wechsler scales


Summary: Tests designed to measure intellectual functioning in children and adults.

Top Publications

  1. Narberhaus A, Pueyo Benito R, Segarra Castells M, Perapoch López J, Botet Mussons F, Junque C. [Long-term cognitive dysfunctions related to prematurity]. Rev Neurol. 2007;45:224-8 pubmed
    ..The different subtests that make up this scale do not exhibit the same degree of sensitivity when evaluating the possible difficulties preterm adolescents have in cognitive performance. ..
  2. Willcock E, Imuta K, Hayne H. Children's human figure drawings do not measure intellectual ability. J Exp Child Psychol. 2011;110:444-52 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the DAP:QSS is not a valid measure of intellectual ability and should not be used as a screening tool. ..
  3. Dickinson D, Ramsey M, Gold J. Overlooking the obvious: a meta-analytic comparison of digit symbol coding tasks and other cognitive measures in schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2007;64:532-42 pubmed
    ..The 5-minute digit symbol coding task, reliable and easy to administer, taps an information processing inefficiency that is a central feature of the cognitive deficit in schizophrenia and deserves systematic investigation. ..
  4. Almeida C, Vaisman M, Costa A, Reis F, Reuters V, Teixeira P, et al. Are neuropsychological changes relevant in subclinical hypothyroidism?. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol. 2007;51:606-11 pubmed
    ..No neuropsychological change was found in patients with SH when compared with euthyroid individuals. No difference was observed in the performance of the neuropsychological tests between both groups in regard to the functions studied. ..
  5. Wang Y, Wang Y, Chen S, Zhu C, Wang K. Theory of mind disability in major depression with or without psychotic symptoms: a componential view. Psychiatry Res. 2008;161:153-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Both of the ToM components were impaired in depressed patients. Similar mechanisms and neurobiological substrate may contribute to schizophrenia and major depression. ..
  6. Lind A, Korkman M, Lehtonen L, Lapinleimu H, Parkkola R, Matomäki J, et al. Cognitive and neuropsychological outcomes at 5 years of age in preterm children born in the 2000s. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2011;53:256-62 pubmed publisher
    ..However, assessments of cognitive level only at preschool age do not provide the information on neuropsychological deficit that is necessary for planning adequate educational support. ..
  7. Charman T, Pickles A, Simonoff E, Chandler S, Loucas T, Baird G. IQ in children with autism spectrum disorders: data from the Special Needs and Autism Project (SNAP). Psychol Med. 2011;41:619-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Adaptive outcome was significantly impaired even for those children of average intelligence. ..
  8. Bowler D, Gaigg S, Gardiner J. Subjective organisation in the free recall learning of adults with Asperger's syndrome. J Autism Dev Disord. 2008;38:104-13 pubmed
    ..This lack of convergence suggests that the AS group organise material in idiosyncratic ways. ..
  9. Schmidt S, Banaschewski T, Garbe E, Petermann F, Petermann U. [Diagnostic of ADHD in childhood and adolescence with the K-SADS-PL]. Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr. 2013;62:473-90 pubmed
    ..Health related quality of life was more impaired in children and families suffering from ADHD which refers to the relevance of family-oriented psychotherapy. ..

More Information


  1. Van Dyke S, Millis S, Axelrod B, Hanks R. Assessing effort: differentiating performance and symptom validity. Clin Neuropsychol. 2013;27:1234-46 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings suggest failure in one validity domain does not necessarily invalidate the other domain. Thus, performance validity and symptom validity should be evaluated separately. ..
  2. Li T, Li G, Jiang H, Tang C, Tang J. [Forensic psychiatric cases of 534 mental disorders caused by traumatic brain injury]. Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2013;29:116-9 pubmed
    ..05). The factors influencing intellectual deficiency are complex. The findings of objective examination including cerebral CT scanning, BEAM, WAIS-RC and others should be considered as important indexes for disability evaluation. ..
  3. Perera F, Li T, Lin C, Tang D. Effects of prenatal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure and environmental tobacco smoke on child IQ in a Chinese cohort. Environ Res. 2012;114:40-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The polluting coal-fired plant has since been closed by the government, with likely important benefits to child health and development. ..
