personality tests


Summary: Standardized objective tests designed to facilitate the evaluation of personality.

Top Publications

  1. Muris P, Winands D, Horselenberg R. Defense styles, personality traits, and psychopathological symptoms in nonclinical adolescents. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2003;191:771-80 pubmed
    ..Most importantly, regression analyses indicated that personality traits and defense styles both accounted for unique proportions of the variance in psychopathological symptoms. ..
  2. Davis K, Panksepp J. The brain's emotional foundations of human personality and the Affective Neuroscience Personality Scales. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2011;35:1946-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Links with ontogenetic and epigenetic models of personality development are also presented. Potential novel clinical applications of the CARE maternal-nurturance system and the PLAY system are also discussed. ..
  3. Vecchione M, Alessandri G, Barbaranelli C. Paper-and-pencil and web-based testing: the measurement invariance of the Big Five personality tests in applied settings. Assessment. 2012;19:243-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Practical implications for personality assessment are discussed. ..
  4. Holtmann M, Buchmann A, Esser G, Schmidt M, Banaschewski T, Laucht M. The Child Behavior Checklist-Dysregulation Profile predicts substance use, suicidality, and functional impairment: a longitudinal analysis. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2011;52:139-47 pubmed publisher
  5. Reuter M, Weber B, Fiebach C, Elger C, Montag C. The biological basis of anger: associations with the gene coding for DARPP-32 (PPP1R1B) and with amygdala volume. Behav Brain Res. 2009;202:179-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The present findings yield genetic evidence for the importance of dopaminergic signal transduction for the personality trait of ANGER. In addition volumetric MRI data support the role of the amygdala for the processing of anger. ..
  6. Lesch K, Bengel D, Heils A, Sabol S, Greenberg B, Petri S, et al. Association of anxiety-related traits with a polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene regulatory region. Science. 1996;274:1527-31 pubmed
  7. van der Bij A, de Weerd S, Cikot R, Steegers E, Braspenning J. Validation of the dutch short form of the state scale of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory: considerations for usage in screening outcomes. Community Genet. 2003;6:84-7 pubmed
    ..We believe our results will be applicable to other populations, although this needs to be confirmed in other studies. ..
  8. Samochowiec J, Syrek S, Michał P, Ryzewska Wódecka A, Samochowiec A, Horodnicki J, et al. Polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter and monoamine oxidase A genes and their relationship to personality traits measured by the Temperament and Character Inventory and NEO Five-Factor Inventory in healthy volunteers. Neuropsychobiology. 2004;50:174-81 pubmed
    ..Our results do not confirm the hypothesis that there is a simple correlation between single gene polymorphisms and a personality trait measured by the TCI and NEO-FFI scales. ..
  9. Waga C, Iwahashi K. CYP2A6 gene polymorphism and personality traits for NEO-FFI on the smoking behavior of youths. Drug Chem Toxicol. 2007;30:343-9 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the CYP2A6*4C gene and the Openness personality trait may affect the development of the smoking behavior of youth. ..

More Information


  1. Schneider K, Pauly K, Gossen A, Mevissen L, Michel T, Gur R, et al. Neural correlates of moral reasoning in autism spectrum disorder. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. 2013;8:702-10 pubmed publisher
  2. Stanford M, Houston R, Baldridge R. Comparison of impulsive and premeditated perpetrators of intimate partner violence. Behav Sci Law. 2008;26:709-22 pubmed publisher
    ..It is suggested that the use of a bimodal classification (Impulsive/Premeditated) in batterers may have significant clinical and legal policy implications. ..
  3. Kwapil T, Barrantes Vidal N, Armistead M, Hope G, Brown L, Silvia P, et al. The expression of bipolar spectrum psychopathology in daily life. J Affect Disord. 2011;130:166-70 pubmed publisher
    ..It is not clear to what extent the participants had diagnosable bipolar disorders. The findings support a broader spectrum of bipolar psychopathology and the validity of the HPS as a measure of this construct. ..
