manifest anxiety scale


Summary: True-false questionnaire made up of items believed to indicate anxiety, in which the subject answers verbally the statement that describes him.

Top Publications

  1. Aartman I. Reliability and validity of the short version of the Dental Anxiety Inventory. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1998;26:350-4 pubmed
    ..The results indicated that the S-DAI has good reliability and construct validity. It was concluded that the S-DAI is easy to administer in general dental practices and dental fear clinics and has satisfactory psychometric qualities. ..
  2. Maggirias J, Locker D. Five-year incidence of dental anxiety in an adult population. Community Dent Health. 2002;19:173-9 pubmed
    ..Both aversive conditioning experiences and pre-existing psychological states appear to be associated with the development of anxiety about dental treatment in this adult population. ..
  3. Humphris G, Freeman R, Campbell J, Tuutti H, D SOUZA V. Further evidence for the reliability and validity of the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale. Int Dent J. 2000;50:367-70 pubmed
    ..Data from three countries has supported the psychometric properties of this modified and brief dental anxiety scale. ..
  4. Dailey Y, Humphris G, Lennon M. The use of dental anxiety questionnaires: a survey of a group of UK dental practitioners. Br Dent J. 2001;190:450-3 pubmed
    ..Male practitioners and those providing intravenous sedation, general anaesthesia or hypnosis seem more likely to use dental anxiety assessment questionnaires. ..
  5. Sohn W, Ismail A. Regular dental visits and dental anxiety in an adult dentate population. J Am Dent Assoc. 2005;136:58-66; quiz 90-1 pubmed
    ..Practitioners need to be educated about the causes of dental anxiety and receive training in how to treat the problem. ..
  6. Thomson W, Locker D, Poulton R. Incidence of dental anxiety in young adults in relation to dental treatment experience. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2000;28:289-94 pubmed
    ..Aversive conditioning experiences appear to be unrelated to the adult onset of dental anxiety, and it may be that particular temperamental or psychological traits are associated with the condition. ..
  7. Gadbury Amyot C, Williams K. Dental hygiene fear: gender and age differences. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2000;1:42-59 pubmed
    ..With this foundation, the practitioner can then develop management strategies specific to this phenomenon. ..
  8. Locker D, Thomson W, Poulton R. Onset of and patterns of change in dental anxiety in adolescence and early adulthood: a birth cohort study. Community Dent Health. 2001;18:99-104 pubmed
    ..This may be related to dental disease and treatment factors, or changing psychological states during significant life transitions. ..
  9. Fujii M, Ohno Y, Tokumaru Y, Imanishi Y, Kanke M, Tomita T, et al. Manifest Anxiety Scale for evaluation of effects of granisetron in chemotherapy with CDDP and 5FU for head and neck cancer. Support Care Cancer. 2001;9:366-71 pubmed
    The level of anxiety was examined before treatment by means of the Manifest Anxiety Scale (MAS) in 41 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck...

More Information


  1. Dailey Y, Humphris G, Lennon M. Reducing patients' state anxiety in general dental practice: a randomized controlled trial. J Dent Res. 2002;81:319-22 pubmed
    ..74, P < 0.0001). Providing the dentist with information of the high level of a patient's dental anxiety prior to treatment, and involving the patient in this, reduced the patient's state anxiety. ..
  2. White K, Farrell A. Structure of anxiety symptoms in urban children: competing factor models of the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2001;69:333-7 pubmed
    The Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale (RCMAS; C. R. Reynolds & B. O. Richmond, 1985) is among the most widely used self-report measures of children's anxiety...
  3. Stark K, Laurent J. Joint factor analysis of the Children's Depression Inventory and the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale. J Clin Child Psychol. 2001;30:552-67 pubmed
    ..analysis with the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI; Kovacs, 1980/81, 1992) and Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale (RCMAS; C. R...
  4. Taani D. Dental attendance and anxiety among public and private school children in Jordan. Int Dent J. 2002;52:25-9 pubmed
    ..Moreover, public school children were found to be more anxious with a significantly higher 'overall dental fear' than private school children (P < 0.05). ..
