D, Vallbohmer D, et al. 5-fluorouracil-related gene expression levels in primary colorectal cancer and corresponding liver metastasis. Int J Cancer. 2006;119:522-6 pubmed
    Gene expression levels of thymidylate synthase (TS), dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), thymidine phosphorylase (TP) and orotate phosphoribosyl transferase (OPRT) have been shown to be associated with response to 5-fluorouracil-based ..
  10. La Marca G, Malvagia S, Casetta B, Pasquini E, Pela I, Hirano M, et al. Pre- and post-dialysis quantitative dosage of thymidine in urine and plasma of a MNGIE patient by using HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. J Mass Spectrom. 2006;41:586-92 pubmed
    ..The disease is due to a thymidine phosphorylase defect. This enzyme catalyses the phosphorolysis of thymidine to thymine and deoxyribose 1-phosphate...

Detail Information

Publications62

  1. Thanasai J, Limpaiboon T, Jearanaikoon P, Sripa B, Pairojkul C, Tantimavanich S, et al. Effects of thymidine phosphorylase on tumor aggressiveness and 5-fluorouracil sensitivity in cholangiocarcinoma. World J Gastroenterol. 2010;16:1631-8 pubmed
    To evaluate the role of thymidine phosphorylase (TP) in cholangiocarcinoma using small interfering RNA (siRNA)...
  2. Ciaparrone M, Quirino M, Schinzari G, Zannoni G, Corsi D, Vecchio F, et al. Predictive role of thymidylate synthase, dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase and thymidine phosphorylase expression in colorectal cancer patients receiving adjuvant 5-fluorouracil. Oncology. 2006;70:366-77 pubmed
    The combined assessment of thymidylate synthase (TS), dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) and thymidine phosphorylase (TP) gene expressions in metastatic colorectal cancer has been reported to be able to predict the efficacy of ..
  3. Ichikawa W. Prediction of clinical outcome of fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy for gastric cancer patients, in terms of the 5-fluorouracil metabolic pathway. Gastric Cancer. 2006;9:145-55 pubmed
    ..The gene expressions of thymidylate synthase, dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase, thymidine phosphorylase, and orotate phosphoribosyltransferase are discussed in relation to the efficacy of fluoropyrimidine ..
  4. Ezaki T, Ikegami T, Maeda T, Yamada T, Ishida T, Hashizume M, et al. Prognostic value of thymidine phosphorylase activity in liver tissue adjacent to hepatocellular carcinoma. Int J Clin Oncol. 2005;10:171-6 pubmed
    Measurement of thymidine phosphorylase (TP) activity in normal liver tissue adjacent to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) may predict multicentric recurrence a long time after an operation...
  5. Nonomura N, Nakai Y, Nakayama M, Inoue H, Nishimura K, Hatanaka E, et al. The expression of thymidine phosphorylase is a prognostic predictor for the intravesical recurrence of superficial bladder cancer. Int J Clin Oncol. 2006;11:297-302 pubmed
    b>Thymidine phosphorylase (TP), also known as platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor, has been implicated in the angiogenesis of bladder cancer...
  6. Bakker J, Schlesser P, Smeets H, Francois B, Bierau J. Biochemical abnormalities in a patient with thymidine phosphorylase deficiency with fatal outcome. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2010;33 Suppl 3:S139-43 pubmed publisher
    Deficiency of the cytosolic enzyme thymidine phosphorylase (TP) causes a multisystem disorder called mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE) syndrome...
  7. Uchida K, Danenberg P, Danenberg K, Grem J. Thymidylate synthase, dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase, ERCC1, and thymidine phosphorylase gene expression in primary and metastatic gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma tissue in patients treated on a phase I trial of oxaliplatin and capecitabine. BMC Cancer. 2008;8:386 pubmed publisher
    ..Over-expression of ERCC1 correlates with insensitivity to oxaliplatin (OX) therapy, while high thymidine phosphorylase (TP) levels predict for increased sensitivity to capecitabine (Xel)...
