social support


Summary: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.

Top Publications

  1. Carroll J, Diez Roux A, Fitzpatrick A, Seeman T. Low social support is associated with shorter leukocyte telomere length in late life: multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis. Psychosom Med. 2013;75:171-7 pubmed publisher
    The primary goal was to test the hypothesis that limited social support (SS) is related to shorter leukocyte telomere length (LTL), particularly in an older adult population...
  2. Tsai J, Thompson E. Impact of social discrimination, job concerns, and social support on Filipino immigrant worker mental health and substance use. Am J Ind Med. 2013;56:1082-94 pubmed publisher
    ..of mental health problems and substance use (social discrimination, job and employment concerns, and social support) were examined using structural equation modeling in a sample of 1,397 immigrants from the Filipino American ..
  3. Sperry D, Widom C. Child abuse and neglect, social support, and psychopathology in adulthood: a prospective investigation. Child Abuse Negl. 2013;37:415-25 pubmed publisher
    To determine whether child abuse and neglect predicts low levels of social support in middle adulthood and understand whether social support acts to mediate or moderate the relationship between childhood abuse and neglect and subsequent ..
  4. Lewin A, Jobges M, Werheid K. The influence of self-efficacy, pre-stroke depression and perceived social support on self-reported depressive symptoms during stroke rehabilitation. Neuropsychol Rehabil. 2013;23:546-62 pubmed publisher
    ..investigated the predictive value and mutual relationship of psychological factors such as self-efficacy and social support and known risk factors such as pre-stroke depression, activities of daily living (ADL), cognitive functioning, ..
  5. Timperio A, van Stralen M, Brug J, Bere E, Chinapaw M, De Bourdeaudhuij I, et al. Direct and indirect associations between the family physical activity environment and sports participation among 10-12 year-old European children: testing the EnRG framework in the ENERGY project. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2013;10:15 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, family-based physical activity interventions that focus on enhancing the family environment to support children's sport participation are warranted. ..
  6. Westerman M, Teunissen P, Fokkema J, van der Vleuten C, Scherpbier A, Siegert C, et al. The transition to hospital consultant and the influence of preparedness, social support, and perception: A structural equation modelling approach. Med Teach. 2013;35:320-7 pubmed publisher investigates whether preparedness regarding medical and generic competencies, perceived intensity, and social support are associated with burnout among new consultants...
  7. Letourneau N, Morris C, Stewart M, Hughes J, Critchley K, Secco L. Social support needs identified by mothers affected by intimate partner violence. J Interpers Violence. 2013;28:2873-93 pubmed publisher
  8. Rasmussen B, Dunning T, Hendrieckx C, Botti M, Speight J. Transition to motherhood in type 1 diabetes: design of the pregnancy and postnatal well-being in transition questionnaires. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2013;13:54 pubmed publisher
    ..The questionnaires potentially play a key role in prospective research to determine the self-management and psychological needs of women with type 1 diabetes transitioning to motherhood and to evaluate health education interventions. ..
  9. Graham A, Cha S, Papandonatos G, Cobb N, Mushro A, Fang Y, et al. Improving adherence to web-based cessation programs: a randomized controlled trial study protocol. Trials. 2013;14:48 pubmed publisher
    ..This approach is significant for reducing tobacco's devastating disease burden and for optimizing behavior change in other arenas where adherence is just as critical. ISRCTN:ISRCTN45127327. ..

More Information


  1. Skovdal M, Magutshwa Zitha S, Campbell C, Nyamukapa C, Gregson S. Children's role in the community response to HIV in Zimbabwe. J Int AIDS Soc. 2013;16:18468 pubmed publisher
  2. Rivera Torres P, Araque Padilla R, Montero Simó M. Job stress across gender: the importance of emotional and intellectual demands and social support in women. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2013;10:375-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, social support has a greater weakening effect on the levels of job stress in women than in men...
  3. Field T, Diego M, Delgado J, Medina L. Yoga and social support reduce prenatal depression, anxiety and cortisol. J Bodyw Mov Ther. 2013;17:397-403 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of yoga (physical activity) versus social support (verbal activity) on prenatal and postpartum depression...
  4. Bailey A, Sharma M, Jubin M. The mediating role of social support, cognitive appraisal, and quality health care in black mothers' stress-resilience process following loss to gun violence. Violence Vict. 2013;28:233-47 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to examine the mediating effects of social support, cognitive appraisal, and quality health care on the relationship between traumatic stress and resilience ..
