Summary: A generic term for the treatment of mental illness or emotional disturbances primarily by verbal or nonverbal communication.

Top Publications

  1. Huhn M, Tardy M, Spineli L, Kissling W, Forstl H, Pitschel Walz G, et al. Efficacy of pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy for adult psychiatric disorders: a systematic overview of meta-analyses. JAMA Psychiatry. 2014;71:706-15 pubmed publisher
    There is debate about the effectiveness of psychiatric treatments and whether pharmacotherapy or psychotherapy should be primarily used...
  2. Kvarstein E, Arnevik E, Halsteinli V, Rø F, Karterud S, Wilberg T. Health service costs and clinical gains of psychotherapy for personality disorders: a randomized controlled trial of day-hospital-based step-down treatment versus outpatient treatment at a specialist practice. BMC Psychiatry. 2013;13:315 pubmed publisher
    ..patients randomly allocated to either a day-hospital-based treatment programme combining individual and group psychotherapy in a step-down format, or outpatient individual psychotherapy at a specialist practice...
  3. Waller G, Mountford V, Tatham M, Turner H, Gabriel C, Webber R. Attitudes towards psychotherapy manuals among clinicians treating eating disorders. Behav Res Ther. 2013;51:840-4 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, a more positive mood was associated with more positive attitudes. Suggestions are made regarding how attitudes might be made more positive, in order to facilitate the use of evidence-based therapies for eating disorders. ..
  4. Wang T, Huang X, Huang P, Li D, Lv F, Zhang Y, et al. Early-stage psychotherapy produces elevated frontal white matter integrity in adult major depressive disorder. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e63081 pubmed publisher
    b>Psychotherapy has demonstrated comparable efficacy to antidepressant medication in the treatment of major depressive disorder...
  5. Flückiger C, Del Re A, Wampold B, Symonds D, Horvath A. How central is the alliance in psychotherapy? A multilevel longitudinal meta-analysis. J Couns Psychol. 2012;59:10-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Apart from this trend, none of the variables previously proposed as potential moderators or mediators of the alliance-outcome relation, alone or in combination, were found to have a mediating impact. ..
  6. Goncalves D, Byrne G. Interventions for generalized anxiety disorder in older adults: systematic review and meta-analysis. J Anxiety Disord. 2012;26:1-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Older adults with GAD benefited from both pharmacological and psychotherapeutic interventions. Future studies should investigate combined treatment with medication and psychotherapy.
  7. Ebert D, Hannig W, Tarnowski T, Sieland B, Götzky B, Berking M. [Web-based rehabilitation aftercare following inpatient psychosomatic treatment]. Rehabilitation (Stuttg). 2013;52:164-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients with low education benefited particularly. Internet-based aftercare interventions are a feasible, accepted and effective approach to successfully sustain treatment outcomes achieved in inpatient psychosomatic rehabilitation. ..
  8. van den Berg M, Smit F, Vos T, van Baal P. Cost-effectiveness of opportunistic screening and minimal contact psychotherapy to prevent depression in primary care patients. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e22884 pubmed publisher
    ..This study aimed to investigate the cost-effectiveness of minimal contact psychotherapy, based on Lewinsohn's 'Coping with depression' course, targeted at opportunistically screened individuals with ..
  9. Cuijpers P, Driessen E, Hollon S, van Oppen P, Barth J, Andersson G. The efficacy of non-directive supportive therapy for adult depression: a meta-analysis. Clin Psychol Rev. 2012;32:280-91 pubmed publisher
    ..1%. NDST has a considerable effect on symptoms of depression. Most of the effect of therapy for adult depression is realized by non-specific factors, and our results suggest that the contribution of specific effects is limited at best. ..

Scientific Experts

More Information


  1. Benish S, Quintana S, Wampold B. Culturally adapted psychotherapy and the legitimacy of myth: a direct-comparison meta-analysis. J Couns Psychol. 2011;58:279-89 pubmed publisher
    b>Psychotherapy is a culturally encapsulated healing practice that is created from and dedicated to specific cultural contexts (Frank & Frank, 1993; Wampold, 2007; Wrenn, 1962)...
  2. Cuijpers P, Reynolds C, Donker T, Li J, Andersson G, Beekman A. Personalized treatment of adult depression: medication, psychotherapy, or both? A systematic review. Depress Anxiety. 2012;29:855-64 pubmed publisher
    ..We searched relevant studies from bibliographical databases and included trials comparing (1) medication with psychotherapy, (2) medication with combined treatment, and (3) psychotherapy with combined treatment, in specific target ..
