Summary: Hostile conflict between organized groups of people.

Top Publications

  1. Pennisi E. Origins. On the origin of cooperation. Science. 2009;325:1196-9 pubmed publisher
  2. Armony Sivan R, Aviner S, Cojocaru L, Fytlovitch S, Ben Alon D, Eliassy A, et al. Prenatal maternal stress predicts cord-blood ferritin concentration. J Perinat Med. 2013;41:259-65 pubmed publisher
    ..18, P<0.05), especially in the stress group (simple slope analysis: ?=-0.32, P<0.01). Maternal stress during the first trimester of pregnancy is associated with lower cord-blood ferritin concentration. ..
  3. Refaat M, Mohanna K. Syrian refugees in Lebanon: facts and solutions. Lancet. 2013;382:763-4 pubmed publisher
  4. Webster P. Iraq's growing health crisis. Lancet. 2014;384:119-20 pubmed
  5. Butler F, Bennett B, Wedmore C. Tactical Combat Casualty Care and Wilderness Medicine: Advancing Trauma Care in Austere Environments. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2017;35:391-407 pubmed publisher
    ..unit members in TCCC have now documented the lowest incidence of preventable deaths in the history of modern warfare and TCCC is now the standard for battlefield trauma care in the US Military...
  6. Saigh P, Mroueh M, Zimmerman B, Fairbank J. Self-efficacy expectations among traumatized adolescents. Behav Res Ther. 1995;33:701-4 pubmed
    ..Non-significant differences were observed when the MSPSE subtest scores of the traumatized PTSD negatives and controls were compared. ..
  7. Thompson I, Flaherty S, Morey A. Battlefield urologic injuries: the Gulf War experience. J Am Coll Surg. 1998;187:139-41 pubmed
    ..Urologic injuries in the Gulf War primarily involved the pelvis and genitalia and were frequently managed conservatively. The prevalence of fragmentation injuries and use of the flak vest may explain this observation. ..
  8. Roberts B, Patel P, McKee M. Noncommunicable diseases and post-conflict countries. Bull World Health Organ. 2012;90:2, 2A pubmed publisher
  9. Singer P. Military robotics and ethics: a world of killer apps. Nature. 2011;477:399-401 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Casey G. Comprehensive soldier fitness: a vision for psychological resilience in the U.S. Army. Am Psychol. 2011;66:1-3 pubmed publisher
    ..CSF is not a medical treatment program. Rather, CSF helps those community members who are psychologically healthy face life's adversities-including combat and prolonged separation from loved ones-by providing evidence-based training. ..
  2. Teicher C, Ronat J, Fakhri R, Basel M, Labar A, Herard P, et al. Antimicrobial drug-resistant bacteria isolated from Syrian war-injured patients, August 2011-March 2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20:1949-51 pubmed publisher
  3. FitzGibbon G. War injuries of the face and jaws. Bristol Med Chir J (1883). 1947;64:61-7 pubmed
  4. Lunze K. Health and human rights: no miracle in postconflict Chechnya. Lancet. 2009;374:1809-10 pubmed publisher
  5. Bastian L, Sherman S. Effects of the wars on smoking among veterans. J Gen Intern Med. 2010;25:102-3 pubmed publisher
  6. Matos I. Surgery in Vukovar war. Croat Med J. 2011;52:218-20 pubmed
  7. Imaizumi M, Ohishi W, Nakashima E, Sera N, Neriishi K, Yamada M, et al. Thyroid Dysfunction and Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases Among Atomic Bomb Survivors Exposed in Childhood. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2017;102:2516-2524 pubmed publisher
    ..The cross-sectional design and survival bias were limitations of this study. ..
  8. Cirillo V. Fever and reform: the typhoid epidemic in the Spanish-American War. J Hist Med Allied Sci. 2000;55:363-97 pubmed
  9. Liu C, Urquia M, Cnattingius S, Hjern A. Migration and preterm birth in war refugees: a Swedish cohort study. Eur J Epidemiol. 2014;29:141-3 pubmed publisher
  10. Bremner J, Southwick S, Darnell A, Charney D. Chronic PTSD in Vietnam combat veterans: course of illness and substance abuse. Am J Psychiatry. 1996;153:369-75 pubmed
  11. Rezaeian M. Wars versus SARS: Are epidemiological studies biased?. Eur J Epidemiol. 2014;29:453-4 pubmed publisher
  12. Barber J, Cohen B, Rockswold P. Global health diplomacy: a call to action. Mil Med. 2011;176:481-3 pubmed
  13. Spiegel P, Checchi F, Colombo S, Paik E. Health-care needs of people affected by conflict: future trends and changing frameworks. Lancet. 2010;375:341-5 pubmed publisher
  14. Kennedy J, Michailidou D. Civil war, contested sovereignty and the limits of global health partnerships: A case study of the Syrian polio outbreak in 2013. Health Policy Plan. 2017;32:690-698 pubmed publisher
    ..Global health partnerships would be more effective in conflict-affected areas if they put in place proactive and institutionalized plans to implement their programmes in regions outside government control. ..