  4. Gourounti K, Anagnostopoulos F, Vaslamatzis G. Primary appraisal of infertility: evaluation of the psychometric properties of a Greek version of the Appraisal of Life Events scale (ALE) in a Sample of infertile women undergoing fertility treatment. Women Health. 2010;50:688-704 pubmed publisher
    ..Internal consistency reliability was satisfactory (? = .79-.95). The Appraisal of Life Events had a meaningful factor structure and satisfactory reliability and convergent validity. ..
  5. Pitzer M, Esser G, Schmidt M, Laucht M. Temperament in the developmental course: a longitudinal comparison of New York Longitudinal Study-derived dimensions with the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory. Compr Psychiatry. 2007;48:572-82 pubmed
    ..The content of our NYLS-derived factors and the specific type of association across different temperament constructs fit into the increasing consensus regarding a small number of higher-order temperamental traits. ..
  6. Gandoy Crego M, Clemente M, Mayán Santos J, Espinosa P. Personal determinants of burnout in nursing staff at geriatric centers. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2009;48:246-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Personality variables and motivational values were found to be significantly related to the appearance of stress in the workplace. ..
  7. Spitzer R, First M, Shedler J, Westen D, Skodol A. Clinical utility of five dimensional systems for personality diagnosis: a "consumer preference" study. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2008;196:356-74 pubmed publisher
    ..A prototype matching approach to personality diagnosis deserves consideration for DSM-V. ..
  8. Brand M, Roth Bauer M, Driessen M, Markowitsch H. Executive functions and risky decision-making in patients with opiate dependence. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2008;97:64-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Decision-making and other neuropsychological functioning should be considered in the treatment of opiate dependence. ..
  9. Votruba K, Rapport L, Whitman R, Johnson A, Langenecker S. Personality differences among patients with chronic aphasia predict improvement in speech-language therapy. Top Stroke Rehabil. 2013;20:421-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Assessment of these characteristics may assist in identifying patients who are likely to improve and in tailoring treatment programs to yield optimal outcomes. ..
  10. Teten A, Miller L, Bailey S, Dunn N, Kent T. Empathic deficits and alexithymia in trauma-related impulsive aggression. Behav Sci Law. 2008;26:823-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Consideration of alexithymia in impulsive aggression has implications for its etiology, prevention and treatment. ..
  11. Anderson V, Brown S, Newitt H, Hoile H. Long-term outcome from childhood traumatic brain injury: intellectual ability, personality, and quality of life. Neuropsychology. 2011;25:176-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Findings suggest that, while TBI is a lifelong problem, its impact is most dramatic in the domain of QOL, where a complex interaction occurs between injury factors, cognition, and personality. ..
  12. Watanabe N, Wada M, Irukayama Tomobe Y, Ogata Y, Tsujino N, Suzuki M, et al. A single nucleotide polymorphism of the neuropeptide B/W receptor-1 gene influences the evaluation of facial expressions. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e35390 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, a single nucleotide polymorphism of NPBWR1 seems to affect human behavior in a social context. ..
  13. Kapogiannis D, Sutin A, Davatzikos C, Costa P, Resnick S. The five factors of personality and regional cortical variability in the Baltimore longitudinal study of aging. Hum Brain Mapp. 2013;34:2829-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings highlight personality-related variation that may be related to individual differences in brain structure that merit additional attention in neuroimaging research. ..
  14. Stevens N, Hamilton N, Wallston K. Validation of the multidimensional health locus of control scales for labor and delivery. Res Nurs Health. 2011;34:282-96 pubmed publisher
  15. Jauregui Lobera I, Santiago Fernández M, Estébanez Humanes S. [Eating behaviour disorders and personality. A study using MCMI-II]. Aten Primaria. 2009;41:201-6 pubmed publisher
    ..05), depressive neurosis (P<.05) and alcohol abuse (P<.01). To assess personality styles and clinical syndromes associated with eating behaviour disorders can be an important therapeutic and prognostic tool. ..
