crisis intervention


Summary: Brief therapeutic approach which is ameliorative rather than curative of acute psychiatric emergencies. Used in contexts such as emergency rooms of psychiatric or general hospitals, or in the home or place of crisis occurrence, this treatment approach focuses on interpersonal and intrapsychic factors and environmental modification. (APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 7th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Guo S, Biegel D, Johnsen J, Dyches H. Assessing the impact of community-based mobile crisis services on preventing hospitalization. Psychiatr Serv. 2001;52:223-8 pubmed
    This study evaluated the impact of a community-based mobile crisis intervention program on the rate and timing of hospitalization. It also explored major consumer characteristics related to the likelihood of hospitalization...
  2. Hopkins C, Niemiec S. Mental health crisis at home: service user perspectives on what helps and what hinders. J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs. 2007;14:310-8 pubmed
  3. Kingsford R, Webber M. Social deprivation and the outcomes of crisis resolution and home treatment for people with mental health problems: a historical cohort study. Health Soc Care Community. 2010;18:456-64 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggested a relationship between an enhanced level of mental health need, social deprivation and poor outcome of CRHT intervention. ..
  4. Try E, Morken T, Hunskår S. [A personal crisis support team at an accident and emergency department]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2008;128:2056-9 pubmed
    ..The Personal Crisis Support Team at Bergen Accident and Emergency Department was approached by patients of all ages with various psychosocial crises. This support team is an example of community-based early intervention after crisis. ..
  5. Watson A, Morabito M, Draine J, Ottati V. Improving police response to persons with mental illness: a multi-level conceptualization of CIT. Int J Law Psychiatry. 2008;31:359-68 pubmed publisher
    ..One approach to focus police response in these situations is the implementation of Crisis Intervention Teams (CIT). The CIT model is being implemented widely, with over 400 programs currently operating...
  6. Watson A, Ottati V, Morabito M, Draine J, Kerr A, Angell B. Outcomes of police contacts with persons with mental illness: the impact of CIT. Adm Policy Ment Health. 2010;37:302-17 pubmed publisher
    The Crisis intervention team model (CIT) is possibly the most well known and widely adopted model to improve police response to persons with mental illness...
  7. Howard L, Leese M, Byford S, Killaspy H, Cole L, Lawlor C, et al. Methodological challenges in evaluating the effectiveness of women's crisis houses compared with psychiatric wards: findings from a pilot patient preference RCT. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2009;197:722-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Recruitment of patients with acute psychiatric crises is therefore challenging; researchers evaluating acute services should establish a consensus on how ethically and practically to recruit patients in this setting. ..
  8. Broussard B, McGriff J, Demir Neubert B, D Orio B, Compton M. Characteristics of patients referred to psychiatric emergency services by crisis intervention team police officers. Community Ment Health J. 2010;46:579-84 pubmed publisher
    The Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) program trains police officers in crisis intervention skills and local psychiatric resources...
  9. Kisely S, Campbell L, Peddle S, Hare S, Pyche M, Spicer D, et al. A controlled before-and-after evaluation of a mobile crisis partnership between mental health and police services in Nova Scotia. Can J Psychiatry. 2010;55:662-8 pubmed
    ..Partnerships between the police department and mental health system can improve collaboration, efficiency, and the treatment of people with mental illness. ..

More Information


  1. Mellanby R, Hudson N, Allister R, Bell C, Else R, Gunn Moore D, et al. Evaluation of suicide awareness programmes delivered to veterinary undergraduates and academic staff. Vet Rec. 2010;167:730-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Five veterinary academics attended a two-day Applied Suicide Intervention Skills Training (ASIST) course, and all reported that the course was effective in improving suicide awareness and intervention skills. ..
  2. Hasselberg N, Grawe R, Johnson S, Ruud T. An implementation study of the crisis resolution team model in Norway: are the crisis resolution teams fulfilling their role?. BMC Health Serv Res. 2011;11:96 pubmed publisher
    ..The CRT model has been implemented in Norway without a rapid response, gate-keeping function and 24/7 availability. These findings indicate that the CRTs do not completely fulfil their intended role in the mental health system. ..
