Summary: The process whereby a society changes from a rural to an urban way of life. It refers also to the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas.

Top Publications

  1. Van de Poel E, O Donnell O, van Doorslaer E. Urbanization and the spread of diseases of affluence in China. Econ Hum Biol. 2009;7:200-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Higher incomes explain around one-tenth of the urban concentration of both overweight and hypertension, while the education advantage of urban populations has a similar sized offsetting effect. ..
  2. Larson E, Olden J, Usio N. Shoreline urbanization interrupts allochthonous subsidies to a benthic consumer over a gradient of lake size. Biol Lett. 2011;7:551-4 pubmed publisher
    ..carbon use by the crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus over a gradient of lake area, productivity and urbanization. Consistent with findings from terrestrial islands, habitat size dictated the importance of allochthonous ..
  3. Bates A, Sadler J, Fairbrass A, Falk S, Hale J, Matthews T. Changing bee and hoverfly pollinator assemblages along an urban-rural gradient. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23459 pubmed publisher
    ..However, despite increasing and accelerating levels of global urbanization, very little research has investigated the effects of urbanization on pollinator assemblages...
  4. Kong S, Ji Y, Liu L, Chen L, Zhao X, Wang J, et al. Diversities of phthalate esters in suburban agricultural soils and wasteland soil appeared with urbanization in China. Environ Pollut. 2012;170:161-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The higher PAEs contents in wasteland soils from suburban area should be paid more attention owing to large amounts of solid wastes appeared with the ongoing urbanization.
  5. Weaver S. Urbanization and geographic expansion of zoonotic arboviral diseases: mechanisms and potential strategies for prevention. Trends Microbiol. 2013;21:360-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, I review these urban emergences and potential strategies for their prevention and control. ..
  6. Zhu C, Zhao S, Zhou D. [Organic carbon storage in urban built-up areas of China in 1997-2006]. Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao. 2012;23:1195-202 pubmed
  7. Danaei G, Singh G, Paciorek C, Lin J, Cowan M, Finucane M, et al. The global cardiovascular risk transition: associations of four metabolic risk factors with national income, urbanization, and Western diet in 1980 and 2008. Circulation. 2013;127:1493-502, 1502e1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..glucose, systolic blood pressure, and serum total cholesterol with national income, Western diet, and, for BMI, urbanization in 1980 and 2008...
  8. Seitzinger S, Svedin U, Crumley C, Steffen W, Abdullah S, Alfsen C, et al. Planetary stewardship in an urbanizing world: beyond city limits. Ambio. 2012;41:787-94 pubmed publisher
    ..The potential for cities to cooperate as a system and with rural connectivity could increase their capacity to effect change and foster stewardship at the planetary scale and also increase their resource security. ..
  9. Voss J, Masuoka P, Webber B, Scher A, Atkinson R. Association of elevation, urbanization and ambient temperature with obesity prevalence in the United States. Int J Obes (Lond). 2013;37:1407-12 pubmed publisher
    ..This study examines the relationship between obesity and elevation, ambient temperature and urbanization. Data from a cross-sectional, nationally representative sample of 422603 US adults containing BMI, behavioral (..

More Information


  1. Zhao J, Chen S, Jiang B, Ren Y, Wang H, Vause J, et al. Temporal trend of green space coverage in China and its relationship with urbanization over the last two decades. Sci Total Environ. 2013;442:455-65 pubmed publisher
    ..taken in the densification-sprawl debate, insights into the relationship between urban green space coverage and urbanization have been recognized as essential for guiding sustainable urban development...
  2. Téné Fossog B, Antonio Nkondjio C, Kengne P, Njiokou F, Besansky N, Costantini C. Physiological correlates of ecological divergence along an urbanization gradient: differential tolerance to ammonia among molecular forms of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae. BMC Ecol. 2013;13:1 pubmed publisher
    ..Acute toxicity bioassays indicated that populations of the two molecular forms occurring at the extremes of an urbanization gradient in Yaounde, the capital of Cameroon, differed in their response to ammonia...
  3. Young G, Fox M, Trush M, Kanarek N, Glass T, Curriero F. Differential exposure to hazardous air pollution in the United States: a multilevel analysis of urbanization and neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2012;9:2204-25 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrates the value of social epidemiological methods for analyzing differential exposure and advancing cumulative risk assessment. ..