  8. Nakajima Y, Haraguchi M, Furukawa T, Yamamoto M, Nakanishi H, Tatematsu M, et al. 2-Deoxy-L-ribose inhibits the invasion of thymidine phosphorylase-overexpressing tumors by suppressing matrix metalloproteinase-9. Int J Cancer. 2006;119:1710-6 pubmed
    b>Thymidine phosphorylase (TP), an enzyme involved in pyrimidine metabolism, is identical with an angiogenic factor, platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor...
  9. Kuramochi H, Hayashi K, Uchida K, Miyakura S, Shimizu D, Vallbohmer D, et al. 5-fluorouracil-related gene expression levels in primary colorectal cancer and corresponding liver metastasis. Int J Cancer. 2006;119:522-6 pubmed
    Gene expression levels of thymidylate synthase (TS), dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), thymidine phosphorylase (TP) and orotate phosphoribosyl transferase (OPRT) have been shown to be associated with response to 5-fluorouracil-based ..
  10. La Marca G, Malvagia S, Casetta B, Pasquini E, Pela I, Hirano M, et al. Pre- and post-dialysis quantitative dosage of thymidine in urine and plasma of a MNGIE patient by using HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. J Mass Spectrom. 2006;41:586-92 pubmed
    ..The disease is due to a thymidine phosphorylase defect. This enzyme catalyses the phosphorolysis of thymidine to thymine and deoxyribose 1-phosphate...
  11. Nakayama Y, Inoue Y, Nagashima N, Katsuki T, Matsumoto K, Kadowaki K, et al. Expression levels of thymidine phosphorylase (TP) and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) in patients with gastrointestinal cancer. Anticancer Res. 2005;25:3755-61 pubmed
    b>Thymidine phosphorylase (TP) is a key enzyme involved in pyrimidine nucleoside metabolism. Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) is the major catabolic enzyme of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)...
  12. Ko J, Tsai M, Chiu Y, Weng S, Kuo Y, Lin Y. Up-regulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2-dependent thymidylate synthase and thymidine phosphorylase contributes to cisplatin resistance in human non-small-cell lung cancer cells. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2011;338:184-94 pubmed publisher
    ..TS and thymidine phosphorylase (TP) are key enzymes of the pyrimidine salvage pathway...
  13. Hirano M, Lagier Tourenne C, Valentino M, Marti R, Nishigaki Y. Thymidine phosphorylase mutations cause instability of mitochondrial DNA. Gene. 2005;354:152-6 pubmed
    ..This disorder is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding thymidine phosphorylase (TP) a cytosolic enzyme...
  14. Fujimoto J, Toyoki H, Jahan I, Alam S, Sakaguchi H, Sato E, et al. Sex steroid-dependent angiogenesis in uterine endometrial cancers. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2005;93:161-5 pubmed
    ..Progesterone primed with estrogen induces thymidine phosphorylase (TP) in uterine endometrium...
  15. Temmink O, de Bruin M, Turksma A, Cricca S, Laan A, Peters G. Activity and substrate specificity of pyrimidine phosphorylases and their role in fluoropyrimidine sensitivity in colon cancer cell lines. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2007;39:565-75 pubmed
    b>Thymidine phosphorylase (TP) and uridine phosphorylase (UP) are often upregulated in solid tumors and catalyze the phosphorolysis of natural (deoxy)nucleosides and a wide variety of fluorinated pyrimidine nucleosides...
  16. Nakajima Y, Madhyastha R, Maruyama M. 2-Deoxy-D-ribose, a downstream mediator of thymidine phosphorylase, regulates tumor angiogenesis and progression. Anticancer Agents Med Chem. 2009;9:239-45 pubmed
    ..b>Thymidine phosphorylase (TP, EC 2. 4. 2...
  17. de Bruin M, van Capel T, Smid K, van der Born K, Fukushima M, Hoekman K, et al. Role of platelet derived endothelial cell growth factor/thymidine phosphorylase in fluoropyrimidine sensitivity and potential role of deoxyribose-1-phosphate. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2004;23:1485-90 pubmed
    b>Thymidine phosphorylase (TP) catalyzes the phosphorolytic cleavage of thymidine (TdR) to thymine and deoxyribose-1-phosphate (dR-1-P)...