  4. Summers M, Saunders N. Neuropsychological measures predict decline to Alzheimer's dementia from mild cognitive impairment. Neuropsychology. 2012;26:498-508 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the results suggest that multidomain MCI is the most reliable precursor stage to the development of AD. ..
  5. Berglund S, Westrup B, Hägglöf B, Hernell O, Domellöf M. Effects of iron supplementation of LBW infants on cognition and behavior at 3 years. Pediatrics. 2013;131:47-55 pubmed publisher
    ..5 years of age but significantly reduces the prevalence of behavioral problems. The study suggests a causal relation between infant iron deficiency and later behavioral problems. ..
  6. Silventoinen K, Iacono W, Krueger R, McGue M. Genetic and environmental contributions to the association between anthropometric measures and iq: a study of Minnesota twins at age 11 and 17. Behav Genet. 2012;42:393-401 pubmed publisher
    ..Head circumference and height capture information on children's physical development, which is partly associated also with cognitive development. ..
  7. Esposito M, Verrotti A, Gimigliano F, Ruberto M, Agostinelli S, Scuccimarra G, et al. Motor coordination impairment and migraine in children: a new comorbidity?. Eur J Pediatr. 2012;171:1599-604 pubmed publisher
  8. Hoffman R, AL ABSI M. Working memory and speed of information processing in chronic khat users: preliminary findings. Eur Addict Res. 2013;19:1-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The finding is consistent with results seen by several investigators in samples of methamphetamine users. ..
  9. Nguyen C, Gracely E, Lee B. Serum folate but not vitamin B-12 concentrations are positively associated with cognitive test scores in children aged 6-16 years. J Nutr. 2013;143:500-4 pubmed publisher
    ..In the largest study to date, higher folate concentrations were associated with better reading and block design scores. These associations appear to be biologically plausible and merit further study. ..
  10. Davis J, Axelrod B, McHugh T, Hanks R, Millis S. Number of impaired scores as a performance validity indicator. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2013;35:413-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Impairment was defined at three levels: T scores < 40, 35, and 30. With specificity ?.90, sensitivity ranged from .51 to .71 for number of impaired scores and .74 for OTBM. ..
  11. Chevalère J, Postal V, Jauregui J, Copet P, Laurier V, Thuilleaux D. Assessment of executive functions in Prader-Willi syndrome and relationship with intellectual level. J Appl Res Intellect Disabil. 2013;26:309-18 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest a deficit of executive functioning in PWS that is linked more with verbal skills than performance skills. They also suggest that the impact on executive functioning may differ according to the genotype. ..
  12. Nobile M, Perego P, Piccinini L, Mani E, Rossi A, Bellina M, et al. Further evidence of complex motor dysfunction in drug naive children with autism using automatic motion analysis of gait. Autism. 2011;15:263-83 pubmed publisher
  13. Stenberg J, Terevnikov V, Joffe M, Tiihonen J, Tchoukhine E, Burkin M, et al. More evidence on proneurocognitive effects of add-on mirtazapine in schizophrenia. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2011;35:1080-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Lengthy treatment seems worthwhile. Mirtazapine may become a safe and cost-saving neurocognitive enhancer in schizophrenia, yet more studies are needed. ..
  14. Compton D, Fuchs L, Fuchs D, Lambert W, Hamlett C. The cognitive and academic profiles of reading and mathematics learning disabilities. J Learn Disabil. 2012;45:79-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Results, which generally supported the specificity hypothesis, are discussed in terms of the potential connections between reading and mathematics LD. ..
  15. Morales G, Matute E, Murray J, Hardy D, O Callaghan E, Tlacuilo Parra A. Is executive function intact after pediatric intracranial hemorrhage? A sample of Mexican children with hemophilia. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2013;52:950-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the only known study examining neuropsychological functioning in Mexican youth with hemophilia. ..
  16. Hill B, Alosco M, Bauer L, Tremont G. The relation of executive functioning to CVLT-II learning, memory, and process indexes. Appl Neuropsychol Adult. 2012;19:198-206 pubmed publisher
  17. Martinos M, Yoong M, Patil S, Chin R, Neville B, Scott R, et al. Recognition memory is impaired in children after prolonged febrile seizures. Brain. 2012;135:3153-64 pubmed publisher
    ..The persistence of these impairments a year onwards signals the potential benefits of intervention in these children who run the risk of developing episodic memory deficits in later childhood. ..