  4. Buczkowski G, Richmond D. The effect of urbanization on ant abundance and diversity: a temporal examination of factors affecting biodiversity. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e41729 pubmed publisher
    Numerous studies have examined the effect of urbanization on species richness and most studies implicate urbanization as the major cause of biodiversity loss...
  5. Kellner K, Page L, Downey M, McCord S. Effects of urbanization on prevalence of Baylisascaris procyonis in intermediate host populations. J Wildl Dis. 2012;48:1083-7 pubmed publisher
    ..procyonis in populations of mice (Peromyscus spp.) in forest preserves along a gradient of urbanization in Illinois...
  6. Mueller J, Partecke J, Hatchwell B, Gaston K, Evans K. Candidate gene polymorphisms for behavioural adaptations during urbanization in blackbirds. Mol Ecol. 2013;22:3629-37 pubmed publisher
    ..harm avoidance and associated with the SERT polymorphism experience selection pressures during most blackbird urbanization events...
  7. Xu H, Li S, Su J, Nie S, Gibson V, Li H, et al. Does urbanization shape bacterial community composition in urban park soils? A case study in 16 representative Chinese cities based on the pyrosequencing method. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2014;87:182-92 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Urbanization may have detrimental effects on the soil ecosystem through pollution discharge and changes in urban climate...
  8. Ro Y, Shin S, Song K, Lee E, Kim J, Ahn K, et al. A trend in epidemiology and outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest by urbanization level: a nationwide observational study from 2006 to 2010 in South Korea. Resuscitation. 2013;84:547-57 pubmed publisher
    ..of emergency medical service (EMS)-assessed out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) according to the community urbanization level: metropolitan, urban, and rural...
  9. Jones C, Toé H, Sanou A, Namountougou M, Hughes A, Diabate A, et al. Additional selection for insecticide resistance in urban malaria vectors: DDT resistance in Anopheles arabiensis from Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e45995 pubmed publisher
  10. Seto K, Güneralp B, Hutyra L. Global forecasts of urban expansion to 2030 and direct impacts on biodiversity and carbon pools. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:16083-8 pubmed publisher
    ..38 PgC (0.05 PgC yr(-1)), equal to ?5% of emissions from tropical deforestation and land-use change. Although urbanization is often considered a local issue, the aggregate global impacts of projected urban expansion will require ..
  11. Simon E, Vidic A, Braun M, Fabian I, Tothmeresz B. Trace element concentrations in soils along urbanization gradients in the city of Wien, Austria. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2013;20:917-24 pubmed publisher
    ..urban, suburban and rural areas in Wien along a dynamic (floodplain forest) and a stable (oak-hornbeam forest) urbanization gradient...
  12. Liang Y, Lu W, Wu W. Are social security policies for Chinese landless farmers really effective on health in the process of Chinese rapid urbanization? A study on the effect of social security policies for Chinese landless farmers on their health-related quality of life. Int J Equity Health. 2014;13:5 pubmed publisher
    The continuing urbanization in China has resulted in a loss of land and rights among farmers. The social security of landless farmers has attracted considerable research attention...
  13. Ramachandran A, Chamukuttan S, Shetty S, Arun N, Susairaj P. Obesity in Asia--is it different from rest of the world. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2012;28 Suppl 2:47-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Migration from rural to urban areas, and rapid socio-economic transition are associated with the lifestyle changes resulting in decreased levels of physical activity and increased intake of energy dense diet. ..
  14. Bichet C, Scheifler R, Cœurdassier M, Julliard R, Sorci G, Loiseau C. Urbanization, trace metal pollution, and malaria prevalence in the house sparrow. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e53866 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that more effort should be devoted to elucidate the link between pollution and the dynamics of infectious diseases. ..
  15. Duran C, Gunek H, Sandal E. Effects of urbanization on agricultural lands and river basins: case study of Mersin (South of Turkey). J Environ Biol. 2012;33:363-71 pubmed
    ..But unplanned, uncontrolled and illegal urbanization process has been causing degradation of agricultural areas and river basins, and also causing flooding in the ..
  16. Modesti P, Bamoshmoosh M, Rapi S, Massetti L, Al Hidabi D, Al Goshae H. Epidemiology of hypertension in Yemen: effects of urbanization and geographical area. Hypertens Res. 2013;36:711-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the effects of urbanization, geographical area, and air temperature on hypertension burden and kidney damage, a survey was performed in ..
