brief psychiatric rating scale


Summary: A scale comprising 18 symptom constructs chosen to represent relatively independent dimensions of manifest psychopathology. The initial intended use was to provide more efficient assessment of treatment response in clinical psychopharmacology research; however, the scale was readily adapted to other uses. (From Hersen, M. and Bellack, A.S., Dictionary of Behavioral Assessment Techniques, p. 87)

Top Publications

  1. Galvin J, Fagan A, Holtzman D, Mintun M, Morris J. Relationship of dementia screening tests with biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease. Brain. 2010;133:3290-300 pubmed publisher
  2. Nakamura M, Ogasa M, Guarino J, Phillips D, Severs J, Cucchiaro J, et al. Lurasidone in the treatment of acute schizophrenia: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Psychiatry. 2009;70:829-36 pubmed publisher
    ..6% male, mean age = 39.7 years, mean baseline score on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale derived from the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale [BPRSd] = 55.1) or placebo (N = 90, 77...
  3. Hirdes J, Ljunggren G, Morris J, Frijters D, Finne Soveri H, Gray L, et al. Reliability of the interRAI suite of assessment instruments: a 12-country study of an integrated health information system. BMC Health Serv Res. 2008;8:277 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicate that interRAI items retain reliability when used across care settings, paving the way for cross domain application of the instruments as part of an integrated health information system. ..
  4. Castro Costa E, Fuzikawa C, Uchoa E, Firmo J, Lima Costa M. Norms for the mini-mental state examination: adjustment of the cut-off point in population-based studies (evidences from the Bambuí health aging study). Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2008;66:524-8 pubmed
    ..In the absence of comparable cut-off points, percentile distributions are more adequate for population-based studies of elderly with low schooling level. ..
  5. Aki H, Tomotake M, Kaneda Y, Iga J, Kinouchi S, Shibuya Tayoshi S, et al. Subjective and objective quality of life, levels of life skills, and their clinical determinants in outpatients with schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res. 2008;158:19-25 pubmed
    ..Clinical symptoms were also assessed with several scales including the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS)...
  6. Kopelowicz A, Ventura J, Liberman R, Mintz J. Consistency of Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale factor structure across a broad spectrum of schizophrenia patients. Psychopathology. 2008;41:77-84 pubmed
    The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) has been the workhorse of psychopathology assessment in studies of schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders for over 40 years...
  7. Sawamura J, Morishita S, Ishigooka J. Is there a linear relationship between the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale and the Clinical Global Impression-Schizophrenia scale? A retrospective analysis. BMC Psychiatry. 2010;10:105 pubmed publisher
    Although the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) is widely used for evaluating patients with schizophrenia, it has limited value in estimating the clinical weight of individual symptoms...
  8. Drukker M, Maarschalkerweerd M, Bak M, Driessen G, a Campo J, de Bie A, et al. A real-life observational study of the effectiveness of FACT in a Dutch mental health region. BMC Psychiatry. 2008;8:93 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that there is no adverse effect of using broader patient mixes in providing continuity of care for all patients with severe mental illness in a defined geographical area. ..
  9. Wallsten T, Kjellin L, Sjoberg R. The diagnostic accuracy of questions about past experiences of being mechanically restrained in a population of psychiatric patients. Memory. 2008;16:548-55 pubmed publisher
    ..No clear relationship between psychiatric symptoms and reliability of self-reports was identified. The results highlight the subjective qualities of narratives about past experiences. ..

More Information


  1. Picardi A, Battisti F, de Girolamo G, Morosini P, Norcio B, Bracco R, et al. Symptom structure of acute mania: a factor study of the 24-item Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale in a national sample of patients hospitalized for a manic episode. J Affect Disord. 2008;108:183-9 pubmed
    ..private facilities during an index period underwent a standardized assessment, including the 24-item Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS-24)...
  2. Andreasen N, Carpenter W, Kane J, Lasser R, Marder S, Weinberger D. Remission in schizophrenia: proposed criteria and rationale for consensus. Am J Psychiatry. 2005;162:441-9 pubmed
    ..These criteria should facilitate research and support a positive, longer-term approach to studying outcome in patients with schizophrenia. ..
  3. Kurtz M, Moberg P, Ragland J, Gur R, Gur R. Symptoms versus neurocognitive test performance as predictors of psychosocial status in schizophrenia: a 1- and 4-year prospective study. Schizophr Bull. 2005;31:167-74 pubmed
    ..The significance of these findings for the development and assessment of novel treatment interventions for schizophrenia is discussed. ..