  5. Yuan S, Freeman R, Lahti S, Lloyd Williams F, Humphris G. Some psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale with cross validation. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2008;6:22 pubmed publisher
    ..The Chinese version of the MDAS has good psychometric properties and has the ability to assess, briefly, overall dental anxiety and two correlated but distinct aspects. ..
  6. Acharya S. Factors affecting dental anxiety and beliefs in an Indian population. J Oral Rehabil. 2008;35:259-67 pubmed publisher
    ..The data obtained in this study provided strong evidence for the psychometric properties of the Indian version of the MDAS and the MDBS. ..
  7. Smith T, Heaton L. Fear of dental care: are we making any progress?. J Am Dent Assoc. 2003;134:1101-8 pubmed
    ..The authors discuss the stable trend of self-reported dental anxiety levels in the context of increasing general anxiety in the United States and the current structure of individual dental practices. ..
  8. Ng S, Stouthard M, Keung Leung W. Validation of a Chinese version of the dental anxiety inventory. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2005;33:107-14 pubmed
    ..In situations where a short-form is desirable, the Chinese SDAxI is a simple, valid, reliable and interpretable scale for measuring dental anxiety in both research and dental practice. ..
  9. Newton J, Edwards J. Psychometric properties of the modified dental anxiety scale: an independent replication. Community Dent Health. 2005;22:40-2 pubmed
    ..The MDAS is a highly consistent and reliable measure which has good discriminant and concurrent validity. ..
  10. Berggren U, Pierce C, Eli I. Characteristics of adult dentally fearful individuals. A cross-cultural study. Eur J Oral Sci. 2000;108:268-74 pubmed
    ..Preference for dentist attributes were similar among groups and underlined the strong emphasis that fearful individuals place upon dentists' behaviors and their performance of dentistry. ..
  11. Skaret E, Raadal M, Kvale G, Berg E. Factors related to missed and cancelled dental appointments among adolescents in Norway. Eur J Oral Sci. 2000;108:175-83 pubmed
    ..5 for working or without specified occupation (as opposed to attending school), by a factor of 2.7 for negative beliefs of dentists, and by a factor of 2.1 for high caries experience. ..
  12. Skaret E, Raadal M, Berg E, Kvale G. Dental anxiety and dental avoidance among 12 to 18 year olds in Norway. Eur J Oral Sci. 1999;107:422-8 pubmed
    ..9, having a high caries experience by a factor of 5.0, and not having their dental treatment completed at the age of 18 yr by a factor of 4.4. ..
  13. Humphris G, Clarke H, Freeman R. Does completing a dental anxiety questionnaire increase anxiety? A randomised controlled trial with adults in general dental practice. Br Dent J. 2006;201:33-5 pubmed
    ..01 (4.35). The mean (CI95%) difference was 0.35 (0.89 to -0.18), t = 1.29, df1002, p = 0.2. The completion of a brief dental anxiety questionnaire before seeing the dentist has a non significant effect on state anxiety. ..
  14. do Nascimento D, da Silva Araújo A, Gusmão E, Cimões R. Anxiety and fear of dental treatment among users of public health services. Oral Health Prev Dent. 2011;9:329-37 pubmed
    ..In the association between fear and anxiety, 38.9% of the patients with extreme fear were classified as very anxious. The majority of individuals were classified as non-anxious and without fear regarding dental procedures. ..
  15. Haugejorden O, Klock K. Avoidance of dental visits: the predictive validity of three dental anxiety scales. Acta Odontol Scand. 2000;58:255-9 pubmed
  16. Kvale G, Berg E, Nilsen C, Raadal M, Nielsen G, Johnsen T, et al. Validation of the Dental Fear Scale and the Dental Belief Survey in a Norwegian sample. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1997;25:160-4 pubmed
    ..Also, the correlation between the instruments was 0.68, indicating that they to a large extent seem to measure the same concept. The most important predictor items for both instruments were related to avoidance of dental treatment. ..
  17. Furuse S, Kanaya N, Takeda T, Namiki A. [Comparison of zopiclone and midazolam premedication for preoperative anxiolysis]. Masui. 2002;51:1094-9 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that ZPC (7.5 mg p.o.) is suitable to reduce the preoperative anxiety in patients who are to undergo surgery as compared to MDZ (0.05 i.m.). ..