  18. Gruber J, Purcell A, Perna M, Mikels J. Letting go of the bad: deficit in maintaining negative, but not positive, emotion in bipolar disorder. Emotion. 2013;13:168-75 pubmed publisher
    ..The MDD and control groups did not differ significantly. These findings suggest that the heightened magnitude and duration of positive emotion observed in BD may, in part, be accounted for by difficulties maintaining negative emotions. ..
  19. Brackenridge R, McKenzie K, Murray G, Quigley A. An examination of the effects of stimulant medication on response inhibition: a comparison between children with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Res Dev Disabil. 2011;32:2797-804 pubmed publisher
    ..Reports of methylphenidate improving functioning in children with ADHD are supported. Limitation and implications of the study are discussed. ..
  20. Fried R, Chan J, Feinberg L, Pope A, Woodworth K, Faraone S, et al. Clinical correlates of working memory deficits in youth with and without ADHD: A controlled study. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2016;38:487-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Screening for WM deficits may help identify children with ADHD at high risk for academic and cognitive dysfunction. ..
  21. Rose J, Willner P, Shead J, Jahoda A, Gillespie D, Townson J, et al. Different factors influence self-reports and third-party reports of anger by adults with intellectual disabilities. J Appl Res Intellect Disabil. 2013;26:410-9 pubmed publisher
  22. Nadebaum C, Scratch S, Northam E, Cameron F. Clinical utility of mental state screening as a predictor of intellectual outcomes 6 months after diagnosis of type 1 diabetes. Pediatr Diabetes. 2012;13:632-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinicians may consider mental state screening for all newly diagnosed diabetic children to identify those at risk of cognitive sequelae. ..
  23. Lindsay W, Steptoe L, Haut F. Brief report: the sexual and physical abuse histories of offenders with intellectual disability. J Intellect Disabil Res. 2012;56:326-31 pubmed publisher
    ..3%). Some specificity of childhood abuse was evident in the male cohorts suggesting limited evidence of a developmental pathway to offending, while the women were a group highly vulnerable to all forms of abuse. ..
  24. Xiao S, Xue H, Li X, Chen C, Li G, Yuan C, et al. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of traditional Chinese medicine sarsasapogenin added to risperidone in patients with negative symptoms dominated schizophrenia. Neurosci Bull. 2011;27:258-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Sarsasapogenin at a dosage of 200 mg per day added to a flexible dosage of risperidone at 2-4 mg per day is safe and well tolerated by patients with negative symptoms dominated schizophrenia. ..
  25. Chieffo D, Battaglia D, Lettori D, Del Re M, Brogna C, Dravet C, et al. Neuropsychological development in children with Dravet syndrome. Epilepsy Res. 2011;95:86-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Language and other cognitive skill impairment such as attention, visuo-spatial organization, working memory and executive function appear consistent with what is usually found in cerebellar disorders. ..
  26. Schramm A, Venta A, Sharp C. The role of experiential avoidance in the association between borderline features and emotion regulation in adolescents. Personal Disord. 2013;4:138-44 pubmed publisher
    ..EA and emotion regulation are both important targets of treatments aimed at decreasing borderline personality features in adolescents. ..
  27. Lockenhoff C, O Donoghue T, Dunning D. Age differences in temporal discounting: the role of dispositional affect and anticipated emotions. Psychol Aging. 2011;26:274-284 pubmed publisher
    ..An examination of covariates suggested that age effects were associated with age differences in mental health and affective responses rather than demographic or cognitive variables. ..
  28. Kurt P, Yener G, Oguz M. Impaired digit span can predict further cognitive decline in older people with subjective memory complaint: a preliminary result. Aging Ment Health. 2011;15:364-9 pubmed publisher
    ..7 ± 9.9 years). The IDS group showed wider cognitive decline in tests of short-term verbal memory and category verbal fluency compared to the NDS group. IDS scores indicate an earlier step for conversion of SMC to MCI. ..