  16. Ramo D, Prochaska J, Myers M. Intentions to quit smoking among youth in substance abuse treatment. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2010;106:48-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Findings highlight the appropriateness of addressing adolescent tobacco use during SUD treatment, but emphasize the importance of assessing intention and other cognitions for each substance, as they may differ markedly. ..
  17. Suzuki A, Matsumoto Y, Ishii G, Oshino S, Goto K, Otani K. No association between the -3081A/T polymorphism in the norepinephrine transporter gene promoter and personality traits in healthy subjects. Neurosci Lett. 2007;425:192-4 pubmed
    ..The present study thus suggests that the -3081A/T polymorphism in the NET gene promoter is not involved in the characterization of personality traits in healthy subjects. ..
  18. Reznikova T, Terent eva I, Kataeva G. Variants of personality maladaptation in patients with multiple sclerosis. Neurosci Behav Physiol. 2007;37:747-54 pubmed
  19. Mendez Rubio M, Antonietti J, Donati A, Rossier J, von Gunten A. Personality traits and behavioural and psychological symptoms in patients with mild cognitive impairment. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2013;35:87-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Personality changes and BPS occur in MCI. The occurrence of affective BPS and apathy is associated with both premorbid personality traits and their changes. ..
  20. Albein Urios N, Martínez González J, Lozano O, Moreno López L, Soriano Mas C, Verdejo Garcia A. Negative urgency, disinhibition and reduced temporal pole gray matter characterize the comorbidity of cocaine dependence and personality disorders. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2013;132:231-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The co-occurrence of cocaine dependence and personality disorders is associated with negative-mood impulsivity and beliefs, executive dysfunction and temporal pole attrition. ..
  21. Rudick M, Yam W, Simms L. Comparing countdown- and IRT-based approaches to computerized adaptive personality testing. Psychol Assess. 2013;25:769-79 pubmed publisher
    ..These results confirm findings regarding item savings trends from previous CAT studies. In addition, this study provides a model for how the validity and precision of CATs may be compared across personality assessments. ..
  22. Block C, Erickson B, Carney Doebbling C, Gordon S, Fallon B, Konety B. Personality, treatment choice and satisfaction in patients with localized prostate cancer. Int J Urol. 2007;14:1013-8 pubmed
    ..Certain BFI-measured personality traits may be associated with levels of satisfaction following therapy. Disease concerns and provider recommendations may override the influence of personality in the decision-making process. ..
  23. Meiron O, Hermesh H, Katz N, Weizman A. Executive attention deficits in schizophrenia: putative mandatory and differential cognitive pathology domains in medicated schizophrenia patients. Psychiatry Res. 2013;209:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Disruption in domain-specific recall may represent a specifier of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. ..
  24. Danner U, Evers C, Sternheim L, van Meer F, Van Elburg A, Geerets T, et al. Influence of negative affect on choice behavior in individuals with binge eating pathology. Psychiatry Res. 2013;207:100-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that emotional states may have a direct impact on choice behavior of individuals with binge eating pathology and are not only related to pathological behavior itself. ..
  25. Calvo N, Andión O, Gancedo B, Ferrer M, Barral C, di Genova A, et al. Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) diagnosis with the self-report Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire–4+(PDQ-4+): confirmation of the 3-factor structure. Actas Esp Psiquiatr. 2012;40:57-62 pubmed
    ..The existence of these factors could indicate the presence of different subgroups of BPD patients with different clinical patterns. ..
  26. Hu C, Wang Q, Short L, Fu G. Speech spectrum's correlation with speakers' Eysenck personality traits. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e33906 pubmed publisher
  27. Miller J, Price J, Campbell W. Is the Narcissistic Personality Inventory still relevant? A test of independent grandiosity and entitlement scales in the assessment of narcissism. Assessment. 2012;19:8-13 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that some caution must be used before assuming that these lower-order scales can be used to replace the NPI in the assessment of narcissism. ..