  18. Loney J, Wirrell E, Sherman E, Hamiwka L. Anxiety and depressive symptoms in children presenting with a first seizure. Pediatr Neurol. 2008;39:236-40 pubmed publisher
    ..These patients (mean age, 12 +/- 2.7 years S.D.; 14 female/8 male) completed the Revised Child Manifest Anxiety Scale (n = 22) and Children's Depression Inventory (n = 20)...
  19. Patel A, Richards P, Wang H, Inglehart M. Surgical or non-surgical periodontal treatment: factors affecting patient decision making. J Periodontol. 2006;77:678-83 pubmed
    ..These results stress the importance of good patient-provider communication. ..
  20. Terry W, Burns J. Anxiety and repression in attention and retention. J Gen Psychol. 2001;128:422-32 pubmed
    High- and low-anxious college students (as determined by scores on the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale; A. W. Bendig, 1956) and repressors (low anxiety and high scores on the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale; D. P. Crowne & D...
  21. Kaakko T, Murtomaa H. Factors predictive of anxiety before oral surgery: efficacy of various subject screening measures. Anesth Prog. 1999;46:3-9 pubmed
    ..Linear regression indicated that the DFS predicted anxiety before oral surgery best of all measures that were used. Kleinknecht's DFS is thus recommended for use as a tool for recruiting anxious patients. ..
  22. Hosey M, Macpherson L, Adair P, Tochel C, Burnside G, Pine C. Dental anxiety, distress at induction and postoperative morbidity in children undergoing tooth extraction using general anaesthesia. Br Dent J. 2006;200:39-43; discussion 27; quiz 50 pubmed
    ..14, p=0.007 and chi2=11.70, p=0.001). The majority of children suffered next day morbidity and many still had symptoms a week later. Most children were dentally anxious; this related to induction distress and postoperative morbidity. ..
  23. Kruger E, Thomson W, Poulton R, Davies S, Brown R, Silva P. Dental caries and changes in dental anxiety in late adolescence. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1998;26:355-9 pubmed
    ..Dental anxiety is likely to be a significant predictor of dental caries experience, and may be a risk factor for dental caries incidence. ..
  24. Krespi M, Oakley D, Bone M, Ahmad R, Salmon P. [The effects of visual imagery on adjustment and quality in life of hemodialysis patients]. Turk Psikiyatri Derg. 2009;20:255-68 pubmed
    ..The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for future studies as well as their limitations. ..
  25. Gáspár J, Fejérdy L, Kaán B, Toth Z, Fábián T. [The Hungarian version of the "Dental Beliefs Survey (DBS)--preliminary data in the Hungarian population]. Fogorv Sz. 2003;96:261-7 pubmed
    ..56, DFS: r = 0.63) than related to general anxiety scores, whereas Pearson's correlation between DAS and DFS scores was even more prominent (r = 0.82, p < or = 0.05). ..
  26. Sirin Y, Humphris G, Sencan S, Firat D. What is the most fearful intervention in ambulatory oral surgery? Analysis of an outpatient clinic. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2012;41:1284-90 pubmed publisher
    ..05 for all). Regarding oral surgery, third molar patients should be targeted to increase overall comfort of the treatment. Assessments should be adjusted to cultural differences. ..
  27. Eccleston C, Crombez G, Aldrich S, Stannard C. Worry and chronic pain patients: a description and analysis of individual differences. Eur J Pain. 2001;5:309-18 pubmed
    ..Worry is, however, related to awareness of somatic sensations. These results are discussed within an attentional model in which worry functions to maintain vigilance to threat. ..
  28. Settineri S, Tati F, Fanara G. Gender differences in dental anxiety: is the chair position important?. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2005;6:115-22 pubmed
    ..The results may explain why women avoid dental care and indicate new designs to make the chair position more comfortable would be useful. ..
  29. Carlsson V, Hakeberg M, Blomkvist K, Wide Boman U. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and dental anxiety in adults: relationship with oral health. Eur J Oral Sci. 2013;121:258-63 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the results of this study indicate an increased prevalence of ADHD in highly dentally anxious adults and the need to pay special attention to these patients because of greater treatment needs and increased dental anxiety. ..
  30. Udoye C, Oginni A, Oginni F. Dental anxiety among patients undergoing various dental treatments in a Nigerian teaching hospital. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2005;6:91-8 pubmed
    ..The observed avoidance of dental treatment among Nigerians, despite the seemingly low mean DAS scores, may be related to dental anxiety. The authors are, however, of the opinion poor dental awareness may be a contributory factor. ..