  18. Bijnsdorp I, Vrijland K, Vroling L, Fukushima M, Peters G. Increased migration by stimulation of thymidine phosphorylase in endothelial cells of different origin. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2010;29:482-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Thymidine phosphorylase (TP) catalyzes the phosphorylytic cleavage of thymidine to thymine and deoxyribose-1-phosphate. The latter may be involved in the angiogenic stimulation of TP...
  19. Tsuchiya H, Kuwata K, Nagayama S, Yamashita K, Kamiya H, Harashima H. Pharmacokinetic modeling of species-dependent enhanced bioavailability of trifluorothymidine by thymidine phosphorylase inhibitor. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 2004;19:206-15 pubmed
    ..These results are consistent to observations that thymidine phosphorylase (TPase) is predominantly expressed in monkeys; while uridine phosphorylase (UPase) is superior to TPase ..
  20. Toi M, Atiqur Rahman M, Bando H, Chow L. Thymidine phosphorylase (platelet-derived endothelial-cell growth factor) in cancer biology and treatment. Lancet Oncol. 2005;6:158-66 pubmed
    b>Thymidine phosphorylase (TP) is often induced in the tumour microenvironment by physiological and chemical stress. Its induction protects cells from apoptosis and helps cell survival by stimulating nucleoside metabolism and angiogenesis...
  21. Jakob C, Liersch T, Meyer W, Baretton G, Schwabe W, Häusler P, et al. Prognostic value of histologic tumor regression, thymidylate synthase, thymidine phosphorylase, and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase in rectal cancer UICC Stage II/III after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Am J Surg Pathol. 2006;30:1169-74 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the prognostic value of thymidylate synthase (TS)-gene, thymidine phosphorylase (TP)-gene, and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD)-gene expression after neoadjuvant CT/RT was ..
  22. Lee S, Choi Y, Park Y, Kim S, Cho E, Ahn J, et al. Thymidylate synthase and thymidine phosphorylase as predictive markers of capecitabine monotherapy in patients with anthracycline- and taxane-pretreated metastatic breast cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2011;68:743-51 pubmed publisher
    The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of thymidylate synthase (TS) and thymidine phosphorylase (TP) as biomarkers to predict clinical outcomes of capecitabine monotherapy in patients with anthracycline- and taxane-..
  23. Saif M, Black G, Johnson M, Russo S, Diasio R. Radiation recall phenomenon secondary to capecitabine: possible role of thymidine phosphorylase. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2006;58:771-5 pubmed
    ..Further studies, including the role of TP are warranted into the pathogenesis of this unique phenomenon. ..
  24. Grierson J, Brockenbrough J, Rasey J, Wiens L, Vesselle H. Synthesis and in vitro evaluation of 5-fluoro-6-[(2-iminopyrrolidin-1-YL)methyl]uracil, TPI(F): an inhibitor of human thymidine phosphorylase (TP). Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2010;29:49-54 pubmed publisher
    ..5-fluoro analog of TPI (5-chloro-6-[(2-iminopyrrolidin-1-yl)methyl]uracil), a potent inhibitor of human thymidine phosphorylase (TP), has an IC(50) in a range that might allow to use it labeled for imaging of TP expression in vivo...
  25. Meropol N, Gold P, Diasio R, Andria M, Dhami M, Godfrey T, et al. Thymidine phosphorylase expression is associated with response to capecitabine plus irinotecan in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2006;24:4069-77 pubmed
    ..for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), and to describe the association of expression of thymidine phosphorylase (TP), thymidylate synthase (TS), and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) with antitumor activity...
  26. Laforce R, Valdmanis P, Dupre N, Rouleau G, Turgeon A, Savard M. A novel TYMP mutation in a French Canadian patient with mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2009;111:691-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutations in the nuclear gene TYMP encoding for thymidine phosphorylase (TP) cause loss of TP activity, systemic accumulation of its substrates in plasma and tissues, as well as ..
