torture

Summary

Summary: The intentional infliction of physical or mental suffering upon an individual or individuals, including the torture of animals.

Top Publications

  1. Johnson H, Thompson A. The development and maintenance of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in civilian adult survivors of war trauma and torture: a review. Clin Psychol Rev. 2008;28:36-47 pubmed
    ..as to the development and maintenance of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following civilian war trauma and torture. Prevalence rates are reviewed and predictors are discussed in terms of risk factors, protective factors, and ..
  2. Mollica R, Lyoo I, Chernoff M, Bui H, Lavelle J, Yoon S, et al. Brain structural abnormalities and mental health sequelae in South Vietnamese ex-political detainees who survived traumatic head injury and torture. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2009;66:1221-32 pubmed publisher
    ..reeducation camps and resettled in the United States disclosed significant mental health problems associated with torture and traumatic head injury (THI)...
  3. Sjölund B, Kastrup M, Montgomery E, Persson A. Rehabilitating torture survivors. J Rehabil Med. 2009;41:689-96 pubmed publisher
    Refugees have often been exposed to torture in their countries of origin...
  4. Isakson B, Jurkovic G. Healing after torture: the role of moving on. Qual Health Res. 2013;23:749-61 pubmed publisher
    The experience and sociocultural context of torture and its treatment have received little attention in the biopsychosocial model of Western mental health for survivors of torture...
  5. Catani C, Adenauer H, Keil J, Aichinger H, Neuner F. Pattern of cortical activation during processing of aversive stimuli in traumatized survivors of war and torture. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2009;259:340-51 pubmed publisher
    ..36 survivors of war and torture with PTSD, 21 Trauma Controls and 20 Unexposed Subjects participated in a visual evoked magnetic field study ..
  6. Basoglu M. A multivariate contextual analysis of torture and cruel, inhuman, and degrading treatments: implications for an evidence-based definition of torture. Am J Orthopsychiatry. 2009;79:135-45 pubmed publisher
    Current thinking on what constitutes torture in a detention/interrogation setting focuses solely on particular procedures, without regard for contextual factors that mediate traumatic stress...
  7. Tol W, Komproe I, Thapa S, Jordans M, Sharma B, de Jong J. Disability associated with psychiatric symptoms among torture survivors in rural Nepal. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2007;195:463-9 pubmed
    ..symptom categories (posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and depression) and disability among torture survivors...
  8. Zawati H. Impunity or immunity: wartime male rape and sexual torture as a crime against humanity. Torture. 2007;17:27-47 pubmed
    This paper seeks to analyze the phenomenon of wartime rape and sexual torture of Croatian and Iraqi men and to explore the avenues for its prosecution under international humanitarian and human rights law...
  9. Basoglu M. Rehabilitation of traumatised refugees and survivors of torture. BMJ. 2006;333:1230-1 pubmed

Scientific Experts

More Information

Publications62

  1. Stepakoff S, Hubbard J, Katoh M, Falk E, Mikulu J, Nkhoma P, et al. Trauma healing in refugee camps in Guinea: a psychosocial program for Liberian and Sierra Leonean survivors of torture and war. Am Psychol. 2006;61:921-932 pubmed publisher
    From 1999 to 2005, the Minneapolis-based Center for Victims of Torture (CVT) served Liberian and Sierra Leonean survivors of torture and war living in the refugee camps of Guinea...
  2. Olsen D, Montgomery E, Bøjholm S, Foldspang A. Prevalent musculoskeletal pain as a correlate of previous exposure to torture. Scand J Public Health. 2006;34:496-503 pubmed
    To research possible associations between previous exposure to specific torture techniques and prevalent pain in the head and face, back, and feet...