  17. Du S, Wang H, Zhang B, Zhai F, Popkin B. China in the period of transition from scarcity and extensive undernutrition to emerging nutrition-related non-communicable diseases, 1949-1992. Obes Rev. 2014;15 Suppl 1:8-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Overweight emerged only after 1982. Shifts in diet, activity and body composition in 1949-1992 set the stage for major shifts in nutrition in the subsequent decades. ..
  18. Eckert S, Köhler S. Urbanization and health in developing countries: a systematic review. World Health Popul. 2014;15:7-20 pubmed
    Future population growth will take place predominantly in cities of the developing world. The impact of urbanization on health is discussed controversially...
  19. Qi Q, Guerra C, Moyes C, Elyazar I, Gething P, Hay S, et al. The effects of urbanization on global Plasmodium vivax malaria transmission. Malar J. 2012;11:403 pubmed publisher
    Many recent studies have examined the impact of urbanization on Plasmodium falciparum malaria endemicity and found a general trend of reduced transmission in urban areas...
  20. Scherner F, Horta P, de Oliveira E, Simonassi J, Hall Spencer J, Chow F, et al. Coastal urbanization leads to remarkable seaweed species loss and community shifts along the SW Atlantic. Mar Pollut Bull. 2013;76:106-15 pubmed publisher
    Coastal urbanization is rapidly expanding worldwide while its impacts on seaweed communities remain poorly understood...
  21. Zhai F, Du S, Wang Z, Zhang J, Du W, Popkin B. Dynamics of the Chinese diet and the role of urbanicity, 1991-2011. Obes Rev. 2014;15 Suppl 1:16-26 pubmed publisher
    ..The dietary shifts are affected greatly by the country's urbanization. The future, as exemplified by the diet of the three mega cities, promises major growth in consumption of ..
  22. Tatem A, Gething P, Smith D, Hay S. Urbanization and the global malaria recession. Malar J. 2013;12:133 pubmed publisher
    ..It has long been considered, however, that economic development, and particularly urbanization, has also been a causal factor...
  23. Chowdhury F, Rahman M, Begum Y, Khan A, Faruque A, Saha N, et al. Impact of rapid urbanization on the rates of infection by Vibrio cholerae O1 and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in Dhaka, Bangladesh. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e999 pubmed publisher
    ..Vaccines that can target such high risk groups in the country and the region will hopefully be able to reduce the disease morbidity and the transmission of pathogens that impact the life and health of people. ..
  24. Partecke J, Schwabl I, Gwinner E. Stress and the city: urbanization and its effects on the stress physiology in European blackbirds. Ecology. 2006;87:1945-52 pubmed
    ..Either way, the results support the idea that urbanization creates a shift in coping styles by changing the stress physiology of animals...
  25. Maruapula S, Jackson J, HOLSTEN J, Shaibu S, Malete L, Wrotniak B, et al. Socio-economic status and urbanization are linked to snacks and obesity in adolescents in Botswana. Public Health Nutr. 2011;14:2260-7 pubmed publisher
    ..food consumption associated with overweight/obesity (OW/OB) and their links to socio-economic status (SES) and urbanization. A nationwide cross-sectional survey. Secondary schools in cities, towns and villages in Botswana, Africa...
  26. Wang J, Da L, Song K, Li B. Temporal variations of surface water quality in urban, suburban and rural areas during rapid urbanization in Shanghai, China. Environ Pollut. 2008;152:387-93 pubmed
    ..The results indicated that the spatial pattern of surface water quality was determined by the level of urbanization. Surface water qualities in urban and suburban areas were improved by strengthening the environmental policies ..
  27. Peters G, Weber C, Guan D, Hubacek K. China's growing CO2 emissions--a race between increasing consumption and efficiency gains. Environ Sci Technol. 2007;41:5939-44 pubmed
    ..data and structural decomposition analysis we analyze how changes in China's technology, economic structure, urbanization, and lifestyles affect CO2 emissions...
  28. Rosewell A, Robleto G, Rodriguez G, Barragne Bigot P, Amador J, Aldighieri S. Soil-transmitted helminth infection and urbanization in 880 primary school children in Nicaragua, 2005. Trop Doct. 2010;40:141-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Healthy policies are required that favour the peri-urban poor who have inadequate and declining access to water and sanitation. ..
  29. Liker A, Papp Z, Bókony V, Lendvai A. Lean birds in the city: body size and condition of house sparrows along the urbanization gradient. J Anim Ecol. 2008;77:789-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the effects of urbanization on avian community composition are well known, there is much less information about how individual birds are ..