  4. Tomotake M, Kaneda Y, Iga J, Kinouchi S, Tayoshi S, Motoki I, et al. Subjective and objective measures of quality of life have different predictors for people with schizophrenia. Psychol Rep. 2006;99:477-87 pubmed
    ..Psychiatric symptoms were also measured with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale and the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia...
  5. Burlingame G, Dunn T, Chen S, Lehman A, Axman R, Earnshaw D, et al. Selection of outcome assessment instruments for inpatients with severe and persistent mental illness. Psychiatr Serv. 2005;56:444-51 pubmed
    ..The limited resources associated with publicly funded inpatient facilities led to a recommendation to select at least one rater-completed and one patient-completed instrument. ..
  6. Thomas A, Donnell A, Young T. Factor structure and differential validity of the expanded Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. Assessment. 2004;11:177-87 pubmed
    The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) is one of the most widely used measures in psychiatric outcome and clinical psychopharmacology research...
  7. Velligan D, Prihoda T, Dennehy E, Biggs M, Shores Wilson K, Crismon M, et al. Brief psychiatric rating scale expanded version: How do new items affect factor structure?. Psychiatry Res. 2005;135:217-28 pubmed
    Our goal was to suggest a factor structure for the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale Expanded Version (BPRS-E) based upon a large and diverse sample and to determine which of the new items improved the factors derived from the 18-item ..
  8. Bak M, Drukker M, Van Os J, Delespaul P. Hospital comorbidity bias and the concept of schizophrenia. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2005;40:817-21 pubmed
    ..assessed between one and nine times (median two times) over a 5-year period with, amongst others, the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. Dimensional comorbidities between positive symptoms, negative symptoms, depression/anxiety, and manic ..
  9. Thompson K, Phillips L, Komesaroff P, Yuen H, Wood S, Pantelis C, et al. Stress and HPA-axis functioning in young people at ultra high risk for psychosis. J Psychiatr Res. 2007;41:561-9 pubmed
    ..These results indicate possible impairment in HPA-axis functioning in the early stages of psychotic illness, but further investigation of the relationships between these parameters is required. ..
  10. Shafer A. Meta-analysis of the brief psychiatric rating scale factor structure. Psychol Assess. 2005;17:324-35 pubmed
    A meta-analysis (N=17,620; k=26) of factor analyses of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) was conducted. Analysis of the 12 items from Overall et al.'s (J. E. Overall, L. E. Hollister, & P...
  11. Sanchez R, Ibáñez M, Pinzón A. [Factor analysis and validation of a Spanish version of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale in Colombia]. Biomedica. 2005;25:120-8 pubmed
    A validation study was directed toward an evaluation of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) in a Spanish-language version in Colombia...
  12. Leucht S, Engel R. The relative sensitivity of the Clinical Global Impressions Scale and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale in antipsychotic drug trials. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2006;31:406-12 pubmed
    Although the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) are both frequently used in drug trials for schizophrenia, their relative sensitivity in detecting differences between antipsychotics has not yet ..
  13. Trappler B, Newville H. Trauma healing via cognitive behavior therapy in chronically hospitalized patients. Psychiatr Q. 2007;78:317-25 pubmed
    ..These findings are an encouraging first step in trauma recovery of patients with chronic mental illness, histories of prolonged trauma, and Complex PTSD. ..
  14. Kanaya K, Abe S, Sakai M, Fujii H, Iwamoto T. Changes in cognitive functions of patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type following long-term administration of donepezil hydrochloride: relating to changes attributable to differences in apolipoprotein E phenotype. Geriatr Gerontol Int. 2010;10:25-31 pubmed publisher
    ..05). ApoE4 was suggested to not only be a risk factor for disease onset, but also a risk factor for exacerbation of symptoms with respect to long-term prognosis. ..
  15. Gleeson J, Cotton S, Alvarez Jimenez M, Wade D, Gee D, Crisp K, et al. A randomized controlled trial of relapse prevention therapy for first-episode psychosis patients. J Clin Psychiatry. 2009;70:477-86 pubmed Identifier: ACTRN12605000514606. ..
  16. Adrianzén C, Sanchez M, Cordova J, Castillo I. [Olanzapine versus haloperidol: effectiveness in functionality and health state in a sample of Venezuelan patients with schizophrenia]. Vertex. 2008;19:254-60 pubmed
    ..Health status and functionality improved more with olanzapine versus haloperidol. Safety results are consistent with the known profile of the drug. Study limitations on design and conduction of this study restrict its generalization. ..