  15. Antonov A. Children born during the siege of Leningrad in 1942. J Pediatr. 1947;30:250-9 pubmed
  16. Cooper M, Street N. High altitude hypoxia, a mask and a Street. Donation of an aviation BLB oxygen mask apparatus from World War 2. Anaesth Intensive Care. 2017;45:45-48 pubmed
    ..Dr Street was a pioneering paediatric surgeon in Australia and served as a doctor in the Middle East and New Guinea in World War 2. He received the Military Cross. ..
  17. Ursano R, Benedek D, Engel C. Trauma-informed care for primary care: the lessons of war. Ann Intern Med. 2012;157:905-6 pubmed publisher
  18. Sweat M, Denison J. Reducing HIV incidence in developing countries with structural and environmental interventions. AIDS. 1995;9 Suppl A:S251-7 pubmed
  19. Couto T, Farhat S, Reid T, Schvartsman C. Mortality in a pediatric secondary-care hospital in post-conflict Liberia in 2009. Einstein (Sao Paulo). 2013;11:413-20 pubmed
    ..The mortality of sepsis varied among different infections. This suggests that further mortality reduction can be obtained by tackling sepsis management and improving neonatal care. ..
  20. Kropf S, Howell J. War, Medicine, and Cultural Diplomacy in the Americas: Frank Wilson and Brazilian cardiology. J Hist Med Allied Sci. 2017;72:422-447 pubmed publisher
  21. Hyams K, Bourgeois A, Merrell B, Rozmajzl P, Escamilla J, Thornton S, et al. Diarrheal disease during Operation Desert Shield. N Engl J Med. 1991;325:1423-8 pubmed
    ..Gastroenteritis caused by enterotoxigenic E. coli and shigella resistant to a number of drugs was a major problem that frequently interfered with the duties of U.S. troops during Operation Desert Shield. ..
  22. Bell K, Ristovski Slijepcevic S. Cancer survivorship: why labels matter. J Clin Oncol. 2013;31:409-11 pubmed publisher
  23. Marsh M, Purdin S, Navani S. Addressing sexual violence in humanitarian emergencies. Glob Public Health. 2006;1:133-46 pubmed publisher
  24. Cumberland S. Banning cluster munitions. Bull World Health Organ. 2009;87:8-9 pubmed
  25. . Health care systems and conflict: a fragile state of affairs. PLoS Med. 2011;8:e1001065 pubmed publisher
  26. Hotez P. The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse: Tropical Medicine in the Fight against Plague, Death, Famine, and War. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2012;87:3-10 pubmed publisher
  27. . Sri Lankans vigilant after bidding farewell to malaria. Bull World Health Organ. 2017;95:170-171 pubmed publisher
    ..Sri Lanka was certified malaria free last year. The challenge now is to maintain that status. Sophie Cousins reports. ..
  28. Schnurr P, Spiro A. Combat exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, and health behaviors as predictors of self-reported physical health in older veterans. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1999;187:353-9 pubmed
    ..We conclude that PTSD is an important predictor of physical health and encourage further investigation of health behaviors and other possible mediators of this relationship. ..
  29. Horton R. Health in the Arab world: a renewed opportunity. Lancet. 2014;383:283-4 pubmed publisher
  30. Kragh J, Dubick M, Aden J, McKeague A, Rasmussen T, Baer D, et al. U.s. Military experience with junctional wounds in war from 2001 to 2010. J Spec Oper Med. 2013;13:76-84 pubmed
    ..Opportunities for improvement which we identified included further research on the future addition of junctional codes (such as neck diagnoses) in order to align research methods to clinical care. ..
  31. Palermo T, Peterman A. Undercounting, overcounting and the longevity of flawed estimates: statistics on sexual violence in conflict. Bull World Health Organ. 2011;89:924-5 pubmed publisher
  32. Sami S, Williams H, KRAUSE S, Onyango M, Burton A, Tomczyk B. Responding to the Syrian crisis: the needs of women and girls. Lancet. 2014;383:1179-81 pubmed publisher
  33. Cetorelli V, Sasson I, Shabila N, Burnham G. Mortality and kidnapping estimates for the Yazidi population in the area of Mount Sinjar, Iraq, in August 2014: A retrospective household survey. PLoS Med. 2017;14:e1002297 pubmed publisher
    ..Consistent with other existing evidence, our data provide a clear indication of the severity of the ISIS attack against the Yazidis in terms of both the number and demographic profile of those targeted. ..