  31. Hosey M, Blinkhorn A. An evaluation of four methods of assessing the behaviour of anxious child dental patients. Int J Paediatr Dent. 1995;5:87-95 pubmed
    ..There was significant correlation between the Global Rating scale and the Visual Analogue, Houpt and Frankl scales. ..
  32. Crandall M, Lammers C, Senders C, Savedra M, Braun J. Initial validation of a numeric zero to ten scale to measure children's state anxiety. Anesth Analg. 2007;105:1250-3, table of contents pubmed
    ..0001). Correlations were moderate for pre-education (r = 0.424) and posteducation (r = 0.639). This initial study supports the validity of the numeric 0-10 anxiety self-report scale to assess state anxiety in children as young as 7 yr. ..
  33. Matsuda Y, Nagasaku M, Arai K. [Influence of job-hunting anxiety on job-hunting: from the viewpoint of coping]. Shinrigaku Kenkyu. 2010;80:512-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that reduction of job-hunting anxiety and the use of problem-focused coping facilitated job-hunting. ..
  34. Krikken J, van Wijk A, ten Cate J, Veerkamp J. Measuring dental fear using the CFSS-DS. Do children and parents agree?. Int J Paediatr Dent. 2013;23:94-100 pubmed publisher
    ..001), but the children of AP do not estimate their own dental fear higher than children of NAP. In general, parents tend to estimate the dental fear of their children slightly higher than their children. ..
  35. Kogan A, Allen J, Weihs K. Cardiac vagal control as a prospective predictor of anxiety in women diagnosed with breast cancer. Biol Psychol. 2012;90:105-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Forty-three women diagnosed with non-metastatic breast cancer completed the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale and the Perceived Stress Scale, and a 5-min resting electrocardiographic (ECG) segment was recorded...
  36. Aminabadi N, Vafaei A, Erfanparast L, Oskouei S, Jamali Z. Impact of pictorial story on pain perception, situational anxiety and behavior in children: a cognitive-behavioral schema. J Clin Pediatr Dent. 2011;36:127-32 pubmed
    ..001). Preparation of children with pictorial story can be effective in decreasing pain perception and situational anxiety as well as improving behavior during dental treatment. ..
  37. Zhang H, Xia B, Wang J, Xie P, Huang Q, Ge L. [Chinese version of a face version of the modified child dental anxiety scale: transcultural adaptation and evaluation]. Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2013;48:403-8 pubmed
    ..675, P < 0.01). The Chinese version of MCDASf demonstrated good reliability and validity and can be used as a simple self-report measurement of dental anxiety in Chinese children aged 4-11 years. ..
  38. Roopnarinesingh R, El Hantati T, Keane D, Harrison R. An assessment of mood in males attending an infertility clinic. Ir Med J. 2004;97:310-1 pubmed
    ..5%; all of these men had a male-factor problem. The study population was relatively small but some interesting trends were observed. A larger trial is warranted to assess if genuine at-risk groups exist. ..
  39. Wolfson P, Hoffmann D. An investigation into the efficacy of Scutellaria lateriflora in healthy volunteers. Altern Ther Health Med. 2003;9:74-8 pubmed
    ..The use of phytomedicines for the treatment of anxiety is reviewed, as is the published literature on S. lateriflora and its putative toxicity...
  40. Kan M, Ishikawa T, Nagasaka N. A study of psychological stress created in dentists by children during pediatric dental treatment. ASDC J Dent Child. 1999;66:41-8, 12-3 pubmed
    ..The above results indicate that the scale created in the present study is an effective instrument for measuring psychological stress in dental practitioners created by children during pediatric dental treatment and examination. ..
  41. Aartman I, van Everdingen T, Hoogstraten J, Schuurs A. Self-report measurements of dental anxiety and fear in children: a critical assessment. ASDC J Dent Child. 1998;65:252-8, 229-30 pubmed
  42. Peretz B, Kaplan R, Stabholtz A. The influence of a patient-management course to dental hygiene students on the dental anxiety of their patients. J Dent Educ. 1997;61:368-73 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that a four-hour behavioral course to a class of dental hygiene students was an influencing factor in reducing their patients' levels of dental anxiety. ..
