city planning


Summary: Comprehensive planning for the physical development of the city.

Top Publications

  1. Ewing R, Schmid T, Killingsworth R, Zlot A, Raudenbush S. Relationship between urban sprawl and physical activity, obesity, and morbidity. Am J Health Promot. 2003;18:47-57 pubmed
    ..More research is needed to refine measures of urban form, improve measures of physical activity, and control for other individual and environmental influences on physical activity, obesity, and related health outcomes. ..
  2. Green G. Intersectoral planning for city health development. J Urban Health. 2012;89:247-57 pubmed publisher
    ..More work is required to utilize cost-benefit analysis and health impact assessment to unmask the synergies between health and economic prosperity. ..
  3. Fuller R, Gaston K. The scaling of green space coverage in European cities. Biol Lett. 2009;5:352-5 pubmed publisher
    ..As cities grow, interactions between people and nature depend increasingly on landscape quality outside formal green space networks, such as street plantings, or the size, composition and management of backyards and gardens. ..
  4. Stevenson A, Banwell K, Pink R. Greater Christchurch Draft Urban Development Strategy 2005. N S W Public Health Bull. 2007;18:182-4 pubmed
    ..We concluded that HIA is a useful tool for local government policy analysts and we recommend it. ..
  5. Jeon J, Lee P, You J, Kang J. Perceptual assessment of quality of urban soundscapes with combined noise sources and water sounds. J Acoust Soc Am. 2010;127:1357-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, water sounds were determined to be the best sounds to use for enhancing the urban soundscape. The level of the water sounds should be similar to or not less than 3 dB below the level of the urban noises. ..
  6. Carnoske C, Hoehner C, Ruthmann N, Frank L, Handy S, Hill J, et al. Developer and realtor perspectives on factors that influence development, sale, and perceived demand for activity-friendly communities. J Phys Act Health. 2010;7 Suppl 1:S48-59 pubmed
    ..Respondents reported consumers are more interested in living in a TND than 5 years ago. Activity-friendly TNDs appear to be increasing in demand, but developers and realtors reported significant barriers to creating these communities. ..
  7. Ogilvie D, Bull F, Powell J, Cooper A, Brand C, Mutrie N, et al. An applied ecological framework for evaluating infrastructure to promote walking and cycling: the iConnect study. Am J Public Health. 2011;101:473-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Our framework guides study design and analysis by specifying the most important data to be collected and relations to be tested to confirm or refute specific hypotheses and thereby refine the underlying theories. ..
  8. Pilkington P, Grant M, Orme J. Promoting integration of the health and built environment agendas through a workforce development initiative. Public Health. 2008;122:545-51 pubmed publisher
    ..It documents a number of responses to the issues that have arisen, as well as suggesting ways forward and future work that can help to bring public health and built environment professionals closer together for the benefit of society. ..
  9. Botchwey N, Hobson S, Dannenberg A, Mumford K, Contant C, McMillan T, et al. A model curriculum for a course on the built environment and public health: training for an interdisciplinary workforce. Am J Prev Med. 2009;36:S63-71 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Durand C, Andalib M, Dunton G, Wolch J, Pentz M. A systematic review of built environment factors related to physical activity and obesity risk: implications for smart growth urban planning. Obes Rev. 2011;12:e173-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Future smart growth community planning could focus more directly on health, and future research should explore whether combinations or a critical mass of smart growth features is associated with better population health outcomes. ..
  2. Irwin E, Bockstael N. The evolution of urban sprawl: evidence of spatial heterogeneity and increasing land fragmentation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:20672-7 pubmed
    ..In particular, proximity to the Chesapeake Bay is negatively associated with fragmentation, suggesting that an attraction effect associated with this natural amenity has concentrated development. ..
  3. Mitra R, Buliung R, Faulkner G. Spatial clustering and the temporal mobility of walking school trips in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada. Health Place. 2010;16:646-55 pubmed publisher
    ..The evidence suggests that interventions to increase active school transportation need to acknowledge spatial and temporal differences in walking behavior. ..