  5. Wright B, Kelsall H, Sim M, Clarke D, Creamer M. Support mechanisms and vulnerabilities in relation to PTSD in veterans of the Gulf War, Iraq War, and Afghanistan deployments: a systematic review. J Trauma Stress. 2013;26:310-8 pubmed publisher
    ..62, 95% confidence interval (CI) [-2.80, -0.45]. A meta-analysis of social support involving 7 studies found that low social support was associated with PTSD, standardised mean difference of - ..
  6. Xu J, Ou L. Resilience and quality of life among Wenchuan earthquake survivors: the mediating role of social support. Public Health. 2014;128:430-7 pubmed publisher
    To examine the extent social support mediates resilience and quality of life in Wenchuan earthquake survivors. Originals...
  7. Nilsson M, Petersson L, Wennman Larsen A, Olsson M, Vaez M, Alexanderson K. Adjustment and social support at work early after breast cancer surgery and its associations with sickness absence. Psychooncology. 2013;22:2755-62 pubmed publisher
    ..and disease-related factors, whereas few have focused on work-related factors such as work adjustment and social support. The aim of this study was to investigate received and perceived social support from supervisor and colleagues ..
  8. Graven L, Grant J. Social support and self-care behaviors in individuals with heart failure: an integrative review. Int J Nurs Stud. 2014;51:320-33 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this review is to examine and synthesize recent literature regarding the relationship between social support and self-care behaviors in individuals with heart failure (HF)...
  9. Tempski P, Bellodi P, Paro H, Enns S, Martins M, Schraiber L. What do medical students think about their quality of life? A qualitative study. BMC Med Educ. 2012;12:106 pubmed publisher
  10. Thoresen S, Jensen T, Wentzel Larsen T, Dyb G. Social support barriers and mental health in terrorist attack survivors. J Affect Disord. 2014;156:187-93 pubmed publisher
    To expand our understanding of social support and mental health, we introduce a measure of social support barriers and investigate the relationship between these barriers, social support, mental health and gender in survivors of the ..
  11. Gao J, Wang J, Zheng P, Haardörfer R, Kegler M, Zhu Y, et al. Effects of self-care, self-efficacy, social support on glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes. BMC Fam Pract. 2013;14:66 pubmed publisher
    A number of studies have examined the influence of self-efficacy, social support and patient-provider communication (PPC) on self-care and glycemic control...
  12. Stewart S, Abidi S. Applying social network analysis to understand the knowledge sharing behaviour of practitioners in a clinical online discussion forum. J Med Internet Res. 2012;14:e170 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of the analysis suggest that the discussion forum is active and healthy, and that, though few, the interprofessional and interinstitutional ties are strong. ..
  13. Arnberg F, Hultman C, Michel P, Lundin T. Social support moderates posttraumatic stress and general distress after disaster. J Trauma Stress. 2012;25:721-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Social support buffers the negative impact of stressful events. Less, however, is known about the characteristics of this association in the context of disaster and findings have been discrepant regarding direct and buffering effects...
  14. Dibaba Y, Fantahun M, Hindin M. The association of unwanted pregnancy and social support with depressive symptoms in pregnancy: evidence from rural Southwestern Ethiopia. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2013;13:135 pubmed publisher
    ..This study examines the association between pregnancy intention, social support and depressive symptoms in pregnancy in Ethiopia...
  15. Eastwood J, Jalaludin B, Kemp L, Phung H, Barnett B. Relationship of postnatal depressive symptoms to infant temperament, maternal expectations, social support and other potential risk factors: findings from a large Australian cross-sectional study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2012;12:148 pubmed publisher
    ..of infant behaviour, financial stress, mother's expectation of motherhood, emotional support, sole parenthood, social support and mother's country of birth...
  16. Diener E. New findings and future directions for subjective well-being research. Am Psychol. 2012;67:590-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Worldwide predictors of SWB such as social support and fulfillment of basic needs have been uncovered, and there are large differences in SWB between societies...
  17. Kaonga N, Labrique A, Mechael P, Akosah E, Ohemeng Dapaah S, Sakyi Baah J, et al. Using social networking to understand social networks: analysis of a mobile phone closed user group used by a Ghanaian health team. J Med Internet Res. 2013;15:e74 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, this methodology can be a useful analytical tool, especially in the context of mobile health, health services, and operational and managerial research. ..