  27. Akizawa H, Zhao S, Takahashi M, Nishijima K, Kuge Y, Tamaki N, et al. In vitro and in vivo evaluations of a radioiodinated thymidine phosphorylase inhibitor as a tumor diagnostic agent for angiogenic enzyme imaging. Nucl Med Biol. 2010;37:427-32 pubmed publisher
    The expression of thymidine phosphorylase (TP) is closely associated with angiogenesis, tumor invasiveness and activation of antitumor agents...
  28. Lassmann S, Hennig M, Rosenberg R, Nahrig J, Schreglmann J, Krause F, et al. Thymidine phosphorylase, dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase and thymidylate synthase mRNA expression in primary colorectal tumors-correlation to tumor histopathology and clinical follow-up. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2006;21:238-47 pubmed
    Evaluation of thymidine phosphorylase (TP), dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), and thymidylate synthase (TS) mRNA levels in formalin-fixed, and paraffin-embedded tissues of patients with colorectal cancer and their prognostic and/or ..
  29. Torres Torronteras J, Gomez A, Eixarch H, Palenzuela L, Pizzorno G, Hirano M, et al. Hematopoietic gene therapy restores thymidine phosphorylase activity in a cell culture and a murine model of MNGIE. Gene Ther. 2011;18:795-806 pubmed publisher
    ..MNGIE) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the TYMP gene, which encodes thymidine phosphorylase (TP)...
  30. Pula G, Garonna E, Dunn W, Hirano M, Pizzorno G, Campanella M, et al. Paracrine stimulation of endothelial cell motility and angiogenesis by platelet-derived deoxyribose-1-phosphate. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2010;30:2631-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This phenomenon was ablated by genetic silencing of dRP-generating uridine phosphorylase (UP) and thymidine phosphorylase (TP) or pharmacological inhibition of UP and restored by exogenous dRP...
  31. Slager E, Honders M, van der Meijden E, van Luxemburg Heijs S, Kloosterboer F, Kester M, et al. Identification of the angiogenic endothelial-cell growth factor-1/thymidine phosphorylase as a potential target for immunotherapy of cancer. Blood. 2006;107:4954-60 pubmed
    ..polymorphism (SNP) in the angiogenic endothelial-cell growth factor-1 (ECGF1) gene also known as thymidine phosphorylase. The SNP leads to an Arg-to-His substitution in an alternatively translated peptide that is recognized by ..
  32. Chen L, Hsueh C, Tsang N, Liang Y, Chang K, Hao S, et al. Heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein k and thymidine phosphorylase are independent prognostic and therapeutic markers for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2008;14:3807-13 pubmed publisher
    Heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) regulates thymidine phosphorylase (TP) mRNA stability...
  33. Miyatani T, Kurita N, Utsunomiya T, Iwata T, Nishioka M, Yoshikawa K, et al. Platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor/thymidine phosphorylase inhibitor augments radiotherapeutic efficacy in experimental colorectal cancer. Cancer Lett. 2012;318:199-205 pubmed publisher
    ..However, there are few to be available in the clinical setting. Thymidine phosphorylase inhibitor (TPI) regulates the phosphorolysis of thymidine to thymine and 2-deoxy-d-ribose-1-phosphate ..
  34. Chen L, Liu H, Li H, Hsueh C, Yu J, Liang C, et al. Thymidine phosphorylase mRNA stability and protein levels are increased through ERK-mediated cytoplasmic accumulation of hnRNP K in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells. Oncogene. 2009;28:1904-15 pubmed publisher
    ..nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) is significantly correlated with the elevated expression of thymidine phosphorylase (TP), and high levels of both proteins are predictive of a poor prognosis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (..
  35. Taanman J, Daras M, Albrecht J, Davie C, Mallam E, Muddle J, et al. Characterization of a novel TYMP splice site mutation associated with mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE). Neuromuscul Disord. 2009;19:151-4 pubmed publisher
    ..encephalomyopathy is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in the thymidine phosphorylase gene (TYMP). We report here a patient compound heterozygous for two TYMP mutations: a novel g...
