aptitude tests


Summary: Primarily non-verbal tests designed to predict an individual's future learning ability or performance.

Top Publications

  1. McManus I, Woolf K, Dacre J, Paice E, Dewberry C. The Academic Backbone: longitudinal continuities in educational achievement from secondary school and medical school to MRCP(UK) and the specialist register in UK medical students and doctors. BMC Med. 2013;11:242 pubmed publisher
    ..The Academic Backbone provides strong support for using measures of educational attainment, particularly A-levels, in student selection. ..
  2. Coates H. Establishing the criterion validity of the Graduate Medical School Admissions Test (GAMSAT). Med Educ. 2008;42:999-1006 pubmed publisher
  3. Husbands A, Dowell J. Predictive validity of the Dundee multiple mini-interview. Med Educ. 2013;47:717-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Further research in this area appears worthwhile, with longitudinal studies, replication of results from other medical schools and more detailed analysis of knowledge, skills and attitudinal outcome markers. ..
  4. Yates J, James D. The UK Clinical Aptitude Test and clinical course performance at Nottingham: a prospective cohort study. BMC Med Educ. 2013;13:32 pubmed publisher
    ..Whilst the test adds another dimension to the selection process, its fairness and validity in selecting promising students remains unproven, and requires wider investigation and debate by other schools. ..
  5. Khan J, Tabasum S, Mukhtar O. Comparison of pre-medical academic achievement, entrance test and aptitude test scores in admission selection process. J Pak Med Assoc. 2013;63:552-7 pubmed
    ..There is a need to strengthen the underdeveloped areas academically. Besides, the predictive value of the Aptitude Test scores related to future performance of candidates selected needs to be ascertained with further studies. ..
  6. Adam J, Bore M, McKendree J, Munro D, Powis D. Can personal qualities of medical students predict in-course examination success and professional behaviour? An exploratory prospective cohort study. BMC Med Educ. 2012;12:69 pubmed publisher
  7. Fernando N, Prescott G, Cleland J, Greaves K, McKenzie H. A comparison of the United Kingdom clinical aptitude test (UK-CAT) with a traditional admission selection process. Med Teach. 2009;31:1018-23 pubmed publisher
    ..It appears therefore that the UK-CAT examines different traits compared to our selection process. Further work is required to establish which better predicts success as an undergraduate or as a doctor. ..
  8. Kadmon G, Kirchner A, Duelli R, Resch F, Kadmon M. [What is the purpose of the German Aptitude Test for Medical Studies (TMS)?]. Z Evid Fortbild Qual Gesundhwes. 2012;106:125-30 pubmed publisher
    ..For the admission of students to our faculty their TMS scores are weighted at 39%, which has resulted in a diversification of our student cohorts. ..
  9. Yates J, James D. The value of the UK Clinical Aptitude Test in predicting pre-clinical performance: a prospective cohort study at Nottingham Medical School. BMC Med Educ. 2010;10:55 pubmed publisher
    ..Further research from medical schools with different types of curriculum and assessment is needed, with longitudinal studies throughout the course. ..

More Information


  1. Poole P, Shulruf B, Rudland J, Wilkinson T. Comparison of UMAT scores and GPA in prediction of performance in medical school: a national study. Med Educ. 2012;46:163-71 pubmed publisher
    ..However, UMAT scores may predict outcomes not studied here, which underscores the need for further validation studies in a range of settings. ..
  2. Wright S, Bradley P. Has the UK Clinical Aptitude Test improved medical student selection?. Med Educ. 2010;44:1069-76 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of this study challenge claims made by other authors that aptitude tests do not have a place in medical school selection in the UK.
  3. Koczwara A, Patterson F, Zibarras L, Kerrin M, Irish B, Wilkinson M. Evaluating cognitive ability, knowledge tests and situational judgement tests for postgraduate selection. Med Educ. 2012;46:399-408 pubmed publisher
    ..Further research should consider the validity of the tests in this study in predicting subsequent performance in training. ..
  4. Halpenny D, Cadoo K, Halpenny M, Burke J, Torreggiani W. The Health Professions Admission Test (HPAT) score and leaving certificate results can independently predict academic performance in medical school: do we need both tests?. Ir Med J. 2010;103:300-2 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that both the HPAT Ireland and the leaving certificate examination could act as independent predictors of academic achievement in medicine. ..
  5. Arneson J, Sackett P, Beatty A. Ability-performance relationships in education and employment settings: critical tests of the more-is-better and the good-enough hypotheses. Psychol Sci. 2011;22:1336-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Monotonicity was maintained in all instances. Contrary to the good-enough hypothesis, the ability-performance relationship was commonly stronger at the top end of the score distribution than at the bottom end. ..