  29. Duff M, Warren D, Gupta R, Vidal J, Tranel D, Cohen N. Teasing apart tangrams: testing hippocampal pattern separation with a collaborative referencing paradigm. Hippocampus. 2012;22:1087-91 pubmed publisher
  30. Ekinci O, Arman A, Melek I, Bez Y, Berkem M. The phenomenology of autistic regression: subtypes and associated factors. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2012;21:23-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Future studies with larger sample size and prospective design will contribute to clarifying the phenomenology and the associated factors of AR. ..
  31. Reynolds M, Keith T, Flanagan D, Alfonso V. A cross-battery, reference variable, confirmatory factor analytic investigation of the CHC taxonomy. J Sch Psychol. 2013;51:535-55 pubmed publisher
    ..One implication from these findings is that CHC theory should continue to serve as a useful guide that can be used for intelligence research, assessment, and test development. ..
  32. Malikova H, Krámská L, Vojtech Z, Lukavsky J, Liscak R. Stereotactic radiofrequency amygdalohippocampectomy: two years of good neuropsychological outcomes. Epilepsy Res. 2013;106:423-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment failures in seizure control may be attributed to larger epileptogenic zones. ..
  33. Zangiabadi N, Yarahmadi F, Darekordi A, Shabani M, Dadgar M. Comparison between ?-thalassemia minor and normal individuals using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. Hemoglobin. 2013;37:467-76 pubmed publisher
    ..It can be concluded that ?-thal minor negatively influences verbal fluency, reasoning and conceptualization, and sequencing tasks, perceptual skill, prediction of social situations and abstract thinking. ..
  34. Willard V, Hardy K, Allen T, Hwang E, Gururangan S, Hostetter S, et al. Sluggish cognitive tempo in survivors of pediatric brain tumors. J Neurooncol. 2013;114:71-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Results provided conditional support for the presence of SCT in survivors of brain tumors, with further research needed to determine the clinical utility of the framework. ..
  35. Brunner M, Nagy G, Wilhelm O. A tutorial on hierarchically structured constructs. J Pers. 2012;80:796-846 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors illustrate their arguments with normative data obtained for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and conclude with recommendations on which CFA model is most appropriate for which research and diagnostic purposes. ..
  36. Ni Chuileann S, Quigley J. Assessing recollection and familiarity in low functioning autism. J Autism Dev Disord. 2013;43:1406-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Three critical modifications to the original paradigms were made within the current study. The modifications and implications of the findings for individuals with LFA will be discussed. ..
  37. Rowe E, Miller C, Ebenstein L, Thompson D. Cognitive predictors of reading and math achievement among gifted referrals. Sch Psychol Q. 2012;27:144-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Limitations and directions for future research are discussed. ..
  38. Marotta A, Pasini A, Ruggiero S, Maccari L, Rosa C, Lupianez J, et al. Inhibition of return in response to eye gaze and peripheral cues in young people with Asperger's syndrome. J Autism Dev Disord. 2013;43:917-23 pubmed publisher
    ..This absence of IOR for eye-gaze cues observed in the participants with Asperger may reflect an attentional impairment in responding to socially relevant information. ..
  39. Cheung C, Wood A, Paloyelis Y, Arias Vasquez A, Buitelaar J, Franke B, et al. Aetiology for the covariation between combined type ADHD and reading difficulties in a family study: the role of IQ. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2012;53:864-73 pubmed publisher
  40. Chaya M, Nagendra H, Selvam S, Kurpad A, Srinivasan K. Effect of yoga on cognitive abilities in schoolchildren from a socioeconomically disadvantaged background: a randomized controlled study. J Altern Complement Med. 2012;18:1161-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Yoga was as effective as physical activity in improving cognitive performance in 7-9 year old schoolchildren. Further studies are needed to examine the dose-response relationship between yoga and cognitive performance. ..
  41. Henshall K, Sergejew A, Rance G, McKay C, Copolov D. Interhemispheric EEG coherence is reduced in auditory cortical regions in schizophrenia patients with auditory hallucinations. Int J Psychophysiol. 2013;89:63-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Relative to both the HC and nonAH groups, coherence was lower in the AH patients, consistent with the hypothesis that interhemispheric connectivity is reduced in these patients. ..