  3. Jacobs R, Barrenho E. Impact of crisis resolution and home treatment teams on psychiatric admissions in England. Br J Psychiatry. 2011;199:71-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Contrary to previous studies, we find no evidence that the CRHT policy per se has made any difference to admissions and suggest a need for more research on the policy as a whole. ..
  4. Sjølie H, Karlsson B, Kim H. Crisis resolution and home treatment: structure, process, and outcome - a literature review. J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs. 2010;17:881-92 pubmed publisher
    ..There is a need for further studies regarding the clinical work of CRHT teams from the home treatment perspective. ..
  5. Winness M, Borg M, Kim H. Service users' experiences with help and support from crisis resolution teams. A literature review. J Ment Health. 2010;19:75-87 pubmed publisher
    ..The commitment to community-based services, the philosophy of partnership, and user-empowerment seem to the base from which these three themes of positive experiences emerged. ..
  6. Comtois K, Jobes D, S O Connor S, Atkins D, Janis K, E Chessen C, et al. Collaborative assessment and management of suicidality (CAMS): feasibility trial for next-day appointment services. Depress Anxiety. 2011;28:963-72 pubmed publisher
    ..patients were randomly assigned to CAMS care versus Enhanced Care as Usual (E-CAU) in an outpatient crisis intervention setting attached to a safety net hospital...
  7. Compton M, Bahora M, Watson A, Oliva J. A comprehensive review of extant research on Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) programs. J Am Acad Psychiatry Law. 2008;36:47-55 pubmed
    The Memphis model of the Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) program has established itself as a prototype of law enforcement-mental health collaboration for a large number of municipalities across the country, and several states are ..
  8. Hubbeling D, Bertram R. Crisis resolution teams in the UK and elsewhere. J Ment Health. 2012;21:285-95 pubmed publisher
  9. Kolbjørnsrud O, Larsen F, Elbert G, Ruud T. [Can psychiatric acute teams reduce acute admissions to psychiatric wards?]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2009;129:1991-4 pubmed publisher
  10. Johnson D, Niedens M, Wilson J, Swartzendruber L, Yeager A, Jones K. Treatment outcomes of a crisis intervention program for dementia with severe psychiatric complications: the Kansas bridge project. Gerontologist. 2013;53:102-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Although much of AD research focuses on disease-modifying medical interventions, aging and care systems in the state must simultaneously move towards dependency-modifying care interventions. ..
  11. Saunders K, Hawton K. Clinical assessment and crisis intervention for the suicidal bipolar disorder patient. Bipolar Disord. 2013;15:575-83 pubmed publisher
    ..A range of issues need to be addressed in the assessment of at-risk patients. Determining the efficacy of interventions specific to reducing suicidality in bipolar disorder should be a research priority. ..
  12. Ng C, Ma H, Raphael B, Yu X, Fraser J, Tang D. China-Australia training on psychosocial crisis intervention: response to the earthquake disaster in Sichuan. Australas Psychiatry. 2009;17:51-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The training program has contributed significantly to the building of national and local capacity to deliver psychological first-aid and psychosocial response management to assist the populations who have been affected by disaster. ..
  13. Kelly C, Jorm A, Kitchener B, Langlands R. Development of mental health first aid guidelines for suicidal ideation and behaviour: a Delphi study. BMC Psychiatry. 2008;8:17 pubmed publisher
    ..They can also be used by members of the public who want immediate information about how to assist a suicidal person. ..
  14. Mishara B, Chagnon F, Daigle M, Balan B, Raymond S, Marcoux I, et al. Which helper behaviors and intervention styles are related to better short-term outcomes in telephone crisis intervention? Results from a Silent Monitoring Study of Calls to the U.S. 1-800-SUICIDE Network. Suicide Life Threat Behav. 2007;37:308-21 pubmed
  15. Ramberg I, Wasserman D. Suicide-preventive activities in psychiatric care: evaluation of an educational programme in suicide prevention. Nord J Psychiatry. 2004;58:389-94 pubmed
    ..There is a need to strengthen the course participants' formal roles as implementers and encourage the clinical management in their continuous implementation of suicide-preventive activities. ..
