psychotherapeutic processes


Summary: Experiential, attitudinal, emotional, or behavioral phenomena occurring during the course of treatment. They apply to the patient or therapist (i.e., nurse, doctor, etc.) individually or to their interaction. (American Psychological Association: Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)

Top Publications

  1. Frosch J. E uno plurus: psychoanalytic psychotherapy in the age of pluralism. Harv Rev Psychiatry. 2007;15:270-7 pubmed
    ..A pluralistic perspective is advantageous in promoting a therapeutic alliance, since it lends itself to a collaborative therapeutic process with patients. A brief clinical vignette is presented to illustrate these ideas. ..
  2. Todd D, Deane F, Bragdon R. Client and therapist reasons for termination: a conceptualization and preliminary validation. J Clin Psychol. 2003;59:133-47 pubmed
    ..Negative client feelings about therapy, including dissatisfaction, were reported infrequently as reasons for termination, and with little agreement between clients and therapists, but this may be due to methodological limitations. ..
  3. Perelberg R. On excess, trauma and helplessness: Repetitions and transformations. Int J Psychoanal. 2015;96:1453-76 pubmed publisher
    ..The paper also traces the roots of this modern approach that relates the analyst's work of regression, time, and the creation of a triadic space to Freud's metapsychology. ..
  4. Emmons R, Stern R. Gratitude as a psychotherapeutic intervention. J Clin Psychol. 2013;69:846-55 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude by describing ways in which gratitude might be capitalized upon for beneficial outcomes in therapeutic settings. ..
  5. Pesale F, Hilsenroth M, Owen J. Patient early session experience and treatment outcome. Psychother Res. 2012;22:417-25 pubmed publisher
    ..e., psychopathology, interpersonal, occupational, and social) before and after accounting for therapist effects. ..
  6. Strunk D, Brotman M, Derubeis R, Hollon S. Therapist competence in cognitive therapy for depression: predicting subsequent symptom change. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2010;78:429-37 pubmed publisher
    ..those who did not meet) criteria for a personality disorder (i.e., among personality disorders represented in the clinical trial). These findings provide support for the potential utility of CT competence ratings in applied settings. ..
  7. Partanen T, Wahlström J, Holma J. Constructing and negotiating 'change' in follow-up meetings for intimately violent men. Commun Med. 2010;7:65-74 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the followup meetings are established as an integrated part of the whole treatment program, and contribute to the promotion of the treatment ideology. ..
  8. Ameli M, Dattilio F. Enhancing cognitive behavior therapy with logotherapy: techniques for clinical practice. Psychotherapy (Chic). 2013;50:387-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The article concludes with a proposal for future research to validate integrative treatment protocols, and to provide an empirical base for logotherapy-enhanced cognitive behavior therapy. ..
  9. Paivio S. Essential processes in emotion-focused therapy. Psychotherapy (Chic). 2013;50:341-5 pubmed publisher
    ..e., attention to, and exploration of, feelings and meanings). These in-session intervention principles are consistent with posited change process. ..

More Information


  1. Eimer B. Inadvertent adverse consequences of clinical and forensic hypnosis: minimizing the risks. Am J Clin Hypn. 2012;55:8-31 pubmed
    ..Fundamentals of hypnosis risk management are covered as a foundation for beginners and as a review for experienced practitioners. Various straightforward safeguards that should be heeded by all practitioners are discussed. ..
  2. Battles M, Berman J. The impact of conversational acknowledgers on perceptions of psychotherapists. Psychother Res. 2012;22:648-55 pubmed publisher
  3. Gennaro A. The building of models as pathway to understand the therapeutic process. Integr Psychol Behav Sci. 2011;45:355-65 pubmed publisher
    ..This is a step towards a new research perspective able to promote the integration of empirical research and clinical practice. ..
  4. Schutte N, Malouff J. Development and validation of a brief measure of therapeutically-induced change. Behav Cogn Psychother. 2011;39:627-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The therapeutically-induced change scale may have utility as a process measure in various interventions. ..
  5. Friedberg R, Brelsford G. Core principles in cognitive therapy with youth. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2011;20:369-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, the hallmark session structure that characterizes CT is delineated. ..