  18. Bishop J, Irby M, Isom S, Blackwell C, Vitolins M, Skelton J. Diabetes prevention, weight loss, and social support: program participants' perceived influence on the health behaviors of their social support system. Fam Community Health. 2013;36:158-71 pubmed publisher
    ..of how their involvement in a well-established weight loss and diabetes prevention program influenced their social support persons (SSPs)...
  19. Huynh A, Kinsler J, Cunningham W, Sayles J. The role of mental health in mediating the relationship between social support and optimal ART adherence. AIDS Care. 2013;25:1179-84 pubmed publisher
    ..While studies have identified psychosocial factors such as lack of social support and poor mental health status as important barriers to optimal ART adherence, few studies have explored the ..
  20. Aizire J, Fowler M, Coovadia H. Operational issues and barriers to implementation of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) interventions in Sub-Saharan Africa. Curr HIV Res. 2013;11:144-59 pubmed
  21. Ono M, Matsuyama A, Karama M, Honda S. Association between social support and place of delivery: a cross-sectional study in Kericho, Western Kenya. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2013;13:214 pubmed publisher
    ..This study aimed to explore determinants of association between social support and place of delivery...
  22. Giesbrecht G, Poole J, Letourneau N, Campbell T, Kaplan B. The buffering effect of social support on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function during pregnancy. Psychosom Med. 2013;75:856-62 pubmed publisher
    Recent studies suggest that effective social support during pregnancy may buffer adverse effects of maternal psychological distress on fetal development...
  23. Fielding R, Lam W, Shun S, Okuyama T, Lai Y, Wada M, et al. Attributing variance in supportive care needs during cancer: culture-service, and individual differences, before clinical factors. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e65099 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall accounted variance remained low. Health service and/or cultural influences, age and occupation differences, and less so clinical factors, differentially account for significant variation in published studies of SCNs. ..
  24. Nyqvist F, Forsman A, Giuntoli G, Cattan M. Social capital as a resource for mental well-being in older people: a systematic review. Aging Ment Health. 2013;17:394-410 pubmed publisher
    ..We consider family and friends at the micro level to be the key factors in generating social capital and well-being in older people. ..
  25. Bauer R, Sterzinger L, Koepke F, Spiessl H. Rewards of caregiving and coping strategies of caregivers of patients with mental illness. Psychiatr Serv. 2013;64:185-8 pubmed publisher
    ..quot; To support caregivers, a shift in orientation from focusing on burden to emphasizing resources is necessary. ..
  26. Tsakos G, Sabbah W, Chandola T, Newton T, Kawachi I, Aida J, et al. Social relationships and oral health among adults aged 60 years or older. Psychosom Med. 2013;75:178-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Social relationships referred to social networks (marital status, number of close friends) and social support (emotional support need, provision of financial support)...
  27. Razurel C, Kaiser B, Sellenet C, Epiney M. Relation between perceived stress, social support, and coping strategies and maternal well-being: a review of the literature. Women Health. 2013;53:74-99 pubmed publisher
    ..on mothers' medium- or long-term psychological health and the efficacy of coping strategies, to determine if social support plays a role in the interaction between birth events and mothers' psychological experiences, and to identify ..
  28. Weiss J, Berner E, Johnson K, Giuse D, Murphy B, Lorenzi N. Recommendations for the design, implementation and evaluation of social support in online communities, networks, and groups. J Biomed Inform. 2013;46:970-6 pubmed publisher
    ..technologies to patient-centered care, it is necessary to incorporate more inclusive conceptual frameworks of social support and community-based research methodologies...
  29. Lagerberg D, Magnusson M. Utilization of child health services, stress, social support and child characteristics in primiparous and multiparous mothers of 18-month-old children. Scand J Public Health. 2013;41:374-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Multiparous mothers reported less social support, particularly in practical respects such as baby-sitting...
  30. Xu J, Wei Y. Social support as a moderator of the relationship between anxiety and depression: an empirical study with adult survivors of Wenchuan earthquake. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e79045 pubmed publisher
    ..survivors of Wenchuan earthquake, the objective of this study is to estimate the role of different types of social support as possible moderating factors between anxiety and depression...