  34. Coutts A, Fouad F, Batniji R. Assessing the Syrian health crisis: the case of Lebanon. Lancet. 2013;381:e9 pubmed
  35. Iverson K, Vogt D, Maskin R, Smith B. Intimate Partner Violence Victimization and Associated Implications for Health and Functioning Among Male and Female Post-9/11 Veterans. Med Care. 2017;55 Suppl 9 Suppl 2:S78-S84 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent IPV victimization, especially psychological aggression, is a key health issue for partnered male and female post-9/11 Veterans. Practice and research implications are discussed. ..
  36. Munjiza J, Britvić D, Radman M, Crawford M. Severe war-related trauma and personality pathology: a case-control study. BMC Psychiatry. 2017;17:100 pubmed publisher
    ..Further research needs to be done to increase our understanding about the relationship between severe war trauma and personality related problems. ..
  37. Farhood L, Zurayk H, Chaya M, Saadeh F, Meshefedjian G, Sidani T. The impact of war on the physical and mental health of the family: the Lebanese experience. Soc Sci Med. 1993;36:1555-67 pubmed
    ..The role of the mediating factors of social support and social class is also discussed. ..
  38. Leaning J, Guha Sapir D. Natural disasters, armed conflict, and public health. N Engl J Med. 2013;369:1836-42 pubmed publisher
  39. Boothby N, Crawford J, Halperin J. Mozambique child soldier life outcome study: lessons learned in rehabilitation and reintegration efforts. Glob Public Health. 2006;1:87-107 pubmed publisher
    ..Activities that supported long term reintegration and self-sufficiency included community acceptance and forgiveness, traditional cleansing and healing rituals, livelihoods and apprenticeships. ..
  40. Bešić L, Muhović I, Ašić A, Kurtovic Kozaric A. Meta-analysis of depleted uranium levels in the Balkan region. J Environ Radioact. 2017;172:207-217 pubmed publisher
  41. Bruneau E, Kteily N. The enemy as animal: Symmetric dehumanization during asymmetric warfare. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0181422 pubmed publisher
    ..groups similarly dehumanize those who dominate them? We examined this question in the context of intergroup warfare in which the disadvantaged group shoulders a disproportionate share of casualties and may be especially likely to ..
  42. Summerfield D. The invention of post-traumatic stress disorder and the social usefulness of a psychiatric category. BMJ. 2001;322:95-98 pubmed
  43. McCormack J, Chmelicek J. Generic versus brand name: the other drug war. Can Fam Physician. 2014;60:911 pubmed
  44. Tansey C, Raina P, Wolfson C. Veterans' physical health. Epidemiol Rev. 2013;35:66-74 pubmed publisher
    ..The differing effects of combat on female veterans are also summarized. The healthy warrior effect is discussed along with its impact on research findings and the importance of choosing an appropriate control group. ..
  45. Arie S. Polio outbreak leads to calls for a "vaccination ceasefire" in Syria. BMJ. 2013;347:f6682 pubmed publisher
  46. Gornall J. Healthcare for Syrian refugees. BMJ. 2015;351:h4150 pubmed publisher
  47. Hotez P, Thompson T. Waging peace through neglected tropical disease control: a US foreign policy for the bottom billion. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2009;3:e346 pubmed publisher
  48. Duttine A, Hottentot E. Landmines and explosive remnants of war: a health threat not to be ignored. Bull World Health Organ. 2013;91:160-160A pubmed publisher
  49. Blackbourne L, Czarnik J, Mabry R, Eastridge B, Baer D, Butler F, et al. Decreasing killed in action and died of wounds rates in combat wounded. J Trauma. 2010;69 Suppl 1:S1-4 pubmed publisher
  50. Eichner M, Brockmann S. Polio emergence in Syria and Israel endangers Europe. Lancet. 2013;382:1777 pubmed publisher
  51. van Berlaer G, Elsafti A, Al Safadi M, Souhil Saeed S, Buyl R, Debacker M, et al. Diagnoses, infections and injuries in Northern Syrian children during the civil war: A cross-sectional study. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0182770 pubmed publisher
    ..Substandard living conditions and the lack of paediatric healthcare put Syrian children at risk for serious infections, epidemics and morbidity, and ask for urgent international humanitarian relief efforts. ..
  52. Somasundaram D, Sivayokan S. War trauma in a civilian population. Br J Psychiatry. 1994;165:524-7 pubmed
    ..The trauma experienced correlated strongly with psychosocial and somatic symptoms. ..
  53. Harper P. Human genetics in troubled times and places. Hereditas. 2018;155:7 pubmed publisher
    ..The power of modern human genetic and genomic techniques now gives a greater potential for abuse as well as for beneficial use than has ever been seen in the past. ..