  6. Muhuri P, Gfroerer J. Substance use among women: associations with pregnancy, parenting, and race/ethnicity. Matern Child Health J. 2009;13:376-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Pregnant and parenting women, regardless of race/ethnicity, could benefit from prevention efforts focusing on cessation rather than temporary abstinence from substance use. ..
  7. Clarkin J. Clinical approaches to axis II comorbidity: commentary. J Clin Psychol. 2008;64:222-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The cases illuminate the complexity of these patients and the need for careful treatment construction. ..
  8. Delsignore A, Carraro G, Mathier F, Znoj H, Schnyder U. Perceived responsibility for change as an outcome predictor in cognitive-behavioural group therapy. Br J Clin Psychol. 2008;47:281-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Implications for clinicians and for future research are discussed. ..
  9. Dimaggio G, Norcross J. Treating patients with two or more personality disorders: an introduction. J Clin Psychol. 2008;64:127-38 pubmed publisher
    ..They provide several clinical vignettes to portray frequent difficulties encountered by psychotherapists in treating these complex, co-occurrent cases. ..
  10. Beckwith A, Crichton J. The negotiation of the problem statement in cognitive behavioural therapy. Commun Med. 2010;7:23-32 pubmed
    ..This case study was drawn from a larger corpus of the CBT treatment often clients. The expertise of the therapist in applying the generic CBT model of therapy to the client's particular problem is a focus of this study. ..
  11. Zack S, Castonguay L, Boswell J. Youth working alliance: a core clinical construct in need of empirical maturity. Harv Rev Psychiatry. 2007;15:278-88 pubmed
    ..Tightening the operational definition of the youth alliance and addressing methodological issues will be essential in future efforts to understand how the alliance develops and what role it may play in the treatment process for youth. ..
  12. Zalmanowitz S, Babins Wagner R, Rodger S, Corbett B, Leschied A. The association of readiness to change and motivational interviewing with treatment outcomes in males involved in domestic violence group therapy. J Interpers Violence. 2013;28:956-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Discussion focuses on the potential benefits of MI as a pregroup treatment and the importance of accounting for individual readiness to change. ..
  13. Sherry D. Physical activity levels in the treatment of juvenile fibromyalgia. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2013;9:8-9 pubmed publisher
    ..New research explores the effects of a psychotherapeutic approach on levels of physical activity in adolescents with fibromyalgia. ..
  14. Bourgault Fagnou M, Hadjistavropoulos H. A randomized trial of two forms of cognitive behaviour therapy for an older adult population with subclinical health anxiety. Cogn Behav Ther. 2013;42:31-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings indicated that both forms of CBT were efficacious for reducing some of the health anxious thoughts and beliefs in seniors. ..
  15. Mariani R, Maskit B, Bucci W, De Coro A. Linguistic measures of the referential process in psychodynamic treatment: the English and Italian versions. Psychother Res. 2013;23:430-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinical predictions based on applications of the English measures were supported. ..
  16. Weck F, Richtberg S, Esch S, Höfling V, Stangier U. The relationship between therapist competence and homework compliance in maintenance cognitive therapy for recurrent depression: secondary analysis of a randomized trial. Behav Ther. 2013;44:162-72 pubmed publisher
    ..e., competence in reviewing homework) is associated with patient compliance with homework, and therefore, provides further empirical evidence of the importance of therapist competence in the psychotherapeutic process. ..
  17. Jacobs L. Resurrecting the buried self: fairy tales and the analytic encounter. Psychoanal Rev. 2011;98:871-90 pubmed publisher
  18. Eubanks Carter C, Gorman B, Muran J. Quantitative naturalistic methods for detecting change points in psychotherapy research: an illustration with alliance ruptures. Psychother Res. 2012;22:621-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Each method's utility for identifying shifts in the alliance is illustrated using a case example from the Beth Israel Psychotherapy Research program. Advantages and disadvantages of the various methods are discussed. ..
  19. la Cour P. The clinical pain acceptance Q-sort: a tool for assessment and facilitation of pain acceptance. Psychol Health Med. 2012;17:611-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The method provides options for assessment of pain acceptance, for better understanding of the patient, and for clinical training in psychological pain management. ..
  20. Kozaric Kovacic D. Integrative psychotherapy. Psychiatr Danub. 2008;20:352-63 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the development of integrative psychotherapy in Croatia and the organization of the Croatian program, which is identical to the program of the European Association for Integrative Psychotherapy is shortly described. ..