  16. Bahora M, Hanafi S, Chien V, Compton M. Preliminary evidence of effects of crisis intervention team training on self-efficacy and social distance. Adm Policy Ment Health. 2008;35:159-67 pubmed
    The Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) program is a collaborative model involving mental health professionals and law enforcement officers that is being implemented in a multitude of localities across the country...
  17. Henderson C, Swanson J, Szmukler G, Thornicroft G, Zinkler M. A typology of advance statements in mental health care. Psychiatr Serv. 2008;59:63-71 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the relationship of advance statements to involuntary treatment is more problematic, as is their effective implementation in many mental health service settings. ..
  18. Compton M, Esterberg M, McGee R, Kotwicki R, Oliva J. Brief reports: crisis intervention team training: changes in knowledge, attitudes, and stigma related to schizophrenia. Psychiatr Serv. 2006;57:1199-202 pubmed
    b>Crisis intervention team (CIT) training provides police officers with knowledge and skills to improve their responses to individuals with mental illnesses...
  19. Evans J, Evans M, Morgan H, Hayward A, Gunnell D. Crisis card following self-harm: 12-month follow-up of a randomised controlled trial. Br J Psychiatry. 2005;187:186-7 pubmed
    ..19, 95% CI 0.85-1.67). Among those with a first episode of self-harm, the possible benefit of the intervention had diminished (OR=0.89, 95% CI 0.52-1.52), although a modest effect cannot be excluded. ..
  20. Deane M, Steadman H, Borum R, Veysey B, Morrissey J. Emerging partnerships between mental health and law enforcement. Psychiatr Serv. 1999;50:99-101 pubmed
    ..At least two-thirds of all departments, even those with no specialized response program, rated themselves as moderately or very effective in dealing with mentally ill persons in crisis. ..
  21. Steadman H, Stainbrook K, Griffin P, Draine J, Dupont R, Horey C. A specialized crisis response site as a core element of police-based diversion programs. Psychiatr Serv. 2001;52:219-22 pubmed
  22. Snowden L, Masland M, Libby A, Wallace N, Fawley K. Racial/ethnic minority children's use of psychiatric emergency care in California's Public Mental Health System. Am J Public Health. 2008;98:118-24 pubmed
    ..serious mental health crises (crisis stabilization services) and community-based services for other crises (crisis intervention services)...
  23. De Clercq M, Dubois V. Crisis intervention models in the French-speaking countries. Crisis. 2001;22:32-8 pubmed
    The article presents the crisis intervention model devised by Andreoli (Geneva) which is currently being developed in most crisis units and emergency services in the French-speaking countries of Europe...
  24. Hammond J, Brooks J. The World Trade Center attack. Helping the helpers: the role of critical incident stress management. Crit Care. 2001;5:315-7 pubmed
    ..The attack on the World Trade Center, and the impact it may have on rescue, prehospital, and healthcare workers, should urge us to incorporate critical incident stress management into disaster management plans. ..
  25. Manos G, Carlton J, Kolm P, Arguello J, Alfonso B, Ho A. Crisis intervention in a military population: a comparison of inpatient hospitalization and a day treatment program. Mil Med. 2002;167:821-5 pubmed
    We describe transition from an inpatient psychiatric crisis intervention model to an outpatient program for nonpsychotic young adult active duty males presenting in crisis...
  26. Redondo R, Currier G. Characteristics of patients referred by police to a psychiatric emergency service. Psychiatr Serv. 2003;54:804-6 pubmed
  27. Grady A, Travers E. Hospice at home 2: evaluating a crisis intervention service. Int J Palliat Nurs. 2003;9:326-35 pubmed
    ..The (H@H) project team agreed that a valuable lesson learned from the project was the importance of involving all key players from the outset when determining the requirements of a new service initiative. ..
  28. Henderson C, Flood C, Leese M, Thornicroft G, Sutherby K, Szmukler G. Effect of joint crisis plans on use of compulsory treatment in psychiatry: single blind randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2004;329:136 pubmed
    ..The reduction in overall admission was less. This is the first structured clinical intervention that seems to reduce compulsory admission and treatment in mental health services. ..