  31. Oztunç G, Yesil P, Paydas S, Erdogan S. Social support and hopelessness in patients with breast cancer. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2013;14:571-8 pubmed
    ..with breast cancer can experience a feeling of hopelessness very deeply in the adjustment process, and the social support provided during this period can be effective in increasing the level of hope...
  32. Ochsner S, Luszczynska A, Stadler G, Knoll N, Hornung R, Scholz U. The interplay of received social support and self-regulatory factors in smoking cessation. Psychol Health. 2013;29:16-31 pubmed publisher
    In smoking cessation, individual self-regulation and social support have both proven to be useful. However, the roles of self-regulatory processes and social support are mostly examined separately...
  33. Oude Hengel K, Blatter B, Joling C, van der Beek A, Bongers P. Effectiveness of an intervention at construction worksites on work engagement, social support, physical workload, and need for recovery: results from a cluster randomized controlled trial. BMC Public Health. 2012;12:1008 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the current study was to investigate the effectiveness of this program on social support at work, work engagement, physical workload and need for recovery...
  34. Dinicola G, Julian L, Gregorich S, Blanc P, Katz P. The role of social support in anxiety for persons with COPD. J Psychosom Res. 2013;74:110-5 pubmed publisher
    This study examined the contribution of perceived social support to the presence of anxiety in persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A cross-sectional survey sample of 452 persons with COPD (61.3% female; 53...
  35. Ekback M, Benzein E, Lindberg M, Arestedt K. The Swedish version of the multidimensional scale of perceived social support (MSPSS)--a psychometric evaluation study in women with hirsutism and nursing students. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2013;11:168 pubmed publisher
    The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) is a short instrument, developed to assess perceived social support. The original English version has been widely used...
  36. Rubens S, Vernberg E, Felix E, Canino G. Peer deviance, social support, and symptoms of internalizing disorders among youth exposed to Hurricane Georges. Psychiatry. 2013;76:169-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Data were gathered on hurricane exposure, symptoms of internalizing disorders, peer social support, peer violence, and peer substance use through in-person structured interviews with adolescents and caretakers ..
  37. Melchiorre M, Chiatti C, Lamura G, Torres Gonzales F, Stankunas M, Lindert J, et al. Social support, socio-economic status, health and abuse among older people in seven European countries. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e54856 pubmed publisher
    b>Social support has a strong impact on individuals, not least on older individuals with health problems. A lack of support network and poor family or social relations may be crucial in later life, and represent risk factors for elder abuse...
  38. Dennis C, Dowswell T. Psychosocial and psychological interventions for preventing postpartum depression. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;:CD001134 pubmed publisher
    ..Promising interventions include the provision of intensive, professionally-based postpartum home visits, telephone-based peer support, and interpersonal psychotherapy. ..
  39. Conover M, Davis C, Ferrara E, McKelvey K, Menczer F, Flammini A. The geospatial characteristics of a social movement communication network. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e55957 pubmed publisher
  40. Hempler N, Ekholm O, Willaing I. Differences in social relations between persons with type 2 diabetes and the general population. Scand J Public Health. 2013;41:340-3 pubmed publisher
    Poor social support and lack of social network are well-established risk factors for morbidity and mortality in general populations...
  41. Naderimagham S, Niknami S, Abolhassani F, Hajizadeh E, Montazeri A. Development and psychometric properties of a new social support scale for self-care in middle-aged patients with type II diabetes (S4-MAD). BMC Public Health. 2012;12:1035 pubmed publisher
    b>Social support has proved to be one of the most effective factors on the success of diabetic self-care...
  42. Pilgram M. Communicating social support to grieving clients: the veterinarians' view. Death Stud. 2010;34:699-714 pubmed
    This exploratory study examines veterinarians' perceptions of how they offer social support to grieving clients...
  43. Redwood D, Provost E, Asay E, Ferguson J, Müller J. Giant inflatable colon and community knowledge, intention, and social support for colorectal cancer screening. Prev Chronic Dis. 2013;10:E40 pubmed publisher
    ..inflatable colon was an effective educational tool to increase community members' knowledge, intention, and social support for CRC screening and prevention...
  44. Oshio T, Umeda M, Kawakami N. Impact of interpersonal adversity in childhood on adult mental health: how much is mediated by social support and socio-economic status in Japan?. Public Health. 2013;127:754-60 pubmed publisher
    To examine the extent to which social support and socio-economic status (SES) in adulthood mediate the impact of interpersonal adversity in childhood on adult mental health using large-scale population data in Japan...