  21. Gelo O, Mergenthaler E. Unconventional metaphors and emotional-cognitive regulation in a metacognitive interpersonal therapy. Psychother Res. 2012;22:159-75 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that unconventional metaphors may be considered markers for different cognitive-emotional regulatory processes and moments of heightened therapeutic work and change in MIT. ..
  22. Harrison A, Tronick E. Contributions to understanding therapeutic change: now we have a playground. J Am Psychoanal Assoc. 2007;55:853-74; discussion 875-89, 891-7 pubmed
    ..Both the model of change and the technique of videotape microanalysis build upon work by infant researchers and thus show how advances in related fields can supplement traditional psychoanalytic methods. ..
  23. Diener M, Hilsenroth M, Weinberger J. Therapist affect focus and patient outcomes in psychodynamic psychotherapy: a meta-analysis. Am J Psychiatry. 2007;164:936-41 pubmed
    ..Additionally, results highlight the importance of defining outcome in a multidimensional way to properly assess theoretically relevant effects. ..
  24. Salvatore S. Psychotherapy research needs theory. Outline for an epistemology of the clinical exchange. Integr Psychol Behav Sci. 2011;45:366-88 pubmed publisher
    ..The final part of the paper is devoted to presenting a model of human communication--the Semiotic Dialogical Dialectic Theory--which is meant as the framework for the analysis of psychotherapy. ..
  25. Bunner K, Yonge O. Boundaries & adolescents in residental teatment settings: what clinicians need to know. J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv. 2006;44:38-44 pubmed
  26. van der Veek P, van Rood Y, Masclee A. Symptom severity but not psychopathology predicts visceral hypersensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008;6:321-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Hypersensitivity to balloon distention occurs in 33% of IBS patients and is predicted by symptom severity but not by psychological or demographic characteristics. ..
  27. Raps C. The necessity of combined therapy in the treatment of shame: a case report. Int J Group Psychother. 2009;59:67-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The two modalities served to reinforce and make more powerful the effects of each. Therapeutic progress depended on the combined treatment-both were necessary, neither was sufficient. ..
  28. Gabalda I. Convergence of voices: assimilation in linguistic therapy of evaluation. Clin Psychol Psychother. 2009;16:182-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Discussion emphasized these results, which are especially representative of a well-integrated patient who showed a healthy multiplicity. ..
  29. Swift J, Callahan J. Early psychotherapy processes: an examination of client and trainee clinician perspective convergence. Clin Psychol Psychother. 2009;16:228-36 pubmed publisher
    ..1% of the time. Training and practice implications are discussed. ..
  30. Chodorow N. A different universe: reading Loewald through "On the therapeutic action of psychoanalysis". Psychoanal Q. 2009;78:983-1011 pubmed
    ..His still-fresh formulations prefigure contemporary psychoanalysis. ..
  31. Wollburg E, Braukhaus C. Goal setting in psychotherapy: the relevance of approach and avoidance goals for treatment outcome. Psychother Res. 2010;20:488-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, goal definition should be considered as a control variable in research on depression. ..
  32. Levine H. Representations and their vicissitudes: the legacy of Andre Green. Psychoanal Q. 2009;78:243-62 pubmed
    ..Readers of these excellent translations will discover that Green's work is accessible, thought-provoking, original, and deeply rooted ..
  33. Lepper G, Mergenthaler E. Observing therapeutic interaction in the "Lisa" case. Psychother Res. 2008;18:634-44 pubmed publisher
  34. Doran J. The working alliance: Where have we been, where are we going?. Psychother Res. 2016;26:146-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The review concludes by supporting recent efforts that have attempted to increase the sophistication of measurement tools and statistical approaches, and encouraging future research in these areas. ..
  35. King D. Spirituality, health, and medical care of adults. South Med J. 2006;99:1166-7 pubmed
  36. Tsai M, Callaghan G, Kohlenberg R. The use of awareness, courage, therapeutic love, and behavioral interpretation in Functional Analytic Psychotherapy. Psychotherapy (Chic). 2013;50:366-370 pubmed publisher
  37. Budge S. Interpersonal psychotherapy with transgender clients. Psychotherapy (Chic). 2013;50:356-9 pubmed publisher
  38. Cabaniss D, Graver R. Mapping the macroprocess. J Am Psychoanal Assoc. 2008;56:1249-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Changes in the analysis are tracked over time, encouraging explication of how those changes have come about. The method is illustrated with a pedagogical vignette. ..