  36. Hayashi T, Kawahara H, Kobayashi S, Kashiwagi H, Hirai K, Yanaga K. Importance of thymidine phosphorylase, dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase and thymidylate synthase expression at the invasive front of T3 rectal cancer as prognostic factors. Hepatogastroenterology. 2008;55:403-6 pubmed
    We evaluated a relationship between postoperative recurrence and thymidine phosphorylase (TP), dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) and thymidylate synthase (TS) expression at the invasive front of T3 rectal cancer...
  37. van Kuilenburg A, Zoetekouw L. Determination of thymidine phosphorylase activity by a non-radiochemical assay using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2005;820:271-275 pubmed
    b>Thymidine phosphorylase (TP) catalyses the conversion of thymidine into thymine. A non-radiochemical assay procedure for TP was developed in which thymine was detected at 265 nm after separation with reversed-phase HPLC...
  38. Liakakos T, Troupis T, Ghiconti I, Triantafyllidis S, Macheras A, Karatzas G, et al. Immunohistochemical localization of thymidine phosphorylase in gastric cancer: is there a role of the differential expression in tumor cells and associated stromal cells?. Anticancer Res. 2006;26:3899-903 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of thymidine phosphorylase (TP), a known angiogenic factor for endothelial cells, in gastric carcinoma cells and tumor-associated stromal cells...
  39. Di Gennaro E, Piro G, Chianese M, Franco R, Di Cintio A, Moccia T, et al. Vorinostat synergises with capecitabine through upregulation of thymidine phosphorylase. Br J Cancer. 2010;103:1680-91 pubmed publisher
    ..induce synergistic antitumour effects in combination with capecitabine by modulating the expression of thymidine phosphorylase (TP), a key enzyme in the conversion of capecitabine to 5-florouracil (5-FU), and thymidylate synthase (..
  40. Bijnsdorp I, de Bruin M, Laan A, Fukushima M, Peters G. The role of platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor/thymidine phosphorylase in tumor behavior. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2008;27:681-91 pubmed publisher
    Platelet-derived endothelial cell growth-factor (PD-ECGF) is similar to the pyrimidine enzyme thymidine phosphorylase (TP). A high TP expression at tumor sites is correlated with tumor growth, induction of angiogenesis, and metastasis...
  41. Koizumi W, Okayasu I, Hyodo I, Sakamoto J, Kojima H. Prediction of the effect of capecitabine in gastric cancer by immunohistochemical staining of thymidine phosphorylase and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase. Anticancer Drugs. 2008;19:819-24 pubmed publisher
    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the expression of thymidine phosphorylase (TP) and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) and the response to capecitabine in patients with advanced/recurrent gastric ..
  42. Layman R, Thomas D, Griffith K, Smerage J, Helvie M, Roubidoux M, et al. Neoadjuvant docetaxel and capecitabine and the use of thymidine phosphorylase as a predictive biomarker in breast cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2007;13:4092-7 pubmed
    b>Thymidine phosphorylase (TP) induction by docetaxel is a proposed mechanism for the observed preclinical synergy of docetaxel and capecitabine (DC)...
  43. Hirano M, Marti R, Casali C, Tadesse S, Uldrick T, Fine B, et al. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation corrects biochemical derangements in MNGIE. Neurology. 2006;67:1458-60 pubmed
    ..encephalomyopathy (MNGIE) is a multisystemic autosomal recessive disease due to primary thymidine phosphorylase (TP) deficiency...
  44. Szigeti K, Sule N, Adesina A, Armstrong D, Saifi G, Bonilla E, et al. Increased blood-brain barrier permeability with thymidine phosphorylase deficiency. Ann Neurol. 2004;56:881-6 pubmed
    ..neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy is an autosomal recessive multisystemic disorder caused by thymidine phosphorylase deficiency...