  28. De Beaumont L, Fiocco A, Quesnel G, Lupien S, Poirier J. Altered declarative memory in introverted middle-aged adults carrying the BDNF val66met allele. Behav Brain Res. 2013;253:152-6 pubmed publisher
    ..this study highlights the pertinence of further investigating gene×personality×environment interactions to account for the significant variability that is observed in cognitive function in late life. ..
  29. Geniole S, Busseri M, McCormick C. Testosterone dynamics and psychopathic personality traits independently predict antagonistic behavior towards the perceived loser of a competitive interaction. Horm Behav. 2013;64:790-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The results are discussed with respect to the Challenge Hypothesis and the Biosocial Model of Status, and the possible mechanisms underlying the independent relations of testosterone and personality factors with antagonistic behavior. ..
  30. Geurts D, Huys Q, den Ouden H, Cools R. Serotonin and aversive Pavlovian control of instrumental behavior in humans. J Neurosci. 2013;33:18932-9 pubmed publisher
  31. Holmes A, Nielsen M, Green S. Effects of anxiety on the processing of fearful and happy faces: an event-related potential study. Biol Psychol. 2008;77:159-73 pubmed
  32. Schmitt N, Golubovich J, Leong F. Impact of measurement invariance on construct correlations, mean differences, and relations with external correlates: an illustrative example using Big Five and RIASEC measures. Assessment. 2011;18:412-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Future research should include simulations in which the impact of various factors related to invariance is estimated. ..
  33. Samson A, Hempelmann C, Huber O, Zysset S. Neural substrates of incongruity-resolution and nonsense humor. Neuropsychologia. 2009;47:1023-33 pubmed publisher
  34. Tonetti L, Fabbri M, Natale V. Relationship between circadian typology and big five personality domains. Chronobiol Int. 2009;26:337-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Results are discussed with reference to neurobiological models of personality. ..
  35. Cullen L. SATs for j-o-b-s. Time. 2006;167:89 pubmed
  36. Buhrmester M, Blanton H, Swann W. Implicit self-esteem: nature, measurement, and a new way forward. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2011;100:365-85 pubmed publisher
    ..However, we suggest that there surely are aspects of self-esteem that people are unwilling or unable to report and suggest a general approach that may allow researchers to tap these unspoken aspects of self-esteem. ..
  37. Rentfrow P, Gosling S, Jokela M, Stillwell D, Kosinski M, Potter J. Divided we stand: three psychological regions of the United States and their political, economic, social, and health correlates. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2013;105:996-1012 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings demonstrate the value of a geographical perspective in unpacking the connections between microlevel processes and consequential macrolevel outcomes. ..
  38. Mitchell J, Bach P, Cassisi J. The use of structured imagery and dispositional measurement to assess situational use of mindfulness skills. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e70253 pubmed publisher
    ..The implications of these findings for clinical practice and future investigations pertaining to measurement validity in this area are discussed. ..
  39. Chen L. Subjective well-being: evidence from the different personality traits of online game teenager players. Cyberpsychol Behav. 2008;11:579-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The results demonstrate that Neuroticism and Agreeableness have significant negative influence and Openness has significant positive influence on subjective well-being. ..
  40. Haden S, Shiva A. Trait impulsivity in a forensic inpatient sample: an evaluation of the Barratt impulsiveness scale. Behav Sci Law. 2008;26:675-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Results failed to support the previously identified factor structure of impulsivity. The meaning of the revised scales and utility of the BIS-11 in this population is discussed. ..
  41. Cremers H, Demenescu L, Aleman A, Renken R, van Tol M, van der Wee N, et al. Neuroticism modulates amygdala-prefrontal connectivity in response to negative emotional facial expressions. Neuroimage. 2010;49:963-70 pubmed publisher
    ..These connectivity patterns might be associated with vulnerability to developing affective disorders such as depression and anxiety. ..