  42. Engh J, Sundet K, Simonsen C, Vaskinn A, Lagerberg T, Opjordsmoen S, et al. Verbal learning contributes to cognitive insight in schizophrenia independently of affective and psychotic symptoms. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2011;35:1059-63 pubmed publisher
    ..High self-certainty was associated with poor verbal learning. This suggests that overconfidence in own beliefs is associated with cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia. ..
  43. Alves L, Simoes M, Martins C. The estimation of premorbid intelligence levels among Portuguese speakers: the Irregular Word Reading Test (TeLPI). Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2012;27:58-68 pubmed publisher
    ..TeLPI scores accounted for 63% of the variance of WAIS-III Full-Scale IQ, 62% of Verbal IQ, and 47% of Performance IQ and thus were considered valid for premorbid intelligence estimation. ..
  44. Feldmann R, Weglage J, Frosch M. Cognitive function in patients with epidermolysis bullosa: social adjustment and emotional problems. Klin Padiatr. 2012;224:22-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Children and adolescents with all subtypes of EB require therapeutic support regarding their social and emotional life. ..
  45. Young J, Caron J, Baughman B, Sawyer R. Detection of suboptimal effort with symbol span: development of a new embedded index. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2012;27:159-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, present results suggest that Symbol Span can effectively differentiate veterans with multiple failures on established free-standing and embedded SVTs. ..
  46. Gow A, Corley J, Starr J, Deary I. Reverse causation in activity-cognitive ability associations: the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936. Psychol Aging. 2012;27:250-5 pubmed publisher
    ..08 to .32, p ? .05). When age-11 IQ and adult social class were controlled, only physical activity remained significantly associated with general cognitive ability and processing speed. ..
  47. Keary T, Frazier T, Belzile C, Chapin J, Naugle R, Najm I, et al. Working memory and intelligence are associated with victoria symptom validity test hard item performance in patients with intractable epilepsy. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2013;19:314-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Results suggest VSVT hard item scores may be impacted by working memory difficulties and/or low intellectual functioning. ..
  48. Oliveras Rentas R, Kenworthy L, Roberson R, Martin A, Wallace G. WISC-IV profile in high-functioning autism spectrum disorders: impaired processing speed is associated with increased autism communication symptoms and decreased adaptive communication abilities. J Autism Dev Disord. 2012;42:655-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Processing speed task performance correlated negatively with communication symptoms and positively with communication abilities, indicating its importance to functional outcomes in ASD. ..
  49. Perna R, Loughan A. Early developmental delays: neuropsychological sequelae and subsequent diagnoses. Appl Neuropsychol Child. 2012;1:57-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Data appear to suggest that early developmental delays may place children as risk for ADHD and perhaps visual memory weaknesses, though not clear impairments. ..
  50. Murayama N, Tagaya H, Ota K, Fujishiro H, Manabe Y, Sato K, et al. Neuropsychological detection of the early stage of amnestic mild cognitive impairment without objective memory impairment. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2013;35:98-105 pubmed publisher
    ..The cutoff point determined in this study is useful to detect an early stage of aMCI, which may be distinguished from aMCI using the current criteria. ..
  51. Park S, Jung S, Kim B, Cho S, Shin M, Kim J, et al. Association between the GRM7 rs3792452 polymorphism and attention deficit hyperacitiveity disorder in a Korean sample. Behav Brain Funct. 2013;9:1 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide preliminary evidence of an association between the GRM7 rs37952452 polymorphism and selective attention deficit and anxiety found within the Korean ADHD population. ..
  52. Kesmodel U, Eriksen H, Underbjerg M, Kilburn T, Støvring H, Wimberley T, et al. The effect of alcohol binge drinking in early pregnancy on general intelligence in children. BJOG. 2012;119:1222-31 pubmed publisher
    ..However, binge drinking reduced the risk of low, full-scale IQ in gestational weeks 1-2. This finding may be explained by residual confounding. ..
  53. Whitney K, Shepard P, Davis J. WAIS-IV Digit Span variables: are they valuable for use in predicting TOMM and MSVT failure?. Appl Neuropsychol Adult. 2013;20:83-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Yet, due to its relatively low positive and negative predictive power, DS Sequencing Total is not recommended for use in isolation to identify negative response bias. ..