  6. Turner R, Nicholson S. Can the UK Clinical Aptitude Test (UKCAT) select suitable candidates for interview?. Med Educ. 2011;45:1041-7 pubmed publisher
    ..However, UKCAT is not predictive of success at interview. The long-term predictive validity of UKCAT is currently under investigation. Therefore, we conclude that UKCAT is best viewed as a useful adjunct to current selection processes. ..
  7. McManus I, Dewberry C, Nicholson S, Dowell J. The UKCAT-12 study: educational attainment, aptitude test performance, demographic and socio-economic contextual factors as predictors of first year outcome in a cross-sectional collaborative study of 12 UK medical schools. BMC Med. 2013;11:244 pubmed publisher
    Most UK medical schools use aptitude tests during student selection, but large-scale studies of predictive validity are rare...
  8. McManus I, Dewberry C, Nicholson S, Dowell J, Woolf K, Potts H. Construct-level predictive validity of educational attainment and intellectual aptitude tests in medical student selection: meta-regression of six UK longitudinal studies. BMC Med. 2013;11:243 pubmed publisher
    ..a range of predictors, including A-levels, General Certificates of Secondary Education (GCSEs)/O-levels, and aptitude tests (AH5 and UK Clinical Aptitude Test (UKCAT))...
  9. Emery J, Bell J. The predictive validity of the BioMedical Admissions Test for pre-clinical examination performance. Med Educ. 2009;43:557-64 pubmed publisher
    ..It is thus a valid source of additional admissions information for medical courses with a strong scientific emphasis when previous attainment is very high. ..
  10. Wolkowitz A. Multiple attempts on a nursing admissions examination: effects on the total score. J Nurs Educ. 2011;50:493-501 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the study found that the number of days between attempts did not greatly influence the score earned on the repeated attempt. ..
  11. Moonie S, Sterling D, Figgs L, Castro M. The relationship between school absence, academic performance, and asthma status. J Sch Health. 2008;78:140-8 pubmed publisher
    ..More research is warranted on the effects of persistent asthma on academic achievement. ..
  12. Dominelli A, Wheeler M. The personality traits of medical technologists: implications for recruitment and retention. J Allied Health. 2006;35:e316-42 pubmed
    ..In this study, we will attempt to gain this insight through examination of a personality profile of a group of medical technologists. ..
  13. Weeks M, Wild T, Ploubidis G, Naicker K, Cairney J, North C, et al. Childhood cognitive ability and its relationship with anxiety and depression in adolescence. J Affect Disord. 2014;152-154:139-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Also, an increased focus on cognitive skills may attenuate the negative effects of some stressors on subsequent anxious and depressive symptoms, regardless of child gender. ..
  14. Rutter M, Caspi A, Fergusson D, Horwood L, Goodman R, Maughan B, et al. Sex differences in developmental reading disability: new findings from 4 epidemiological studies. JAMA. 2004;291:2007-12 pubmed
    ..43; 95% CI, 1.23-1.65); and E-Risk, 18.0% in boys vs 13.0% in girls (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.04-1.86). The rates for IQ-referenced reading disabilities were similar. Reading disabilities are clearly more frequent in boys than in girls. ..
  15. Oudshoorn W. The utility of Canadian DAT Perceptual Ability and Carving Dexterity scores as predictors of psychomotor performance in first-year operative dentistry. J Dent Educ. 2003;67:1201-8 pubmed
    ..Within the context of the present study, PA and CD scores demonstrated no practical utility as predictors of psychomotor performance. ..
  16. Roberts C, Ward Smith P. Choosing a career in nursing: development of a career search instrument. Int J Nurs Educ Scholarsh. 2010;7:Article2 pubmed publisher
    ..00) and self-efficacy (p = 0.00). The CSQ is psychometrically sound, with a reliability score of 0.87 and capable of identifying the student for whom nursing may be the suitable career. ..
  17. Sackett P, Kuncel N, Arneson J, Cooper S, Waters S. Does socioeconomic status explain the relationship between admissions tests and post-secondary academic performance?. Psychol Bull. 2009;135:1-22 pubmed publisher
    ..44. Thus, the vast majority of the test?academic performance relationship was independent of SES: The authors concluded that the test?grade relationship is not an artifact of common influences of SES on both test scores and grades. ..