  17. Owen J, Hilsenroth M. Interaction between alliance and technique in predicting patient outcome during psychodynamic psychotherapy. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2011;199:384-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In this sample of outpatient psychodynamic treatments, the dynamic techniques were most effective when provided in the context of strong alliances. ..
  18. Kamara T, Whyte E, Mulsant B, Peasley Miklus C, Rothschild A, Flint A, et al. Does major depressive disorder with somatic delusions constitute a distinct subtype of major depressive disorder with psychotic features?. J Affect Disord. 2009;112:250-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that the presence of irrational somatic ideation does not define a distinct clinical subgroup among patients with psychotic depression. This finding needs to be replicated. ..
  19. Adityanjee -, Romine A, Brown E, Thuras P, Lee S, Schulz S. Quetiapine in patients with borderline personality disorder: an open-label trial. Ann Clin Psychiatry. 2008;20:219-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Significant reductions in symptoms assessed by objective rating scales were observed in this pilot study of quetiapine administered to subjects with BPD. The dosing strategy in the study was well tolerated. ..
  20. Janis I, Nock M. Are self-injurers impulsive?: Results from two behavioral laboratory studies. Psychiatry Res. 2009;169:261-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose several potential explanations for the discrepancies observed between self-report and performance-based measures of impulsiveness and discuss directions for future research on impulsiveness and self-injury. ..
  21. Hadala M, Cebolla A, Banos R, Barrios C. Mood profile of an America's Cup team: relationship with muscle damage and injuries. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010;42:1403-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Mood was dependent on physical work intensity related to boat position but not on injury occurrence. Enzyme markers of muscle damage had no bearing on most POMS domains, except for fatigue before racing. ..
  22. Phillips M, Travis M, Fagiolini A, Kupfer D. Medication effects in neuroimaging studies of bipolar disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 2008;165:313-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Individuals who are unable to tolerate medication withdrawal likely have more severe illness and are especially informative for research examining biomarkers of illness and treatment response. ..
  23. Franzén Dahlin A, Larson J, Murray V, Wredling R, Billing E. A randomized controlled trial evaluating the effect of a support and education programme for spouses of people affected by stroke. Clin Rehabil. 2008;22:722-30 pubmed publisher
    ..041). Encouraging participation in the group meetings of a support programme might have a positive effect on psychological health. ..
  24. Kelly D, Buchanan R, Boggs D, McMahon R, Dickinson D, Nelson M, et al. A randomized double-blind trial of atomoxetine for cognitive impairments in 32 people with schizophrenia. J Clin Psychiatry. 2009;70:518-25 pubmed
    ..063). Our results provide further evidence that atomoxetine has limited benefit for improving cognition in people with schizophrenia. Identifier: NCT00161031. ..
  25. Juckel G, Gudlowski Y, Müller D, Ozgurdal S, Brune M, Gallinat J, et al. Loudness dependence of the auditory evoked N1/P2 component as an indicator of serotonergic dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia--a replication study. Psychiatry Res. 2008;158:79-82 pubmed
    ..Thus, we were able again to demonstrate electrophysiological evidence for an upregulated serotonergic system in schizophrenia. ..
  26. Goldstein B, Kemp D, Soczynska J, McIntyre R. Inflammation and the phenomenology, pathophysiology, comorbidity, and treatment of bipolar disorder: a systematic review of the literature. J Clin Psychiatry. 2009;70:1078-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Further research is warranted to parse the reciprocal associations between inflammation and symptoms, comorbidities, and treatments in bipolar disorder. Studies of this topic among youth are needed and may best serve this purpose. ..
  27. Cacho J, Benito Leon J, García García R, Fernandez Calvo B, Vicente Villardón J, Mitchell A. Does the combination of the MMSE and clock drawing test (mini-clock) improve the detection of mild Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment?. J Alzheimers Dis. 2010;22:889-96 pubmed publisher
    ..It has a high interrater and test-retest reliability, can be quickly administered, and does not require major training. ..
  28. Sitnikova T, Goff D, Kuperberg G. Neurocognitive abnormalities during comprehension of real-world goal-directed behaviors in schizophrenia. J Abnorm Psychol. 2009;118:256-77 pubmed publisher
    ..was assessed with the Scales for the Assessment of Positive and Negative Symptoms (SAPS/SANS) and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. In patients, an N400 ERP, thought to index activity in semantic memory, was abnormally enhanced to ..