  4. Dahmann N, Wolch J, Joassart Marcelli P, Reynolds K, Jerrett M. The active city? Disparities in provision of urban public recreation resources. Health Place. 2010;16:431-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Such disparities may increase health risks among populations in such communities. Urban planners and public health advocates should enhance recreation programs in lower-income non-white communities. ..
  5. Burbidge S. Merging long range transportation planning with public health: a case study from Utah's Wasatch Front. Prev Med. 2010;50 Suppl 1:S6-8 pubmed publisher
  6. Saelens B, Handy S. Built environment correlates of walking: a review. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2008;40:S550-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Although prospective studies are needed, evidence on correlates appears sufficient to support policy changes. ..
  7. Allender S, Cavill N, Parker M, Foster C. 'Tell us something we don't already know or do!' - The response of planning and transport professionals to public health guidance on the built environment and physical activity. J Public Health Policy. 2009;30:102-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Evidence-based health guidance could be a powerful driver affecting planning practice, but other legislated planning guidance may take priority for planning and transport professionals. ..
  8. Leyden K. Social capital and the built environment: the importance of walkable neighborhoods. Am J Public Health. 2003;93:1546-51 pubmed
    ..Walkable, mixed-use neighborhood designs can encourage the development of social capital. ..
  9. Litman T. Integrating public health objectives in transportation decision-making. Am J Health Promot. 2003;18:103-8 pubmed
    ..Raising the priority of health objectives supports planning reforms that result in a more balanced transportation system. Integrating health objectives into transportation planning may be a cost-effective way to improve public health. ..
  10. Lenne M, Corben B, Stephan K. Traffic signal phasing at intersections to improve safety for alcohol-affected pedestrians. Accid Anal Prev. 2007;39:751-6 pubmed
  11. Koepsell T, McCloskey L, Wolf M, Moudon A, Buchner D, Kraus J, et al. Crosswalk markings and the risk of pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions in older pedestrians. JAMA. 2002;288:2136-43 pubmed
    ..Crosswalk markings appear associated with increased risk of pedestrian-motor vehicle collision to older pedestrians at sites where no signal or stop sign is present to halt traffic. ..
  12. Pulugurtha S, Krishnakumar V, Nambisan S. New methods to identify and rank high pedestrian crash zones: an illustration. Accid Anal Prev. 2007;39:800-11 pubmed
    ..Thus, these composite methods are recommended for use in ranking high pedestrian crash zones instead of individual methods. ..
  13. Dannenberg A, Jackson R, Frumkin H, Schieber R, Pratt M, Kochtitzky C, et al. The impact of community design and land-use choices on public health: a scientific research agenda. Am J Public Health. 2003;93:1500-8 pubmed
    ..The next steps are to define priorities and obtain resources. The proposed research will help identify the best practices for designing new communities and revitalizing old ones in ways that promote physical and mental health. ..
  14. Saelens B, Sallis J, Frank L. Environmental correlates of walking and cycling: findings from the transportation, urban design, and planning literatures. Ann Behav Med. 2003;25:80-91 pubmed
    ..The transportation, urban design, and planning literatures provide a valuable starting point for multidisciplinary research on environmental contributions to physical activity levels in the population. ..
  15. Northridge M, Sclar E, Biswas P. Sorting out the connections between the built environment and health: a conceptual framework for navigating pathways and planning healthy cities. J Urban Health. 2003;80:556-68 pubmed
    ..We contend that to plan for healthy cities, we need to reinvigorate the historic link between urban planning and public health, and thereby conduct informed science to better guide effective public policy. ..
  16. Saelens B, Sallis J, Black J, Chen D. Neighborhood-based differences in physical activity: an environment scale evaluation. Am J Public Health. 2003;93:1552-8 pubmed
    ..The reliability and validity of self-reported neighborhood environment subscales were supported. Neighborhood environment was associated with physical activity and overweight prevalence. ..