  42. You J, Leung F, Lai C, Fu K. An item response theory analysis of the Impulsive Behaviors Checklist for Adolescents. Assessment. 2011;18:464-75 pubmed publisher
    ..The IRT-scaled score showed good construct validity and incremental predictive validity. Findings demonstrate the sound psychometric properties of the IBCL-A and support the clinical utility of this scale. ..
  43. Baud P, Perroud N, Courtet P, Jaussent I, Relecom C, Jollant F, et al. Modulation of anger control in suicide attempters by TPH-1. Genes Brain Behav. 2009;8:97-100 pubmed publisher
  44. Kolanowski A, Bossen A, Hill N, Guzman Velez E, Litaker M. Factors associated with sustained attention during an activity intervention in persons with dementia. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2012;33:233-9 pubmed publisher
    ..While the findings are preliminary, they can be used to inform the design of future research. ..
  45. Jolijn Hendriks A, Kuyper H, Johan Offringa G, Van der Werf M. Assessing young adolescents' personality with the five-factor personality inventory. Assessment. 2008;15:304-16 pubmed publisher
    ..However, for reports on individual profiles and decision making, an adolescent's cognitive ability level would need to be rather high. Even then, measuring Autonomy seems challenging. ..
  46. Kotrschal K, Schöberl I, Bauer B, Thibeaut A, Wedl M. Dyadic relationships and operational performance of male and female owners and their male dogs. Behav Processes. 2009;81:383-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, it appears that owner gender and personality influences dyadic interaction style, dog behavior and dyadic practical functionality. ..
  47. Varley Thornton A, Graham Kevan N, Archer J. Adaptive and maladaptive personality traits as predictors of violent and nonviolent offending behavior in men and women. Aggress Behav. 2010;36:177-86 pubmed publisher
  48. Scholte E, Stoutjesdijk R, Van Oudheusden M, Lodewijks H, van der Ploeg J. Screening of egocentric and unemotional characteristics in incarcerated and community children. Int J Law Psychiatry. 2010;33:164-70 pubmed publisher
  49. Gao Y, Raine A, SCHUG R. Somatic aphasia: mismatch of body sensations with autonomic stress reactivity in psychopathy. Biol Psychol. 2012;90:228-33 pubmed publisher
  50. Rufino K, Boccaccini M, Guy L. Scoring subjectivity and item performance on measures used to assess violence risk: the PCL-R and HCR-20 as exemplars. Assessment. 2011;18:453-63 pubmed publisher
    ..e., Factor 2, Facet 4) were rated as the least subjective. For the HCR-20, items on the Historical scale were rated as the least subjective. Implications for measure development and refinement are discussed. ..
  51. Ishii M, Shimizu S, Sakairi Y, Nagamine A, Naito Y, Hosaka Y, et al. MAOA, MTHFR, and TNF-? genes polymorphisms and personality traits in the pathogenesis of migraine. Mol Cell Biochem. 2012;363:357-66 pubmed publisher
    ..The contribution of polymorphisms, such as MAOA T941G, MTHFR C677T, and TNF-? G252A, were more important than personality traits in the pathogenesis of migraine, a multifactorial disorder. ..
  52. Ladstätter F, Garrosa E, Badea C, Moreno B. Application of artificial neural networks to a study of nursing burnout. Ergonomics. 2010;53:1085-96 pubmed publisher
    ..From this perspective, more specific programmes to prevent burnout and its consequences in the workplace can be designed. ..
  53. Zheng L, Hart T, Zheng Y. The relationship between intercourse preference positions and personality traits among gay men in China. Arch Sex Behav. 2012;41:683-9 pubmed publisher
    ..There were no significant differences in Big Five traits among the three groups. Sexual self-labels appear not only to distinguish sexual behavior patterns but may also suggest gender role differences among Chinese gay men. ..