  18. Hayward D, Das J, Janzen T. Innovative programs for improvement in reading through cognitive enhancement: a remediation study of Canadian First Nations children. J Learn Disabil. 2007;40:443-57 pubmed
    ..Results are discussed in terms of group, remediation program, and individual participant improvements. ..
  19. Rushd S, Landau A, Khan J, Allgar V, Lindow S. An analysis of the performance of UK medical graduates in the MRCOG Part 1 and Part 2 written examinations. Postgrad Med J. 2012;88:249-54 pubmed publisher
    ..6% vs 52.9%). These results show that there is variation in performance among the graduates from different medical schools in the Part 1 and Part 2 MRCOG written examination. ..
  20. Suedfeld P, Steel G. The environmental psychology of capsule habitats. Annu Rev Psychol. 2000;51:227-53 pubmed
  21. Gormley W, Gayer T, Phillips D, Dawson B. The effects of universal pre-K on cognitive development. Dev Psychol. 2005;41:872-84 pubmed
    ..The authors conclude that Oklahoma's universal pre-K program has succeeded in enhancing the school readiness of a diverse group of children. ..
  22. Chandler H. Student assessment: a teacher's approach, Part II. J Learn Disabil. 1986;19:381-2 pubmed
  23. Ness G. Objectivity and subjectivity in dental admissions. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2004;97:297 pubmed
  24. Peterson R. The persistence of low expectations in special education law viewed through the lens of therapeutic jurisprudence. Int J Law Psychiatry. 2010;33:375-97 pubmed publisher
  25. Smith S. Retention of traditional premedical students in a medical career pathway compared with students in a combined baccalaureate-medical degree program. J Natl Med Assoc. 1993;85:529-32 pubmed
  26. Chan D. Racial subgroup differences in predictive validity perceptions on personality and cognitive ability tests. J Appl Psychol. 1997;82:311-20 pubmed
    ..Conversely, predictive validity perceptions did not appear to account for any substantial portion of the racial subgroup differences in test performance. ..
  27. Daneman M, Hannon B. Using working memory theory to investigate the construct validity of multiple-choice reading comprehension tests such as the SAT. J Exp Psychol Gen. 2001;130:208-23 pubmed
  28. Wilson I, Roberts C, Flynn E, Griffin B. Only the best: medical student selection in Australia. Med J Aust. 2012;196:357 pubmed
    ..A range of academic and non-academic criteria are used for selection, including matriculation scores, aptitude tests and interviews...
  29. Karabatsos G. A critique of Rasch residual fit statistics. J Appl Meas. 2000;1:152-76 pubmed
  30. Meijer R. Diagnosing item score patterns on a test using item response theory-based person-fit statistics. Psychol Methods. 2003;8:72-87 pubmed
    ..Results showed that different types of person-fit statistics can be used to detect different kinds of person misfit. Parametric person-fit statistics had more power than nonparametric person-fit statistics. ..
  31. Gilliam S, Magliano J, Millis K, Levinstein I, Boonthum C. Assessing the format of the presentation of text in developing a Reading Strategy Assessment Tool (R-SAT). Behav Res Methods. 2007;39:199-204 pubmed
    ..We found that R-SAT was most predictive of comprehension when the readers did not have access to the text as they answered questions. ..
  32. Smithers S, Catano V, Cunningham D. What predicts performance in Canadian dental schools?. J Dent Educ. 2004;68:598-613 pubmed
    ..Implications of the findings are discussed, and recommendations regarding the admission process to Canadian dental programs are offered. ..
  33. Dollinger S, Shafran M. Note on consensual assessment technique in creativity research. Percept Mot Skills. 2005;100:592-8 pubmed
  34. Mentasti L, Thibodeau E. Nonacademic characteristics of dental school applicants. J Dent Educ. 2006;70:1043-50 pubmed
    ..Results of this study can assist dental admissions committees in making qualitative comparisons between applicants with similar academic qualifications and aid health career counselors in advising predental students. ..
  35. Yuan K, Hayashi K. Standard errors in covariance structure models: asymptotics versus bootstrap. Br J Math Stat Psychol. 2006;59:397-417 pubmed
    ..Conditions for the consistency of the bootstrap estimates of SEs are identified and discussed. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the relationship of different estimates of SEs and covariance matrices. ..
  36. Li C, Nuttall R, Zhu W. Writing Chinese characters and success on Mental Rotation Test. Percept Mot Skills. 1999;88:1261-70 pubmed
    ..Students who were born in the USA and able to write Chinese scored the highest on this test. Being bilingual was not associated with performance on the Mental Rotation Test. Men performed significantly better than women. ..