  3. Crosby S, Norredam M, Paasche Orlow M, Piwowarczyk L, Heeren T, Grodin M. Prevalence of torture survivors among foreign-born patients presenting to an urban ambulatory care practice. J Gen Intern Med. 2006;21:764-8 pubmed
    The prevalence of torture among foreign-born patients presenting to urban medical clinics is not well documented. To determine the prevalence of torture among foreign-born patients presenting to an urban primary care practice...
  4. Justo L. Doctors, interrogation, and torture. BMJ. 2006;332:1462-3 pubmed
  5. Keller A, Lhewa D, Rosenfeld B, Sachs E, Aladjem A, Cohen I, et al. Traumatic experiences and psychological distress in an urban refugee population seeking treatment services. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2006;194:188-94 pubmed
    While a growing literature has addressed the psychological consequences of torture and refugee trauma, most studies have focused on homogeneous samples drawn from a single region...
  6. Moreno A, Peel M. Posttraumatic seizures in survivors of torture: manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment. J Immigr Health. 2004;6:179-86 pubmed
    Survivors of torture are very likely to have been beaten repeatedly around the head...
  7. Annas G. Unspeakably cruel--torture, medical ethics, and the law. N Engl J Med. 2005;352:2127-32 pubmed
  8. Bloche M, Marks J. When doctors go to war. N Engl J Med. 2005;352:3-6 pubmed
  9. Norredam M, Crosby S, Munarriz R, Piwowarczyk L, Grodin M. Urologic complications of sexual trauma among male survivors of torture. Urology. 2005;65:28-32 pubmed
    To describe the urologic and sexual complications of male survivors of sexual torture, including prevalence, sequelae, diagnosis, and treatment.
  10. Iacopino V, Xenakis S. Neglect of medical evidence of torture in Guantánamo Bay: a case series. PLoS Med. 2011;8:e1001027 pubmed publisher
    ..government authorized the use of "enhanced interrogation" techniques that were previously recognized as torture. While the complicity of US health professionals in the design and implementation of US torture practices has ..
  11. Williams A, Peña C, Rice A. Persistent pain in survivors of torture: a cohort study. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2010;40:715-22 pubmed publisher
    Refugee survivors of torture in the United Kingdom have multiple problems, of which pain may be underrecognized, given the high prevalence recorded in similar populations in Denmark...
  12. Yen P. Waterboarding is not torture: a physician's response. Lancet. 2008;371:1838 pubmed publisher
  13. Tol W, Komproe I, Jordans M, Thapa S, Sharma B, de Jong J. Brief multi-disciplinary treatment for torture survivors in Nepal: a naturalistic comparative study. Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2009;55:39-56 pubmed publisher
    Little is known about the effectiveness of treatment for torture survivors in low-income settings. Multi-disciplinary treatment is an often used approach for this target group...
  14. Shoeb M, Weinstein H, Mollica R. The Harvard trauma questionnaire: adapting a cross-cultural instrument for measuring torture, trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in Iraqi refugees. Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2007;53:447-63 pubmed
    ..The methodology described proved to be a useful approach to developing a trauma measure that is culturally grounded in a multi-dimensional model of mental health. ..
  15. Green C. Politically-motivated torture and child survivors. Pediatr Nurs. 2007;33:267-70 pubmed
    ..critical that healthcare providers recognize behaviors common to children who have endured politically-motivated torture in order to create a safe and reliable treatment plan for such children and their families...
  16. Gola H, Engler H, Schauer M, Adenauer H, Riether C, Kolassa S, et al. Victims of rape show increased cortisol responses to trauma reminders: a study in individuals with war- and torture-related PTSD. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2012;37:213-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Participants were 30 survivors of war and torture, with and without rape among the traumatic events experienced. Participants of both groups (raped vs...
  17. Bradley L, Tawfiq N. The physical and psychological effects of torture in Kurds seeking asylum in the United Kingdom. Torture. 2006;16:41-7 pubmed
    ..A large proportion of these were person of Kurdish origin, many of whom claimed to have suffered torture. We sought to evaluate the physical and psychological effects of torture in those with physical injuries...