  30. Allender S, Foster C, Hutchinson L, Arambepola C. Quantification of urbanization in relation to chronic diseases in developing countries: a systematic review. J Urban Health. 2008;85:938-51 pubmed publisher
    During and beyond the twentieth century, urbanization has represented a major demographic shift particularly in the developed world...
  31. Patz J, Olson S, Uejio C, Gibbs H. Disease emergence from global climate and land use change. Med Clin North Am. 2008;92:1473-91, xii pubmed publisher
    ..Without such efforts, we will inevitably benefit our current generation at the cost of generations to come. ..
  32. Zhang P, Atkinson P. Modelling the effect of urbanization on the transmission of an infectious disease. Math Biosci. 2008;211:166-85 pubmed
    This paper models the impact of urbanization on infectious disease transmission by integrating a CA land use development model, population projection matrix model and CA epidemic model in S-Plus...
  33. Naik P, Tambe J, Dehury B, Tiwari A. Impact of urbanization on the groundwater regime in a fast growing city in central India. Environ Monit Assess. 2008;146:339-73 pubmed publisher
    This paper describes the impact of urbanization on the groundwater regime in a fast growing city, Solapur, in central India, giving special emphasis on the management of the present and ultimate demand of water in 2,020 AD...
  34. Gottschalk M, De Toni D, Valente V, Hofmann P. Changes in Brazilian Drosophilidae (Diptera) assemblages across an urbanisation gradient. Neotrop Entomol. 2007;36:848-62 pubmed
    ..In the other hand the richness in the low urbanisation site increased, probably due to the presence of urban gardens. The diversity index did not vary significantly among sites, but its correlation with evenness and richness changed...
  35. Christensen D, Eis J, Hansen A, Larsson M, Mwaniki D, Kilonzo B, et al. Obesity and regional fat distribution in Kenyan populations: impact of ethnicity and urbanization. Ann Hum Biol. 2008;35:232-49 pubmed publisher
    ..rural population. Abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat thickness was higher with urban residency. A high prevalence of overweight and obesity was found. The Maasai had the highest overall fat accumulation. ..
  36. CHRISTIAN B, Evans R. Has urbanization become a risk factor for dental caries in Kerala, India: a cross-sectional study of children aged 6 and 12 years. Int J Paediatr Dent. 2009;19:330-7 pubmed publisher
    The objectives of this study were to: (i) test the hypothesis that urbanization is a risk factor for dental caries in children aged 6 and 12 years in Kollam, Kerala; and (ii) identify other possible risk factors for dental caries...
  37. Walters S, Thebo A, Boehm A. Impact of urbanization and agriculture on the occurrence of bacterial pathogens and stx genes in coastal waterbodies of central California. Water Res. 2011;45:1752-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Results suggest that FIB and pathogen concentrations are influenced, in part, by their flux from the land, which is exacerbated during rainfall; once waterborne, bacterial persistence is affected by water temperature and salinity. ..
  38. Pitel L, Geckova A, van Dijk J, Reijneveld S. Degree of urbanization and gender differences in substance use among Slovak adolescents. Int J Public Health. 2011;56:645-51 pubmed publisher
    Substance use among adolescents varies with gender and between countries. Urbanization may contribute to this...
  39. Mathenge W, Foster A, Kuper H. Urbanization, ethnicity and cardiovascular risk in a population in transition in Nakuru, Kenya: a population-based survey. BMC Public Health. 2010;10:569 pubmed publisher
    ..This study aimed to investigate the relationship of urbanization and ethnicity with CVD risk markers in Kenya...
  40. Yang R, Sheu J, Chen H, Lin K, Huang H. Morbidity at elementary school entry differs by sex and level of residence urbanization: a comparative cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2007;7:358 pubmed
    ..health status of first-graders and to examine the health status differences between sexes, levels of residence urbanization, and quantity of available medical resources. This is a comparative descriptive study...
  41. Utzinger J, Keiser J. Urbanization and tropical health--then and now. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2006;100:517-33 pubmed
    ..b>Urbanization will continue at a high pace, particularly in the less developed regions of Africa and Asia...
  42. Prophiro J, Silva O, Luna J, Piccoli C, Kanis L, Silva M. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae): coexistence and susceptibility to temephos, in municipalities with occurrence of dengue and differentiated characteristics of urbanization. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2011;44:300-5 pubmed
    ..and Aedes albopictus populations in municipalities of the States of Paraná and Santa Catarina with different urbanization profiles where dengue occurs and evaluate their susceptibility to the organophosphate temephos...