  43. Moore R, Brødsgaard I. Group therapy compared with individual desensitization for dental anxiety. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1994;22:258-62 pubmed
    ..Rehearsal IT performed best for sustained dental care behavior. Group dynamics are discussed and suggestions made for effective and efficient group therapy as well as decision making about choice of treatment. ..
  44. Maraste R, Brandt L, Olsson H, Ryde Brandt B. Anxiety and depression in breast cancer patients at start of adjuvant radiotherapy. Relations to age and type of surgery. Acta Oncol. 1992;31:641-3 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that, at start of adjuvant radiotherapy, emotional distress is characterized by anxiety rather than depression and the risk of morbid anxiety is especially large for mastectomized women in their fifties. ..
  45. Field T, Hernandez Reif M, Diego M, Schanberg S, Kuhn C. Stability of mood states and biochemistry across pregnancy. Infant Behav Dev. 2006;29:262-7 pubmed
    ..These were, in turn, correlated with each other and with, low back pain, leg pain, and sleep disturbance. These data suggest the stability of mood states and cortisol across pregnancy. ..
  46. Kudo M. Initial injection pressure for dental local anesthesia: effects on pain and anxiety. Anesth Prog. 2005;52:95-101 pubmed
    ..479, P = .00979). It is therefore recommended that local anesthetic be injected under low pressure (less than 306 mm Hg) to minimize pain and anxiety among dental patients. ..
  47. Yamadera W, Sato M, Ozone M, Nakamura K, Itoh H, Nakayama K. [Psychophysiological evaluations of clinical efficacy in outpatients: Morita therapy for psychophysiological insomnia]. Seishin Shinkeigaku Zasshi. 2005;107:341-51 pubmed
    ..This finding suggested that Morita therapy on outpatients with PPI was effective in helping subjects accept their insomnia and lied a constructive life. ..
  48. Olatunji B, Cole D. The longitudinal structure of general and specific anxiety dimensions in children: testing a latent trait-state-occasion model. Psychol Assess. 2009;21:412-24 pubmed publisher
    In an 8-wave, 4-year longitudinal study, 787 children (Grades 3-6) completed the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale (C. R. Reynolds & B. O...
  49. Roth A, Rosenfeld B, Kornblith A, Gibson C, Scher H, Curley Smart T, et al. The memorial anxiety scale for prostate cancer: validation of a new scale to measure anxiety in men with with prostate cancer. Cancer. 2003;97:2910-8 pubmed
    ..13; P = 0.02). The MAX-PC appears to be a valid and reliable measure of anxiety in men with prostate cancer receiving ambulatory care. ..
  50. Veerkamp J, Gruythuysen R, van Amerongen W, Hoogstraten J, Weerheijm K. Dentist's ratings of child dental-patients' anxiety. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1995;23:356-9 pubmed
    ..After video training dentists giving treatment are capable of giving a picture of changes in children's fear levels during sequential dental visits. ..
  51. Singer R, Cardenas G, Xavier J, Jeanty Y, Pereyra M, Rodriguez A, et al. Dental anxiety and the use of oral health services among people attending two HIV primary care clinics in Miami. Public Health Rep. 2012;127 Suppl 2:36-44 pubmed
    ..Routine screening for dental anxiety and counseling to reduce dental anxiety are supported by this study as a means of addressing the impact of dental anxiety on the use of oral health services among HIV-positive individuals. ..
  52. Veerkamp J, Gruythuysen R, Hoogstraten J, van Amerongen W. Anxiety reduction with nitrous oxide: a permanent solution?. ASDC J Dent Child. 1995;62:44-8 pubmed
    ..It was concluded that nitrous oxide helps children to lower their anxiety levels during a long period after treatment. Influencing anxiety in highly anxious children might be characterized as a long-term process. ..
  53. Humphris G, Crawford J, Hill K, Gilbert A, Freeman R. UK population norms for the modified dental anxiety scale with percentile calculator: adult dental health survey 2009 results. BMC Oral Health. 2013;13:29 pubmed publisher
    ..Practitioners within the UK have a resource to estimate the rarity of a particular patient's level of dental anxiety, with confidence intervals, when using the on-line percentile calculator. ..