  3. Oldham M, Kellett S, Miles E, Sheeran P. Interventions to increase attendance at psychotherapy: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2012;80:928-39 pubmed
    Rates of nonattendance for psychotherapy hinder the effective delivery of evidence-based treatments. Although many strategies have been developed to increase attendance, the effectiveness of these strategies has not been quantified...
  4. Elkins D. Toward a common focus in psychotherapy research. Psychotherapy (Chic). 2012;49:450-4 pubmed publisher
    ..that clinical scientists lay aside theoretical allegiances and work together by adopting a common focus in psychotherapy research on the determinants of effectiveness...
  5. Cox G, Callahan P, Churchill R, Hunot V, Merry S, Parker A, et al. Psychological therapies versus antidepressant medication, alone and in combination for depression in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;11:CD008324 pubmed publisher
    ..based on two studies involving 220 participants) that antidepressant medication was more effective than psychotherapy on measures of clinician defined remission immediately post-intervention (odds ratio (OR) 0...
  6. Gullestad F, Wilberg T, Klungsøyr O, Johansen M, Urnes O, Karterud S. Is treatment in a day hospital step-down program superior to outpatient individual psychotherapy for patients with personality disorders? 36 months follow-up of a randomized clinical trial comparing different treatment modalities. Psychother Res. 2012;22:426-41 pubmed publisher
    ..treatment program, consisting of short-term day hospital treatment followed by combined group and individual psychotherapy organized in a hospital setting, with "ordinary" outpatient individual psychotherapy in private ..
  7. van Dam D, Vedel E, Ehring T, Emmelkamp P. Psychological treatments for concurrent posttraumatic stress disorder and substance use disorder: a systematic review. Clin Psychol Rev. 2012;32:202-14 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the lack of methodologically sound treatment trials makes it difficult to draw firm conclusions. Methodological limitations are discussed, along with recommendations for future research. ..
  8. Perry J, Bond M. Change in defense mechanisms during long-term dynamic psychotherapy and five-year outcome. Am J Psychiatry. 2012;169:916-25 pubmed publisher
    ..whether defenses change in accordance with the hierarchy of defense adaptation during long-term dynamic psychotherapy and whether such change is associated with long-term outcomes on other measures...
  9. Feenstra D, Busschbach J, Verheul R, Hutsebaut J. Prevalence and comorbidity of axis I and axis II disorders among treatment refractory adolescents admitted for specialized psychotherapy. J Pers Disord. 2011;25:842-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide further evidence to support the cross-national generalizability of the diagnosis of PD in adolescents. ..
  10. le Grange D, Lock J, Agras W, Moye A, Bryson S, Jo B, et al. Moderators and mediators of remission in family-based treatment and adolescent focused therapy for anorexia nervosa. Behav Res Ther. 2012;50:85-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results indicate that patients with more severe eating related psychopathology have better outcomes in a behaviorally targeted family treatment (FBT) than an individually focused approach (AFT). ..
  11. Sharpley C, Bitsika V. Four potential criteria for deciding when to use antidepressants or psychotherapy for unipolar depression: a literature review. Int J Psychiatry Clin Pract. 2011;15:2-11 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the literature supporting four potential criteria for deciding whether to use psychotherapy or pharmacology when treating depression...
  12. Moritz S, Schröder J, Meyer B, Hauschildt M. The more it is needed, the less it is wanted: attitudes toward face-to-face intervention among depressed patients undergoing online treatment. Depress Anxiety. 2013;30:157-67 pubmed publisher
    ..All participants filled out a newly developed 42-item questionnaire called Psychotherapy Expectations, Concerns, and Hopes Inventory (PECHI)...
  13. Donker T, Bennett K, Bennett A, MacKinnon A, van Straten A, Cuijpers P, et al. Internet-delivered interpersonal psychotherapy versus internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy for adults with depressive symptoms: randomized controlled noninferiority trial. J Med Internet Res. 2013;15:e82 pubmed publisher
    Face-to-face cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) are both effective treatments for depressive disorders, but access is limited...
  14. Weisz J, Chorpita B, FRYE A, Ng M, Lau N, Bearman S, et al. Youth Top Problems: using idiographic, consumer-guided assessment to identify treatment needs and to track change during psychotherapy. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2011;79:369-80 pubmed publisher
    ..repeatedly assessing (during treatment) the problems identified as most important by caregivers and youths in psychotherapy. A total of 178 outpatient-referred youths, 7-13 years of age, and their caregivers separately identified the ..