  45. Jakob C, Aust D, Meyer W, Baretton G, Schwabe W, Häusler P, et al. Thymidylate synthase, thymidine phosphorylase, dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase expression, and histological tumour regression after 5-FU-based neo-adjuvant chemoradiotherapy in rectal cancer. J Pathol. 2004;204:562-8 pubmed
    ..Response to pre-operative treatment, however, varies significantly. Thymidylate synthase (TS), thymidine phosphorylase (TP), and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) are thought to be important predictors for the efficiency ..
  46. Bijnsdorp I, Capriotti F, Kruyt F, Losekoot N, Fukushima M, Griffioen A, et al. Thymidine phosphorylase in cancer cells stimulates human endothelial cell migration and invasion by the secretion of angiogenic factors. Br J Cancer. 2011;104:1185-92 pubmed publisher
    b>Thymidine phosphorylase (TP) is often overexpressed in tumours and has a role in tumour aggressiveness and angiogenesis...
  47. Sadahiro S, Suzuki T, Tanaka A, Okada K, Nagase H, Uchida J. Association of right-sided tumors with high thymidine phosphorylase gene expression levels and the response to oral uracil and tegafur/leucovorin chemotherapy among patients with colorectal cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2012;70:285-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Fifteen patients (19.7 %) with marked pathological regression were judged to be responders. Thymidine phosphorylase (TP) gene expression levels among the responders were significantly higher than those among the non-..
  48. Chen C, Chen L, Liang Y, Tsang N, Chang Y. Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein 1 induces the chemotherapeutic target, thymidine phosphorylase, via NF-kappaB and p38 MAPK pathways. Cell Signal. 2010;22:1132-42 pubmed publisher
    High thymidine phosphorylase (TP) expression is significantly correlated with poor prognosis in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC)...
  49. Mazurek A, Kuc P, Terlikowski S, Laudanski T. Evaluation of tumor angiogenesis and thymidine phosphorylase tissue expression in patients with endometrial cancer. Neoplasma. 2006;53:242-6 pubmed
    ..The aim of the study was evaluation of thymidine phosphorylase protein (TP) expression in human endometrial cancer cells by immunohistochemistry and comparison obtained ..
  50. Blondon H, Polivka M, Joly F, Flourie B, Mikol J, Messing B. Digestive smooth muscle mitochondrial myopathy in patients with mitochondrial-neuro-gastro-intestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE). Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 2005;29:773-8 pubmed
    ..53%); and (c) mitochondrial cytopathy in 36 of the 37 tested patients (2 of our 3 cases), and thymidine phosphorylase gene mutations in all the 37 tested patients (2 of our cases)...
  51. Liekens S, Bronckaers A, Pérez Pérez M, Balzarini J. Targeting platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor/thymidine phosphorylase for cancer therapy. Biochem Pharmacol. 2007;74:1555-67 pubmed
    b>Thymidine phosphorylase (TP) is a key enzyme in the pyrimidine nucleoside salvage pathway, but it also recognizes and inactivates various anti-cancer chemotherapeutic agents...
  52. Chujo M, Miura T, Kawano Y, Miyawaki M, Imakiire T, Hayashita Y, et al. Thymidine phosphorylase levels and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase levels in non-small cell lung cancer tissues. Oncol Rep. 2006;16:777-80 pubmed
    b>Thymidine phosphorylase (TP) and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) are the major catabolic enzymes of 5-FU...
  53. Brown N, Streeter E, Jones A, Harris A, Bicknell R. Cooperative stimulation of vascular endothelial growth factor expression by hypoxia and reactive oxygen species: the effect of targeting vascular endothelial growth factor and oxidative stress in an orthotopic xenograft model of bladder carcinoma. Br J Cancer. 2005;92:1696-701 pubmed
    Elevated thymidine phosphorylase has been shown to correlate with increased angiogenesis and poor prognosis in many cancers including transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder...