  29. Johnson S, Nolan F, Hoult J, White I, Bebbington P, Sandor A, et al. Outcomes of crises before and after introduction of a crisis resolution team. Br J Psychiatry. 2005;187:68-75 pubmed
    ..No clear difference emerged in involuntary hospitalisations, symptoms, social functioning or quality of life. CRTs may prevent some admissions and patients prefer them, although other outcomes appear unchanged in the short term. ..
  30. Glover G, Arts G, Babu K. Crisis resolution/home treatment teams and psychiatric admission rates in England. Br J Psychiatry. 2006;189:441-5 pubmed
    ..Reductions in bed use were smaller. Introduction of assertive outreach teams was not associated with overall reductions in admissions. Introduction of crisis resolution teams has been associated with reductions in admissions. ..
  31. Ampélas J, Robin M, Caria A, Basbous I, Rakowski F, Mallat V, et al. [Patient and their relatives' satisfaction regarding a home-based crisis intervention provided by a mobile crisis team]. Encephale. 2005;31:127-41 pubmed
    The goal of this survey was to evaluate the patients and their relatives' satisfaction with a home-based crisis intervention provided by a psychiatric mobile crisis team (Equipe Rapide d'Intervention de Crise, hôpital Charcot, Plaisir)...
  32. Sytema S, Wunderink L, Bloemers W, Roorda L, Wiersma D. Assertive community treatment in the Netherlands: a randomized controlled trial. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2007;116:105-12 pubmed
    ..The results are in agreement with UK studies. However, the sustained contact potential of assertive community treatment is important, as too many patients are lost in standard care. ..
  33. Simon R, Teperman S. The World Trade Center attack. Lessons for disaster management. Crit Care. 2001;5:318-20 pubmed
    ..Much can be learned from the events of 11 September 2001. Natural and unnatural disasters will happen again, so it is critical that these lessons be learned. Proper preparation will undoubtedly save lives and resources. ..
  34. Everly G. Thoughts on training guidelines in emergency mental health and crisis intervention. Int J Emerg Ment Health. 2002;4:139-41 pubmed
    ..These guidelines may be of value to those interested in assessing existing training programs, or those interested in developing new training programs in emergency mental health and crisis intervention.
  35. Stapleton A, Lating J, Kirkhart M, Everly G. Effects of medical crisis intervention on anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress symptoms: a meta-analysis. Psychiatr Q. 2006;77:231-8 pubmed
    A meta-analysis of 11 studies (N=2124) investigating the impact of individual crisis intervention with medical patients yielded a significant, overall moderate effect size, d=0.44...
  36. Teller J, Munetz M, Gil K, Ritter C. Crisis intervention team training for police officers responding to mental disturbance calls. Psychiatr Serv. 2006;57:232-7 pubmed
    ..This study examined police dispatch data before and after implementation of a crisis intervention team (CIT) program to assess the effect of the training on officers' disposition of calls...
  37. Guttormsen T, Høifødt T, Silvola K, Burkeland O. [Applied suicide intervention--an evaluation]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2003;123:2284-6 pubmed
    ..The workshop appears to enhance suicide intervention skills and will continue to be a part of the clerkship in psychiatry at the University of Tromsø. ..
  38. Thabet A, Vostanis P, Karim K. Group crisis intervention for children during ongoing war conflict. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2005;14:262-9 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the short-term impact of a group crisis intervention for children aged 9-15 years from five refugee camps in the Gaza Strip during ongoing war conflict...
  39. Shu Hsin L. Effects of using a nursing crisis intervention program on psychosocial responses and coping strategies of infertile women during in vitro fertilization. J Nurs Res. 2003;11:197-208 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of a crisis intervention program on improving psychosocial responses and enhancing coping strategies for infertile women attending ..
  40. Hendin H, Maltsberger J, Lipschitz A, Haas A, Kyle J. Recognizing and responding to a suicide crisis. Suicide Life Threat Behav. 2001;31:115-28 pubmed
    ..Problems in communication between patient and therapist were identified as factors interfering with crisis recognition. Evaluation of the identified affects and behaviors may help therapists recognize a suicide crisis. ..