  15. Tebartz van Elst L, Pick M, Biscaldi M, Fangmeier T, Riedel A. High-functioning autism spectrum disorder as a basic disorder in adult psychiatry and psychotherapy: psychopathological presentation, clinical relevance and therapeutic concepts. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2013;263 Suppl 2:S189-96 pubmed publisher
    ..In this paper, we summarize the classical presentation of high-functioning ASD in adult psychiatry and psychotherapy and suggest a nosological model to classify different ASD conditions instead...
  16. Stangier U, Schramm E, Heidenreich T, Berger M, Clark D. Cognitive therapy vs interpersonal psychotherapy in social anxiety disorder: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2011;68:692-700 pubmed publisher
    ..Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) aims to change problematic interpersonal behavior patterns that may have an important role in the ..
  17. Swift J, Greenberg R. Premature discontinuation in adult psychotherapy: a meta-analysis. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2012;80:547-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Special efforts should be made to decrease premature discontinuation, particularly with clients who are younger, have a personality or eating disorder diagnosis, and are seen by trainee clinicians. ..
  18. Jakobsen J, Hansen J, Simonsen E, Gluud C. The effect of adding psychodynamic therapy to antidepressants in patients with major depressive disorder. A systematic review of randomized clinical trials with meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses. J Affect Disord. 2012;137:4-14 pubmed publisher
    ..All trials had high risk of bias. Four trials assessed 'interpersonal psychotherapy' and one trial 'short psychodynamic supportive psychotherapy'...
  19. Dray J, Wade T. Is the transtheoretical model and motivational interviewing approach applicable to the treatment of eating disorders? A review. Clin Psychol Rev. 2012;32:558-65 pubmed publisher
  20. Button K, Wiles N, Lewis G, Peters T, Kessler D. Factors associated with differential response to online cognitive behavioural therapy. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2012;47:827-33 pubmed publisher
    ..K. general practices. Secondary analysis of a randomised controlled trial, internet-based psychotherapy for depression. A total of 297 patients referred from 55 U.K...
  21. van der Lem R, van der Wee N, van Veen T, Zitman F. Efficacy versus effectiveness: a direct comparison of the outcome of treatment for mild to moderate depression in randomized controlled trials and daily practice. Psychother Psychosom. 2012;81:226-34 pubmed publisher
    ..40-74%). Differences were less explicit for antidepressants (21 vs. 34-47%) than for individual psychotherapy (27 vs. 34-58%; effect size 0.85 vs. 1.71) and combination therapy (21 vs...
  22. Marano G, Traversi G, Nannarelli C, Pitrelli S, Mazza S, Mazza M. Functional neuroimaging: points of intersection between biology and psychotherapy. Clin Ter. 2012;163:e443-56 pubmed
    ..This paper gives an overview about neurobiological methods and their potential to support psychotherapy research and to examine psychotherapy effects across a number of psychiatric disorders...
  23. Cuijpers P, Andersson G, Donker T, van Straten A. Psychological treatment of depression: results of a series of meta-analyses. Nord J Psychiatry. 2011;65:354-64 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that different types of psychotherapy are efficacious in the treatment of adult depression, including cognitive behavior therapy, interpersonal ..
  24. van t Hof E, Cuijpers P, Waheed W, Stein D. Psychological treatments for depression and anxiety disorders in low- and middle- income countries: a meta-analysis. Afr J Psychiatry (Johannesbg). 2011;14:200-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that psychological treatments of depression and anxiety disorders are also effective in LAMI countries, and may encourage global dissemination of these interventions. ..
  25. Soeteman D, Kim J. Cost-effectiveness of psychotherapy for personality disorders: treatment recommendations and implementation. Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res. 2013;13:73-81 pubmed publisher
    This article reviews the current evidence on the cost-effectiveness of psychotherapy for personality disorders (PDs)...
  26. Linden M. How to define, find and classify side effects in psychotherapy: from unwanted events to adverse treatment reactions. Clin Psychol Psychother. 2013;20:286-96 pubmed publisher
    Empirical research on the negative effects of psychotherapy is insufficient, partly because there is a lack of theoretical concept on how to define, classify and assess psychotherapy side effects...
  27. Jacob K, Kuruvilla A. Psychotherapy across cultures: the form-content dichotomy. Clin Psychol Psychother. 2012;19:91-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This is necessary in all cultures and in every setting. Many schools of psychotherapy offer specific theories and particular techniques, yet they share many common approaches...
  28. Schottle D, Huber C, Bock T, Meyer T. Psychotherapy for bipolar disorder: a review of the most recent studies. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2011;24:549-55 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this review is to give an update on recent randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating psychotherapy for bipolar disorder...