  18. Alexander A, Blake S, Bernstein M. The staying power of pain. A comparison of torture survivors from Bosnia and Colombia and their rates of anxiety, depression and PTSD. Torture. 2007;17:1-10 pubmed
    The article describes symptoms of anxiety, depression and PTSD among Bosnian (n=17) and Colombian (n=17) torture survivors served by the Florida Center for Survivors of Torture, a programme of Gulf Coast Jewish Family Services, Inc...
  19. Meyers J. Re: "Lies and coercion: why psychiatrists should not participate in police and intelligence interrogations". J Am Acad Psychiatry Law. 2007;35:137; author reply 138 pubmed
  20. Basoglu M, Livanou M, Crnobarić C. Torture vs other cruel, inhuman, and degrading treatment: is the distinction real or apparent?. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2007;64:277-85 pubmed
    ..Afghanistan, questions have been raised as to whether certain detention and interrogation procedures amount to torture. To examine the distinction between various forms of ill treatment and torture during captivity in terms of their ..
  21. Agger I, Raghuvanshi L, Shabana S, Polatin P, Laursen L. Testimonial therapy. A pilot project to improve psychological wellbeing among survivors of torture in India. Torture. 2009;19:204-17 pubmed
    In developing countries where torture is perpetrated, there are few resources for the provision of therapeutic assistance to the survivors...
  22. Ray W, Odenwald M, Neuner F, Schauer M, Ruf M, Wienbruch C, et al. Decoupling neural networks from reality: dissociative experiences in torture victims are reflected in abnormal brain waves in left frontal cortex. Psychol Sci. 2006;17:825-9 pubmed
    From a neuroscience perspective, little is known about the long-term effect of torture. Dissociative experiences and posttraumatic stress disorder are often the results of this experience...
  23. Tinta M. Legal consequences for torture in children cases: the Gomez Paquiyauri Brothers vs Peru case. Torture. 2009;19:118-31 pubmed
    ..As such it represents a landmark decision. The case arose from the illegal detention, torture and extrajudicial execution of two minors, Emilio and Rafael Gomez Paquiyauri, at the hands of Peruvian Police in ..
  24. Perera P. Physical methods of torture and their sequelae: a Sri Lankan perspective. J Forensic Leg Med. 2007;14:146-50 pubmed
    Methods of torture vary from country to country and sometimes within regions in the same country. Knowing torture methods used in a country or region assists in evaluating injuries, scars and other chronic sequelae of torture...
  25. Amone P Olak K. Torture against children in rebel captivity in Northern Uganda: physical and psychological effects and implications for clinical practice. Torture. 2009;19:102-17 pubmed
    Although torture in adults is well documented, studies that document its use against children, especially during war, are rare...
  26. Fiske S, Harris L, Cuddy A. Social psychology. Why ordinary people torture enemy prisoners. Science. 2004;306:1482-3 pubmed
  27. Amris K, Torp Pedersen S, Rasmussen O. Long-term consequences of falanga torture--what do we know and what do we need to know?. Torture. 2009;19:33-40 pubmed
    ..consequences of falanga are probably the best described consequences of exposure to specific forms of physical torture. Theories about casual lesions in the peripheral tissues of the feet have been put forward based on clinical ..
  28. Bloche M, Marks J. Doctors and interrogators at Guantanamo Bay. N Engl J Med. 2005;353:6-8 pubmed
  29. Torp Pedersen S, Amris K, Holm C, Kønig M, Prip K, Danneskiold Samsøe B. Vascular response to ischemia in the feet of falanga torture victims and normal controls--color and spectral Doppler findings. Torture. 2009;19:12-8 pubmed
    To investigate whether signs of chronic compartment syndrome could be found in plantar muscles of falanga torture victims with painful feet and impaired gait...