  37. Suemaru K, Takeichi K, Yamaguchi T, Kohei Y, Okamoto C, Ikazaki S, et al. [Evaluation of experience-oriented hospital practical training by an examination]. Yakugaku Zasshi. 2008;128:1839-44 pubmed
    ..5-fold (p<0.001). These results suggested that the experience-oriented programs for hospital practical training increased the clinical knowledge and the problem-solving abilities of these students. ..
  38. Shipper E, Mazer L, Merrell S, Lin D, Lau J, Melcher M. Pilot evaluation of the Computer-Based Assessment for Sampling Personal Characteristics test. J Surg Res. 2017;215:211-218 pubmed publisher
    ..055), respectively. The CASPer test may be feasibly implemented as component of the resident selection process, with the potential to predict applicant rank list position and improve the general surgery resident selection process. ..
  39. Cerutti B, Bernheim L, Van Gessel E. The predictive validity of the aptitude test for the performance of students starting a medical curriculum. Swiss Med Wkly. 2013;143:w13872 pubmed publisher
    ..The test was withdrawn after the 2012 session, but a number of issues regarding the medical selection procedure remain to be addressed. ..
  40. Masud D, Undre S, Darzi A. Using manual dexterity to predict the quality of the final product in the small bowel anastomosis after a period of training. Am J Surg. 2012;203:776-81 pubmed publisher
    The use of aptitude tests in the selection of surgeons has gained recent attention. Few have described its relevance in predicting the acquisition of surgical techniques...
  41. Buyse T, Lievens F. Situational judgment tests as a new tool for dental student selection. J Dent Educ. 2011;75:743-9 pubmed
    ..Future research needs to confirm these findings with job performance as another criterion. ..
  42. Schleicher D, Van Iddekinge C, Morgeson F, Campion M. If at first you don't succeed, try, try again: understanding race, age, and gender differences in retesting score improvement. J Appl Psychol. 2010;95:603-17 pubmed publisher
  43. Duckworth A. (Over and) beyond high-stakes testing. Am Psychol. 2009;64:279-80; discussion 285-7 pubmed publisher
  44. Scott J, De Vries J, Iacopino A. 25-year analysis of a dental undergraduate research training program (BSc Dent) at the University of Manitoba Faculty of Dentistry. J Dent Res. 2008;87:1085-8 pubmed
    ..This information may be useful in the design and implementation of dental student research programs at other dental schools. ..
  45. Zetterström R. [The medical students admission system at the Karolinska Institute must be changed]. Lakartidningen. 2007;104:3895-6 pubmed
  46. Lidor R, Hershko Y, Bilkevitz A, Arnon M, Falk B. Measurement of talent in volleyball: 15-month follow-up of elite adolescent players. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2007;47:159-68 pubmed
    ..It was concluded that the volleyball battery of tests was not sensitive enough to distinguish between the ''good'' and ''very good'' players suggesting that physical and motor tests do not reflect open skill ability in volleyball. ..
  47. Hørder M, Wallstedt B. [Who will be admitted to medical education--does the quota 2 model outplayed its role?]. Ugeskr Laeger. 2006;168:1741 pubmed
  48. Pomplun M, Custer M. The construct validity of the stanford-binet 5 measures of working memory. Assessment. 2005;12:338-46 pubmed
    ..The higher correlations between SB5 verbal working memory and reading skills and between SB5 nonverbal memory and mathematics skills are consistent with past research. ..
  49. Hwang J, Nochajski S, Linn R, Wu Y. The development of the School Function Assessment Chinese version for cross-cultural use in Taiwan. Occup Ther Int. 2004;11:26-39 pubmed
  50. Mielke P, Berry K. Multivariate multiple regression prediction models: a Euclidean distance approach. Psychol Rep. 2003;92:763-9 pubmed
  51. Meadows A, Stanton B, Styles J, Finstuen K. Predictors of course completion for the U.S. Army pharmacy specialist course. Mil Med. 2002;167:140-4 pubmed
    ..01) in the 91Q training program. Using these predictors, the selection process may be modified to improve the likelihood of student success in the course. ..
  52. Sasaki K, Toyoda H. [New assessment scale based on the type of person desired by an employer]. Shinrigaku Kenkyu. 2011;82:379-84 pubmed
    In many cases, aptitude tests used in the hiring process fail to connect the measurement scale with the emotional type of the person desired by an employer...
  53. Coats H. Treating test-item nonresponse. J Appl Meas. 2004;5:70-94 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that environmental and psychological antecedents of nonresponse need to be determined and that related variables be included as essential components in item response modelling. ..