  29. Carter F, Jordan J, McIntosh V, Luty S, McKenzie J, Frampton C, et al. The long-term efficacy of three psychotherapies for anorexia nervosa: a randomized, controlled trial. Int J Eat Disord. 2011;44:647-54 pubmed publisher a RCT comparing specialized psychotherapies (cognitive behavior therapy, CBT, and interpersonal psychotherapy, IPT) with a control condition (specialist supportive clinical management, SSCM), and attended long-term ..
  30. Lu W, Wang Z, Liu Y. A pilot study on changes of cardiac vagal tone in individuals with low trait positive affect: the effect of positive psychotherapy. Int J Psychophysiol. 2013;88:213-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Then the final LPA participants (n=34) were randomly assigned to either a four month Positive Psychotherapy (PPT) group (n=16) or a control group (n=18), and their basal physiological and PANAS data were collected ..
  31. Morland L, Raab M, Mackintosh M, Rosen C, Dismuke C, Greene C, et al. Telemedicine: a cost-reducing means of delivering psychotherapy to rural combat veterans with PTSD. Telemed J E Health. 2013;19:754-9 pubmed publisher
    ..treatments to Veterans with PTSD involves the difficulty and high cost of delivering in-person, specialized psychotherapy to Veterans residing in geographically remote locations...
  32. von Ranson K, Wallace L, Stevenson A. Psychotherapies provided for eating disorders by community clinicians: infrequent use of evidence-based treatment. Psychother Res. 2013;23:333-43 pubmed publisher
    ..7%) had treated EDs; 118 (90.8%) were interviewed. Clinicians reported varied reasons for psychotherapy choice and diverse training experiences; the primary approaches used varied by education and field...
  33. Philipsen A. Psychotherapy in adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: implications for treatment and research. Expert Rev Neurother. 2012;12:1217-25 pubmed publisher
    ..This manuscript provides an overview of psychotherapy approaches and results of studies evaluating programs developed to treat adults with ADHD...
  34. Jokela M, Batty G, Vahtera J, Elovainio M, Kivimaki M. Socioeconomic inequalities in common mental disorders and psychotherapy treatment in the UK between 1991 and 2009. Br J Psychiatry. 2013;202:115-20 pubmed publisher
    ..To examine differences in socioeconomic status in common mental disorders and use of psychotherapy provided by the public and private sector in the UK between 1991 and 2009...
  35. Jakobsen J, Hansen J, Simonsen E, Gluud C. The effect of interpersonal psychotherapy and other psychodynamic therapies versus 'treatment as usual' in patients with major depressive disorder. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e19044 pubmed publisher
    ..Interpersonal psychotherapy and other psychodynamic therapies may be effective interventions for major depressive disorder, but the ..
  36. Arvidsson D, Sikström S, Werbart A. Changes in self and object representations following psychotherapy measured by a theory-free, computational, semantic space method. Psychother Res. 2011;21:430-46 pubmed publisher
    ..method for assessing changes in semantic content of object representations following long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy. Young adults in psychotherapy are compared with an age-matched, non-clinical sample at three time points...
  37. Ramseyer F, Tschacher W. Nonverbal synchrony in psychotherapy: coordinated body movement reflects relationship quality and outcome. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2011;79:284-95 pubmed publisher
    ..nonverbal synchrony--the coordination of patient's and therapist's movement--in a random sample of same-sex psychotherapy dyads...
  38. Leichsenring F, Rabung S. Long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy in complex mental disorders: update of a meta-analysis. Br J Psychiatry. 2011;199:15-22 pubmed publisher
    Dose-effect relationship data suggest that short-term psychotherapy is insufficient for many patients with chronic distress or personality disorders (complex mental disorders)...
  39. McLeod B. Relation of the alliance with outcomes in youth psychotherapy: a meta-analysis. Clin Psychol Rev. 2011;31:603-16 pubmed publisher
    ..goal of this meta-analytic review was to provide a reliable estimate of the alliance-outcome relation in youth psychotherapy. Previous meta-analyses focused upon the alliance-outcome association in youth and adult psychotherapy have ..
  40. Peres J, Nasello A. Psychotherapy and neuroscience: towards closer integration. Int J Psychol. 2008;43:943-57 pubmed publisher
    ..with its integrative approach, is bringing together research from molecular through cognitive levels, and psychotherapy has benefited from these findings...