  41. van Oenen F, Schipper S, Van R, Schoevers R, Visch I, Peen J, et al. Efficacy of immediate patient feedback in emergency psychiatry: a randomized controlled trial in a crisis intervention & brief therapy team. BMC Psychiatry. 2013;13:331 pubmed publisher
    ..The question addressed by this study is whether immediate feedback is also effective when applied during crisis intervention and subsequent brief therapy in a psychiatric patient population in emergency situations...
  42. Compton M, Bakeman R, Broussard B, Hankerson Dyson D, Husbands L, Krishan S, et al. The police-based crisis intervention team (CIT) model: II. Effects on level of force and resolution, referral, and arrest. Psychiatr Serv. 2014;65:523-9 pubmed publisher
    The crisis intervention team (CIT) model is a widely implemented police-based program to improve officers' responses to individuals with behavioral disorders...
  43. Aagaard J, Freiesleben M, Foldager L. Crisis homes for adult psychiatric patients. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2008;43:403-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Crisis home stays represent a quality improvement in the treatment package, especially for patients with a more severe mental disorder. Further documentation will require a controlled study. ..
  44. Werner D, Locke C. Experiences of chronic stress one year after the Gulf oil spill. Int J Emerg Ment Health. 2012;14:239-45 pubmed
    ..The semi-structured focus groups allowed staff to discuss the extent of mental health treatment utilization as well as provide valuable input as to what can be done to better prepare communities and agencies for future disasters. ..
  45. Kales H, Gitlin L, Lyketsos C. Management of neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia in clinical settings: recommendations from a multidisciplinary expert panel. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2014;62:762-9 pubmed publisher
  46. Flannery R. The Assaultive Staff Action Program (ASAP): 25 Year Program Analysis. Psychiatr Q. 2016;87:211-6 pubmed publisher
    The Assaulted Staff Action Program (ASAP) is a voluntary, system-wide, peer-help, crisis intervention program to address the psychological sequelae in staff victims of patient assaults...
  47. Weaver C, Joseph D, Dongon S, Fairweather A, Ruzek J. Enhancing services response to crisis incidents involving veterans: a role for law enforcement and mental health collaboration. Psychol Serv. 2013;10:66-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Implications for future training and policy are discussed. ..
  48. Maharaj R, O BRIEN L, Gillies D, Andrew S. Police referrals to a psychiatric hospital: experiences of nurses caring for police-referred admissions. Int J Ment Health Nurs. 2013;22:313-21 pubmed publisher
    ..The study raises ethical and skill challenges for nursing including struggling with the notion of who deserves care, and balancing the imperatives of legislation with the need to work within a therapeutic framework. ..
  49. Cacciatore J, Carlson B, Michaelis E, Klimek B, Steffan S. Crisis intervention by social workers in fire departments: an innovative role for social workers. Soc Work. 2011;56:81-8 pubmed
    ..Using principles of crisis intervention and trauma theory, social workers and social work students placed in these agencies are benefiting both ..
  50. Wells R, Morrissey J, Lee I, Radford A. Trends in behavioral health care service provision by community health centers, 1998-2007. Psychiatr Serv. 2010;61:759-64 pubmed publisher
    ..In 2007, 77% of community health centers offered specialty mental health services, 20% offered 24-hour crisis intervention services, and 51% offered substance abuse treatment...
  51. Scheyett A, Vaughn J, Francis A. Jail administrators' perceptions of the use of psychiatric advance directives in jails. Psychiatr Serv. 2010;61:409-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Psychiatric advance directives' informational function may prove valuable in jail settings. Additional research assessing directives as interventions for individuals with mental illnesses at risk of incarceration is needed. ..
  52. Pajonk F, D Amelio R. [Psychosocial emergencies--Agitation, aggression and violence in emergency and search and rescue services]. Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther. 2008;43:514-21 pubmed publisher
    ..the single stages of agitation and violence, and the stage-dependent steps for de-escalation and crisis intervention in the emergency situation...
  53. Deschietere G. Alternative work and world. Chronicity of emergencies and the work in crisis unit. Psychiatr Danub. 2010;22 Suppl 1:S165 pubmed