  29. Drukker M, Van Os J, Bak M, a Campo J, Delespaul P. Systematic monitoring of needs for care and global outcomes in patients with severe mental illness. BMC Psychiatry. 2010;10:36 pubmed publisher
    ..More research is needed to determine the degree to which this association reflects a causal effect. ..
  30. Pimenta F, Bicalho M, Romano Silva M, Moraes E, Rezende N. Chronic diseases, cognition, functional decline, and the Charlson index in elderly people with dementia. Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992). 2013;59:326-34 pubmed publisher
    ..There was a greater score in the dementia group with regarding the Charlson index. These comorbidities were associated with the functional decline in elderly people with dementia. ..
  31. Fujimaki K, Takahashi T, Morinobu S. Association of typical versus atypical antipsychotics with symptoms and quality of life in schizophrenia. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e37087 pubmed publisher
    ..The Hasegawa Dementia Scale-Revised (HDS-R), Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), the Schizophrenia Quality of Life Scale, translated into Japanese (JSQLS), and the Drug-..
  32. Rajkumar A, Mohan T, Tharyan P. Lessons from the 2004 Asian tsunami: epidemiological and nosological debates in the diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder in non-Western post-disaster communities. Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2013;59:123-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Grief reactions, socio-economic burden, and poor support systems contribute towards PTSS. We highlight the important issues regarding the nosological validity and epidemiology of PTSD in non-Western communities. ..
  33. Nilsson K, Gustafson L, Hultberg B. Plasma homocysteine, brain imaging and cognition in older patients with mental illness. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2012;27:409-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The relation between plasma tHcy and cognition is not mediated by cerebrovascular disease as evaluated by pathological CT findings. ..
  34. Grande L, Rudolph J, Milberg W, Barber C, McGlinchey R. Detecting cognitive impairment in individuals at risk for cardiovascular disease: the "Clock-in-the-Box" screening test. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2011;26:969-75 pubmed publisher
    ..The CIB is a brief cognitive screening instrument with good reliability and predictive validity in a CV risk population. The CIB-WM and CIB-PO subscales could provide utility for clinicians. ..
  35. Wei Z, Wang L, Zhang M, Xuan J, Wang Y, Liu B, et al. A pharmacogenetic study of risperidone on histamine H3 receptor gene (HRH3) in Chinese Han schizophrenia patients. J Psychopharmacol. 2012;26:813-8 pubmed publisher
    ..SNPs) of the HRH3 gene (rs3787429 and rs3787430) and analyzed their association with the reduction of Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) score in Chinese Han schizophrenia patients (N?=?129), following an eight-week period of ..
  36. Nandi A, Tracy M, Beard J, Vlahov D, Galea S. Patterns and predictors of trajectories of depression after an urban disaster. Ann Epidemiol. 2009;19:761-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Identifying distinct trajectories of depression and the preventable factors that are associated with them may facilitate the development of interventions that aim to promote better mental health. ..
  37. Aldebot S, de Mamani A. Denial and acceptance coping styles and medication adherence in schizophrenia. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2009;197:580-4 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that targeting denial coping strategies in treatment may help foster more optimal strategies for managing schizophrenia. ..
  38. Brickman A, Honig L, Scarmeas N, Tatarina O, Sanders L, Albert M, et al. Measuring cerebral atrophy and white matter hyperintensity burden to predict the rate of cognitive decline in Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol. 2008;65:1202-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings lend further support to the hypothesis that cerebrovascular pathological abnormalities contribute to the clinical syndrome of AD. ..
  39. Wei G, Greaver L, Marson S, Herndon C, Rogers J. Postpartum depression: racial differences and ethnic disparities in a tri-racial and bi-ethnic population. Matern Child Health J. 2008;12:699-707 pubmed
    ..This information is critically important to clinicians, researchers, agency administrators and social workers who work with these populations. ..
  40. Walterfang M, O Donovan J, Fahey M, Velakoulis D. The neuropsychiatry of adrenomyeloneuropathy. CNS Spectr. 2007;12:696-701 pubmed
    ..Given that cerebral involvement occurs in up to half of AMN sufferers, we hypothesized that rates of mental illness may match those with adult ALD...