  41. McGivern G, Fischer M. Reactivity and reactions to regulatory transparency in medicine, psychotherapy and counselling. Soc Sci Med. 2012;74:289-296 pubmed publisher
  42. Heinonen E, Lindfors O, Laaksonen M, Knekt P. Therapists' professional and personal characteristics as predictors of outcome in short- and long-term psychotherapy. J Affect Disord. 2012;138:301-12 pubmed publisher either short-term (solution-focused or psychodynamic therapy, combined) or long-term (psychodynamic) psychotherapy, and were followed up for 3 years...
  43. Fairburn C, Cooper Z. Therapist competence, therapy quality, and therapist training. Behav Res Ther. 2011;49:373-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Standardised role play-based techniques might be of value in this regard. ..
  44. Amato L, Minozzi S, Davoli M, Vecchi S. Psychosocial and pharmacological treatments versus pharmacological treatments for opioid detoxification. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;:CD005031 pubmed publisher
    ..Nevertheless it seems desirable to develop adjunct psychosocial approaches that might make detoxification more effective. ..
  45. Gumz A, Bauer K, Brahler E. Corresponding instability of patient and therapist process ratings in psychodynamic psychotherapies. Psychother Res. 2012;22:26-39 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that systematically including a measure of instability and associations between patient and therapist ratings may prove fruitful in process research. ..
  46. Munder T, Flückiger C, Gerger H, Wampold B, Barth J. Is the allegiance effect an epiphenomenon of true efficacy differences between treatments? a meta-analysis. J Couns Psychol. 2012;59:631-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, this study does not support the true efficacy hypothesis. Given findings from psychotherapy research and other fields that support a biasing influence of researcher preferences, RA should be regarded as ..
  47. Dickens C, Cherrington A, Adeyemi I, Roughley K, Bower P, Garrett C, et al. Characteristics of psychological interventions that improve depression in people with coronary heart disease: a systematic review and meta-regression. Psychosom Med. 2013;75:211-21 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the effects are small in magnitude, and there is room to develop new interventions that may be more effective. ..
  48. von Wolff A, Hölzel L, Westphal A, Härter M, Kriston L. Combination of pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy in the treatment of chronic depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Psychiatry. 2012;12:61 pubmed publisher
    ..This review examined whether the combination of pharmacological treatments and psychotherapy is associated with higher effectiveness than pharmacotherapy alone via meta-analysis; and identified possible ..
  49. Mander J, Wittorf A, Schlarb A, Hautzinger M, Zipfel S, Sammet I. Change mechanisms in psychotherapy: multiperspective assessment and relation to outcome. Psychother Res. 2013;23:105-16 pubmed publisher
    ..aimed at constructing a reliable and valid post-session questionnaire measuring general change mechanisms of psychotherapy with correspondent versions for patient and therapist perspectives...
  50. Mithoefer M, Wagner M, Mithoefer A, Jerome L, Martin S, Yazar Klosinski B, et al. Durability of improvement in post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms and absence of harmful effects or drug dependency after 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-assisted psychotherapy: a prospective long-term follow-up study. J Psychopharmacol. 2013;27:28-39 pubmed publisher
    ..the long-term outcomes for the first completed trial of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)-assisted psychotherapy for chronic, treatment-resistant post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (Mithoefer et al., 2011)...
  51. Liotti G, Gilbert P. Mentalizing, motivation, and social mentalities: theoretical considerations and implications for psychotherapy. Psychol Psychother. 2011;84:9-25; discussion 98-110 pubmed publisher
    ..Therapists can be mindful of the kind of specific events in social roles that activate threat and loss of mentalizing (e.g., abandonment threats, feeling controlled by 'the other', status loss, non-reciprocation). ..
  52. Lysaker P, Buck K, Carcione A, Procacci M, Salvatore G, Nicolò G, et al. Addressing metacognitive capacity for self reflection in the psychotherapy for schizophrenia: a conceptual model of the key tasks and processes. Psychol Psychother. 2011;84:58-69; discussion 98-110 pubmed publisher
    ..schizophrenia may involve a deepening of the experience of being in the world has led to the possibility that psychotherapy may play a key role in treatment by enhancing metacognition, or the capacity to think about thinking...
  53. Flückiger C, Grosse Holtforth M, Znoj H, Caspar F, Wampold B. Is the relation between early post-session reports and treatment outcome an epiphenomenon of intake distress and early response? A multi-predictor analysis in outpatient psychotherapy. Psychother Res. 2013;23:1-13 pubmed publisher
    The early phase of psychotherapy has been regarded as a sensitive period in the unfolding of psychotherapy leading to positive outcomes...