  30. Adenauer H, Catani C, Keil J, Aichinger H, Neuner F. Is freezing an adaptive reaction to threat? Evidence from heart rate reactivity to emotional pictures in victims of war and torture. Psychophysiology. 2010;47:315-22 pubmed publisher
    ..experiences on the defense cascade in response to affective pictures was examined in survivors of war and torture. Trauma-exposed refugees with and without Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) as well as healthy individuals ..
  31. Quiroga J. Torture in children. Torture. 2009;19:66-87 pubmed
    This is a review article that studies the problem of torture in children. Torture in children is a significant worldwide problem, but there are no official or reliable independent statistics to measure the magnitude of the problem...
  32. Steel Z, Chey T, Silove D, Marnane C, Bryant R, van Ommeren M. Association of torture and other potentially traumatic events with mental health outcomes among populations exposed to mass conflict and displacement: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA. 2009;302:537-49 pubmed publisher
    Uncertainties continue about the roles that methodological factors and key risk factors, particularly torture and other potentially traumatic events (PTEs), play in the variation of reported prevalence rates of posttraumatic stress ..
  33. McFarlane C, Kaplan I. Evidence-based psychological interventions for adult survivors of torture and trauma: a 30-year review. Transcult Psychiatry. 2012;49:539-67 pubmed
    In this paper we review research evidence on psychosocial interventions for adult survivors of torture and trauma. We identified 40 studies from 1980 to 2010 that investigated interventions for adult survivors of torture and trauma...
  34. Bolton P, Michalopoulos L, Ahmed A, Murray L, Bass J. The mental health and psychosocial problems of survivors of torture and genocide in Kurdistan, Northern Iraq: a brief qualitative study. Torture. 2013;23:1-14 pubmed
    ..to as the Anfal, included systematic attacks consisting of aerial bombings, mass deportation, imprisonment, torture, and chemical warfare. It has been estimated that around 200,000 Kurdish people disappeared...
  35. Prip K, Persson A. Clinical findings in men with chronic pain after falanga torture. Clin J Pain. 2008;24:135-41 pubmed publisher
    To explore clinical findings in men with chronic pain after falanga torture as compared with controls, and to try to understand the nature of the pain mechanisms responsible...
  36. Rasmussen A, Rosenfeld B, Reeves K, Keller A. The effects of torture-related injuries on long-term psychological distress in a Punjabi Sikh sample. J Abnorm Psychol. 2007;116:734-40 pubmed
    b>Torture survivors often report chronic debilitating physical and psychological distress. Prior research on the relationship between physical and psychological trauma suggests that the 2 are not independent...
  37. Deighton R, Gurris N, Traue H. Factors affecting burnout and compassion fatigue in psychotherapists treating torture survivors: is the therapist's attitude to working through trauma relevant?. J Trauma Stress. 2007;20:63-75 pubmed
    In this study, a group of trauma therapists (N = 100) working with torture survivors was investigated with respect to the extent to which they advocated and practiced working through traumatic events as well as levels of symptomatology ..
  38. Rubenstein L, Pross C, Davidoff F, Iacopino V. Coercive US interrogation policies: a challenge to medical ethics. JAMA. 2005;294:1544-9 pubmed
  39. Mills E, Singh S, Roach B, Chong S. Prevalence of mental disorders and torture among Bhutanese refugees in Nepal: a systemic review and its policy implications. Med Confl Surviv. 2008;24:5-15 pubmed publisher
    ..contacted researchers at the United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) and at the Centre for Victims of Torture, Kathmandu, and searched the websites of Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch, Relief-Web, and the US State ..
  40. Oosterhoff P, Zwanikken P, Ketting E. Sexual torture of men in Croatia and other conflict situations: an open secret. Reprod Health Matters. 2004;12:68-77 pubmed
    Sexual torture constitutes any act of sexual violence which qualifies as torture. Public awareness of the widespread use of sexual torture as a weapon of war greatly increased after the war in the former Yugoslavia in the early 1990s...