  45. Brierley G, Agnew Davies R, Bailey J, Evans M, Fackrell M, Ferrari G, et al. Psychological advocacy toward healing (PATH): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials. 2013;14:221 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings will have important implications for healthcare commissioners and providers, as well as third sector specialist DVA agencies providing services to this client group. ISRCTN58561170. ..
  46. Barger S. Social integration, social support and mortality in the US National Health Interview Survey. Psychosom Med. 2013;75:510-7 pubmed publisher
    ..of relationship quantity (measured using a social integration score) and quality (measured by perceived social support) with mortality in a representative US sample (n = 30,574)...
  47. Uphoff E, Pickett K, Cabieses B, Small N, Wright J. A systematic review of the relationships between social capital and socioeconomic inequalities in health: a contribution to understanding the psychosocial pathway of health inequalities. Int J Equity Health. 2013;12:54 pubmed publisher
    ..More evidence is needed, as identified hypotheses have implications for community action and for action on the structural causes of social inequalities. ..
  48. Macdonald Wallis K, Jago R, Sterne J. Social network analysis of childhood and youth physical activity: a systematic review. Am J Prev Med. 2012;43:636-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Physical activity interventions targeted at peer groups and that account for the influence of friendship groups might have utility as a means of increasing youth physical activity. ..
  49. Hutchesson M, Collins C, Morgan P, Callister R. An 8-week web-based weight loss challenge with celebrity endorsement and enhanced social support: observational study. J Med Internet Res. 2013;15:e129 pubmed publisher
    ..Initial engagement and weight loss within Web-based weight loss programs may predict long-term success. The integration of persuasive Web-based features may boost engagement and therefore weight loss...
  50. Caetano S, Silva C, Vettore M. Gender differences in the association of perceived social support and social network with self-rated health status among older adults: a population-based study in Brazil. BMC Geriatr. 2013;13:122 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, aging is frequently accompanied by reduced social support, which might affect health status...
  51. Stansfeld S, Shipley M, Head J, Fuhrer R, Kivimaki M. Work characteristics and personal social support as determinants of subjective well-being. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e81115 pubmed publisher
    ..This study examines the role of personal social support and psychosocial work environment as predictors of well-being in an occupational cohort study...
  52. Shilling V, Morris C, Thompson Coon J, Ukoumunne O, Rogers M, Logan S. Peer support for parents of children with chronic disabling conditions: a systematic review of quantitative and qualitative studies. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2013;55:602-9 pubmed publisher
    ..However, quantitative studies provide inconsistent evidence of positive effects. Further research should explore whether this dissonance is substantive or an artefact of how outcomes have been measured. ..
  53. Liu L, Pang R, Sun W, Wu M, Qu P, Lu C, et al. Functional social support, psychological capital, and depressive and anxiety symptoms among people living with HIV/AIDS employed full-time. BMC Psychiatry. 2013;13:324 pubmed publisher
    ..This study aims to explore the associations of functional social support (FSS) and psychological capital (PC) with depressive and anxiety symptoms among PLWHA employed full-time...
  54. Wongpakaran N, Wongpakaran T. A revised Thai Multi-Dimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Span J Psychol. 2012;15:1503-9 pubmed
    In order to ensure the construct validity of the three-factor model of the Multi-dimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), and based on the assumption that it helps users differentiate between sources of social support, in ..
  55. Reeve K, Shumaker C, Yearwood E, Crowell N, Riley J. Perceived stress and social support in undergraduate nursing students' educational experiences. Nurse Educ Today. 2013;33:419-24 pubmed publisher
    Nursing students experience high levels of stress. Coping mechanisms such as utilization of social support are effective in managing the effects of stress and promoting individual well-being...
  56. Vassilev I, Rogers A, Blickem C, Brooks H, Kapadia D, Kennedy A, et al. Social networks, the 'work' and work force of chronic illness self-management: a survey analysis of personal communities. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e59723 pubmed publisher
  57. Vest B, Kahn L, Danzo A, Tumiel Berhalter L, Schuster R, Karl R, et al. Diabetes self-management in a low-income population: impacts of social support and relationships with the health care system. Chronic Illn. 2013;9:145-55 pubmed publisher
    ..and barriers to successful self-management were identified in three broad areas: (1) the influence of social support networks; (2) the nature of the doctor-patient relationship; and (3) the nature of patient-health care system ..