  41. Valle E, Castro Costa E, Firmo J, Uchoa E, Lima Costa M. [A population-based study on factors associated with performance on the Mini-Mental State Examination in the elderly: the Bambuí Study]. Cad Saude Publica. 2009;25:918-26 pubmed
    ..94; 95%CI: 1.39-2.62), and depressive symptoms (OR: 1.94; 95%CI: 1.39-2.62). The results suggest that individuals with poor MMSE performance also have other markers of vulnerability. ..
  42. Mancuso F, Horan W, Kern R, Green M. Social cognition in psychosis: multidimensional structure, clinical correlates, and relationship with functional outcome. Schizophr Res. 2011;125:143-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Results suggest that multiple separable dimensions of social cognition can be identified in psychosis, and these factors show distinct patterns of correlation with clinical features and functional outcome. ..
  43. Schwartz B, Parker E, Rosse R, Deutsch S. Recognition memory probes affect what is remembered in schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res. 2009;167:21-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The data point to the importance of retrieval processes in schizophrenia, and highlight the need for further research on ways to help patients with schizophrenia access what they have learned. ..
  44. Di Lillo M, Cicchetti A, Lo Scalzo A, Taroni F, Hojat M. The Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy: preliminary psychometrics and group comparisons in Italian physicians. Acad Med. 2009;84:1198-202 pubmed publisher
    ..Further research is needed to determine whether the lack of statistically significant differences in empathy by gender and specialty is related to cultural peculiarities, the translation of the scale, or sampling. ..
  45. Reichenberg A, Harvey P, Bowie C, Mojtabai R, Rabinowitz J, Heaton R, et al. Neuropsychological function and dysfunction in schizophrenia and psychotic affective disorders. Schizophr Bull. 2009;35:1022-9 pubmed publisher
    ..NP impairment is also common in psychotic affective disorders. A significant minority of schizophrenia patients are NP normal. ..
  46. Kim E, Park D, Choi S, Kim J, Cho H. A preliminary investigation of alpha-lipoic acid treatment of antipsychotic drug-induced weight gain in patients with schizophrenia. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2008;28:138-46 pubmed publisher
    ..080). Three subjects reported increased energy subjectively. The total scores on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale did not vary significantly during the study...
  47. Memória C, Yassuda M, Nakano E, Forlenza O. Brief screening for mild cognitive impairment: validation of the Brazilian version of the Montreal cognitive assessment. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2013;28:34-40 pubmed publisher
    ..82 ± 0.06. The present results indicate that the MoCA-BR maintains its core diagnostic properties rendering it a valid and reliable tool for the screening of MCI among older individuals with at least 4 years of education. ..
  48. Deakin J, Lees J, McKie S, Hallak J, Williams S, Dursun S. Glutamate and the neural basis of the subjective effects of ketamine: a pharmaco-magnetic resonance imaging study. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2008;65:154-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Regional BOLD signal changes during ketamine or placebo infusion and Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale and Clinician-Administered Dissociative States Scale scores...
  49. Teixeira Leite H, Manhães A. Association between functional alterations of senescence and senility and disorders of gait and balance. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2012;67:719-29 pubmed
  50. Bouhlel S, Jones Y, Khelifa E, Msolly M, Melki W, el Hechmi Z. [Prodromal symptoms in schizophrenic relapse: A descriptive and comparative study]. Encephale. 2012;38:397-403 pubmed publisher
    ..We also recommend further research to determine the predictive positive value of early signs of relapse. ..
  51. Brown D, Bernstein I, McClintock S, Munro Cullum C, Dewey R, Husain M, et al. Use of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment and Alzheimer's Disease-8 as cognitive screening measures in Parkinson's disease. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2016;31:264-72 pubmed publisher
    ..5%, with an AUC of 0.50. These results provide additional support for the MoCA, but not the AD8, in identifying cognitive impairment in patients with PD. ..
  52. Nakagami E, Xie B, Hoe M, Brekke J. Intrinsic motivation, neurocognition and psychosocial functioning in schizophrenia: testing mediator and moderator effects. Schizophr Res. 2008;105:95-104 pubmed publisher
    ..Implications for the theoretical understanding and psychosocial treatment of intrinsic motivation in schizophrenia are discussed. ..
  53. Youngmann R, Zilber N, Workneh F, Giel R. Adapting the SRQ for Ethiopian populations: a culturally-sensitive psychiatric screening instrument. Transcult Psychiatry. 2008;45:566-89 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrates the need for psychiatric screening instruments to be adapted to different cultures by incorporating meaningful translations and adding culturally specific items. ..