  54. Yasuno M, Mori T, Koike M, Takahashi K, Toi M, Takizawa T, et al. Importance of thymidine phosphorylase expression in tumor stroma as a prognostic factor in patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma. Oncol Rep. 2005;13:405-12 pubmed
    b>Thymidine phosphorylase (TP) is a unique enzyme involved not only in angiogenesis, but in 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) metabolism as well. TP is produced by both tumor and stromal cells...
  55. Bronckaers A, Aguado L, Negri A, Camarasa M, Balzarini J, Pérez Pérez M, et al. Identification of aspartic acid-203 in human thymidine phosphorylase as an important residue for both catalysis and non-competitive inhibition by the small molecule "crystallization chaperone" 5'-O-tritylinosine (KIN59). Biochem Pharmacol. 2009;78:231-40 pubmed publisher
    b>Thymidine phosphorylase (TP) is a catabolic enzyme in thymidine metabolism that is frequently upregulated in many solid tumors. Elevated TP levels are associated with tumor angiogenesis, metastasis and poor prognosis...
  56. Reigan P, Gbaj A, Stratford I, Bryce R, Freeman S. Xanthine oxidase-activated prodrugs of thymidine phosphorylase inhibitors. Eur J Med Chem. 2008;43:1248-60 pubmed
    b>Thymidine phosphorylase (TP) is over-expressed in various tumour types and plays an important role in tumour angiogenesis, growth, invasion and metastasis...
  57. Won H, Lee M, Chung E, Kim D, You Y, Hong T, et al. Comparison of thymidine phosphorylase expression and prognostic factors in gallbladder and bile duct cancer. BMC Cancer. 2010;10:564 pubmed publisher
    ..assess the expression and clinical significance of functional proteins such as p53, cyclin D1, survivin, thymidine phosphorylase, and ERCC1...
  58. Hayashi T, Matsuoka K, Saitoh M, Takeda S, Kimura M. Influence of alpha-tumor necrosis factor and beta-interleukin-1 on production of angiogenetic factors and thymidine phosphorylase activity in immortalized human decidual fibroblasts in vitro. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2006;32:15-22 pubmed
    ..factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), beta-transforming growth factor (TGF-beta), and thymidine phosphorylase (TP) activity was investigated using immunohistochemistry, and the influences of beta-interleukin-1 (IL-..
  59. Takechi T, Okabe H, Ikeda K, Fujioka A, Nakagawa F, Ohshimo H, et al. Correlations between antitumor activities of fluoropyrimidines and DPD activity in lung tumor xenografts. Oncol Rep. 2005;14:33-9 pubmed
    ..We investigated tumor thymidylate synthase content, dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) activity, thymidine phosphorylase (TP) activity and orotate phosphoribosyl transferase activity in seven human lung tumor xenografts and ..
  60. Ait Tihyaty M, Rachid Z, Mihalcioiu C, Jean Claude B. Inhibition of EGFR phosphorylation in a panel of human breast cancer cells correlates with synergistic interactions between gefitinib and 5'-DFUR, the bioactive metabolite of Xeloda. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2012;133:217-26 pubmed publisher
    ..The conversion of 5'-DFUR to the cytotoxic 5-FU, occurs primarily in the tumour and is catalyzed by thymidine phosphorylase (TP)...
  61. Massa R, Tessa A, Margollicci M, Micheli V, Romigi A, Tozzi G, et al. Late-onset MNGIE without peripheral neuropathy due to incomplete loss of thymidine phosphorylase activity. Neuromuscul Disord. 2009;19:837-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutations in the TYMP/ECGF1 gene cause a loss of thymidine phosphorylase catalytic activity, disrupting the homeostasis of intramitochondrial nucleotide pool...
  62. Weng S, Tseng S, Huang Y, Chen H, Lin Y. Inhibition of thymidine phosphorylase expression by using an HSP90 inhibitor potentiates the cytotoxic effect of cisplatin in non-small-cell lung cancer cells. Biochem Pharmacol. 2012;84:126-36 pubmed publisher
    Elevated thymidine phosphorylase (TP) levels, a key enzyme in the pyrimidine nucleoside salvage pathway, are associated with an aggressive disease phenotype and poor prognoses...