  39. Flückiger C, Grosse Holtforth M, Del Re A, Lutz W. Working along sudden gains: responsiveness on small and subtle early changes and exceptions. Psychotherapy (Chic). 2013;50:292-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These tasks include (1) exploration of the change situation, (2) reinforcement of generalized self-efficacy and hope bonding, and (3) benefit for therapy. ..
  40. Scheela R. A sex offender therapist's story. Creat Nurs. 2008;14:171-5 pubmed
    ..That is why she has found this work to be some of the most challenging and rewarding work of her life. ..
  41. Polman A, Bouman T, van Geert P, de Jong P, den Boer J. Dysfunctional beliefs in the process of change of cognitive treatment in obsessive compulsive checkers. Clin Psychol Psychother. 2011;18:256-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, dynamic systems methods provide insight into intra-individual processes and shed a new light on variability. ..
  42. Wegener I, Alfter S, Geiser F, Liedtke R, Conrad R. Schema change without schema therapy: the role of early maladaptive schemata for a successful treatment of major depression. Psychiatry. 2013;76:1-17 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss that changes in EMS are highly relevant for changes in symptom distress but that EMS can not only be changed by schema therapy but also by other approaches, like psychodynamic therapy. ..
  43. Rosen D, Miller A, Nakash O, Halpern L, Halperin L, Alegria M. Interpersonal complementarity in the mental health intake: a mixed-methods study. J Couns Psychol. 2012;59:185-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Implications for both clinical practice and future research are discussed, as are factors relevant to working across cultures. ..
  44. Nyklicek I, Majoor D, Schalken P. Psychological mindedness and symptom reduction after psychotherapy in a heterogeneous psychiatric sample. Compr Psychiatry. 2010;51:492-6 pubmed publisher
    ..55; P < .005; partial eta(2) = 0.29). These results suggest that although a high PM is not a prerequisite for successful cognitive behavioral therapy, an increase in insight is associated with better outcome. ..
  45. Groat M, Allen J. Promoting mentalizing in experiential psychoeducational groups: From agency and authority to authorship. Bull Menninger Clin. 2011;75:315-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The article concludes with a discussion of the wider applicability of this intervention. ..
  46. Goddard A, Murray C, Simpson J. Informed consent and psychotherapy: an interpretative phenomenological analysis of therapists' views. Psychol Psychother. 2008;81:177-91 pubmed
    ..More research focusing on the views and need of clients are also warranted. ..
  47. Lysaker P, Buck K, Lintner J. Addressing recovery from severe mental illness in clinical supervision of advanced students. J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv. 2009;47:36-42 pubmed
  48. Blatt S, Zuroff D, Hawley L, Auerbach J. Predictors of sustained therapeutic change. Psychother Res. 2010;20:37-54 pubmed publisher
  49. Philip E, Merluzzi T, Zhang Z, Heitzmann C. Depression and cancer survivorship: importance of coping self-efficacy in post-treatment survivors. Psychooncology. 2013;22:987-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Coping self-efficacy may be an important component of patients' adjustment and possible target for intervention. These results highlight the ongoing mental health and support needs of cancer survivors. ..
  50. de la Peña C, Friedlander M, Escudero V, Heatherington L. How do therapists ally with adolescents in family therapy? An examination of relational control communication in early sessions. J Couns Psychol. 2012;59:339-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Results underscore the need to avoid competitive responding in order to ally with adolescents in conjoint family treatment. ..
  51. Aspland H, Llewelyn S, Hardy G, Barkham M, Stiles W. Alliance ruptures and rupture resolution in cognitive-behavior therapy: a preliminary task analysis. Psychother Res. 2008;18:699-710 pubmed publisher
    ..Therapists' ability to attend to ruptures emerged as an important clinical skill. ..
  52. Pyle N. Therapeutic letters as relationally responsive practice. J Fam Nurs. 2009;15:65-82 pubmed publisher
    ..An invitation is extended to conceptualize letters not as monologic documents but as a means of dialogically relating to clients and to the "goings-on" of therapeutic conversations. ..
  53. Livesley W. Integrated treatment: a conceptual framework for an evidence-based approach to the treatment of personality disorder. J Pers Disord. 2012;26:17-42 pubmed publisher