  41. Halepota A, Wasif S. Hopkins Symptoms Checklist 25(HSCL-25) Urdu translation: an instrument for detecting anxiety and depression in torture and trauma victims. J Pak Med Assoc. 2001;51:255-7 pubmed
    The two major psychiatric illnesses associated with trauma and torture are major depression and post-traumatic stress disorder...
  42. Lykke J, Timilsena M. Evidence of torture in the mid west region of Nepal. Dan Med Bull. 2002;49:159-62 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to find evidence of torture in the Mid West Region of Nepal...
  43. Mollica R, Caspi Yavin Y, Bollini P, Truong T, Tor S, Lavelle J. The Harvard Trauma Questionnaire. Validating a cross-cultural instrument for measuring torture, trauma, and posttraumatic stress disorder in Indochinese refugees. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1992;180:111-6 pubmed
    There are no valid and reliable cross-cultural instruments capable of measuring torture, trauma, and trauma-related symptoms associated with the DSM-III-R diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)...
  44. Mollica R, McInnes K, Sarajlic N, Lavelle J, Sarajlić I, Massagli M. Disability associated with psychiatric comorbidity and health status in Bosnian refugees living in Croatia. JAMA. 1999;282:433-9 pubmed
    ..Respondents reported a mean (SD) of 6.5 (4.7) unduplicated trauma events; 18% (n=95) had experienced 1 or more torture events. While 55.2% reported no psychiatric symptoms, 39.2% and 26...
  45. Eisenman D, Keller A, Kim G. Survivors of torture in a general medical setting: how often have patients been tortured, and how often is it missed?. West J Med. 2000;172:301-4 pubmed
    To measure the frequency of people reporting torture among patients in a medical outpatient clinic and to determine primary care physicians' awareness of their patients' exposure to torture...
  46. Halepota A, Wasif S. Harvard Trauma Questionnaire Urdu translation: the only cross-culturally validated screening instrument for the assessment of trauma and torture and their sequelae. J Pak Med Assoc. 2001;51:285-90 pubmed
    ..Trauma and torture leaves a permanent scar on the survivor. It has physical, psychological and social sequelae...
  47. Moreno A, Grodin M. Torture and its neurological sequelae. Spinal Cord. 2002;40:213-23 pubmed
    ..Some have estimated that between 5-35% of all refugees have suffered torture in their countries of origin...
  48. Hollifield M, Warner T, Lian N, Krakow B, Jenkins J, Kesler J, et al. Measuring trauma and health status in refugees: a critical review. JAMA. 2002;288:611-21 pubmed
    ..Primary limitations to accurate measurement in refugee research are the lack of theoretical bases to instruments and inattention to using and reporting sound measurement principles. ..
  49. van Ommeren M, Sharma B, Sharma G, Komproe I, Cardena E, de Jong J. The relationship between somatic and PTSD symptoms among Bhutanese refugee torture survivors: examination of comorbidity with anxiety and depression. J Trauma Stress. 2002;15:415-21 pubmed
    ..N. refugee camps in Nepal. The interview covered demographics, torture, somatic complaints, and PTSD, depression, and anxiety measures...
  50. Emmelkamp J, Komproe I, Van Ommeren M, Schagen S. The relation between coping, social support and psychological and somatic symptoms among torture survivors in Nepal. Psychol Med. 2002;32:1465-70 pubmed
    ..about the relation between coping, social support, and psychological and somatic symptoms among survivors of torture living outside the West...
  51. Summerfield D. Fighting "terrorism" with torture. BMJ. 2003;326:773-4 pubmed
  52. Altun G, Durmus Altun G. Confirmation of alleged falanga torture by bone scintigraphy-Case report. Int J Legal Med. 2003;117:365-6 pubmed
    Any objective persisting signs of previous torture would be very valuable in the late assessment of the individual claiming such abuse of human rights...
  53. Lifton R. Doctors and torture. N Engl J Med. 2004;351:415-6 pubmed