  43. Tanihara S, Kobayashi Y, Une H, Kawachi I. Urbanization and physician maldistribution: a longitudinal study in Japan. BMC Health Serv Res. 2011;11:260 pubmed publisher
    ..The ratios of physicians to population in small rural STMs increased because of concurrent trends in urbanization and not because of a rise in the number of practicing physicians.
  44. Awolola T, Oduola A, Obansa J, Chukwurar N, Unyimadu J. Anopheles gambiae s.s. breeding in polluted water bodies in urban Lagos, southwestern Nigeria. J Vector Borne Dis. 2007;44:241-4 pubmed
    ..gambiae s.s. is adapting to a wide range of water pollution in this urban area. The survival of the mosquito in widespread polluted water bodies across Lagos metropolis could be responsible for the rise in the incidence of malaria. ..
  45. Wu P, Lay J, Guo H, Lin C, Lung S, Su H. Higher temperature and urbanization affect the spatial patterns of dengue fever transmission in subtropical Taiwan. Sci Total Environ. 2009;407:2224-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Numbers of months with average temperature higher than 18 degrees C per year and degree of urbanization were found to be associated with increasing risk of dengue fever incidence at township level...
  46. Lazarou C, Kalavana T. Urbanization influences dietary habits of Cypriot children: the CYKIDS study. Int J Public Health. 2009;54:69-77 pubmed publisher
    Nutrition transition and urbanization have been linked to the adoption of a Western diet. An increasing number of Cypriot have abandoned their traditional eating habits and replaced them with a more westernized diet...
  47. Neill D. Urbanization and daughter-biased parental investment in Fiji. Hum Nat. 2011;22:139-55 pubmed publisher
    ..High scholastic achievement is associated with lower workloads for girls, but not boys. This pattern is interpreted as daughter-biased investment in the context of urbanization.
  48. Golubiewski N. Is there a metabolism of an urban ecosystem? An ecological critique. Ambio. 2012;41:751-64 pubmed publisher
  49. Vorster H, Kruger A, Venter C, Margetts B, MacIntyre U. Cardiovascular disease risk factors and socio-economic position of Africans in transition: the THUSA study. Cardiovasc J Afr. 2007;18:282-9 pubmed
  50. Miller M, Byrne B, Jang S, Dodd E, Dorfmeier E, Harris M, et al. Enteric bacterial pathogen detection in southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) is associated with coastal urbanization and freshwater runoff. Vet Res. 2010;41:1 pubmed publisher
    ..Because otters and humans share many of the same foods, our findings may also have implications for human health...
  51. Singh G, Siahpush M, Williams S. Changing urbanization patterns in US lung cancer mortality, 1950-2007. J Community Health. 2012;37:412-20 pubmed publisher
    ..while Poisson regression was used to estimate relative risk after adjusting for age, sex, deprivation, and urbanization levels. Urbanization patterns in lung cancer mortality changed dramatically between 1950 and 2007...
  52. Ooi G, Phua K. Urbanization and slum formation. J Urban Health. 2007;84:i27-34 pubmed
    The formation of slums need not be inevitable with rapid urbanization. Such an argument appears to be contradicted by evidence of large slum populations in a large number of developing countries and particularly in rapidly urbanizing ..
  53. Singh Manoux A, Dugravot A, Smith G, Subramanyam M, Subramanian S. Adult education and child mortality in India: the influence of caste, household wealth, and urbanization. Epidemiology. 2008;19:294-301 pubmed publisher
    ..education and child mortality, and the influence of other socioeconomic markers (caste, household wealth, and urbanization) on this association...
  54. Cuffney T, Brightbill R, May J, Waite I. Responses of benthic macroinvertebrates to environmental changes associated with urbanization in nine metropolitan areas. Ecol Appl. 2010;20:1384-401 pubmed
    ..Diversity indices, functional groups, behavior, and dominance metrics were not good indicators of urbanization. Richness metrics were better indicators of urban effects than were abundance metrics, and qualitative samples ..
  55. Eigenbrod F, Bell V, Davies H, Heinemeyer A, Armsworth P, Gaston K. The impact of projected increases in urbanization on ecosystem services. Proc Biol Sci. 2011;278:3201-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In Europe, urbanization will probably be the main cause of land-use change...