  17. Retting R, Ferguson S, McCartt A. A review of evidence-based traffic engineering measures designed to reduce pedestrian-motor vehicle crashes. Am J Public Health. 2003;93:1456-63 pubmed
    ..Our review, which emphasized inclusion of studies with adequate methodological designs, showed that modification of the built environment can substantially reduce the risk of pedestrian-vehicle crashes. ..
  18. Handy S, Boarnet M, Ewing R, Killingsworth R. How the built environment affects physical activity: views from urban planning. Am J Prev Med. 2002;23:64-73 pubmed
    ..In addition, detailed data on the built environment must be spatially matched to detailed data on travel behavior. ..
  19. Giles Corti B, Knuiman M, Timperio A, Van Niel K, Pikora T, Bull F, et al. Evaluation of the implementation of a state government community design policy aimed at increasing local walking: design issues and baseline results from RESIDE, Perth Western Australia. Prev Med. 2008;46:46-54 pubmed
  20. Twiss J, Dickinson J, Duma S, Kleinman T, Paulsen H, Rilveria L. Community gardens: lessons learned from California Healthy Cities and Communities. Am J Public Health. 2003;93:1435-8 pubmed
  21. Pucher J, Dijkstra L. Promoting safe walking and cycling to improve public health: lessons from The Netherlands and Germany. Am J Public Health. 2003;93:1509-16 pubmed
    ..A wide range of measures are available to improve the safety of walking and cycling in American cities, both to reduce fatalities and injuries and to encourage walking and cycling. ..
  22. Sallis J, Cervero R, Ascher W, Henderson K, Kraft M, Kerr J. An ecological approach to creating active living communities. Annu Rev Public Health. 2006;27:297-322 pubmed
    ..Collaborations with policy researchers may improve the likelihood of translating research findings into changes in environments, policies, and practices. ..
  23. Gomm M, Lincoln P, Pikora T, Giles Corti B. Planning and implementing a community-based public health advocacy campaign: a transport case study from Australia. Health Promot Int. 2006;21:284-92 pubmed
    ..The case study demonstrates the value of a well-planned campaign and including public health advocacy in public health practice, as an important strategy to facilitate the creation of healthy environments through healthy public policy. ..
  24. Giles Corti B, Donovan R. The relative influence of individual, social and physical environment determinants of physical activity. Soc Sci Med. 2002;54:1793-812 pubmed
    ..Given the popularity of walking in the community, it is recommended that greater emphasis be placed on creating streetscapes that enhance walking for recreation and transport. ..
  25. Srdjević Z, Lakicevic M, Srdjevic B. Approach of decision making based on the analytic hierarchy process for urban landscape management. Environ Manage. 2013;51:777-85 pubmed publisher
    ..The central idea of this paper can be understood in a broader sense and easily applied to other decision making problems in various scientific fields. ..
  26. Galante F, Mauriello F, Montella A, Pernetti M, Aria M, D Ambrosio A. Traffic calming along rural highways crossing small urban communities: driving simulator experiment. Accid Anal Prev. 2010;42:1585-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, combined results of cluster analysis and statistical tests showed that the treatments were more effective in the direction with higher speeds in the base scenario. ..
  27. BenDor T, Stewart A. Land use planning and social equity in North Carolina's compensatory wetland and stream mitigation programs. Environ Manage. 2011;47:239-53 pubmed publisher
    ..We make recommendations for ways that regulators incorporate growth indicators into the mitigation planning process. ..
  28. Salmond J, Tadaki M, Vardoulakis S, Arbuthnott K, Coutts A, Demuzere M, et al. Health and climate related ecosystem services provided by street trees in the urban environment. Environ Health. 2016;15 Suppl 1:36 pubmed publisher
  29. Chin G, Van Niel K, Giles Corti B, Knuiman M. Accessibility and connectivity in physical activity studies: the impact of missing pedestrian data. Prev Med. 2008;46:41-5 pubmed
    ..It is critical that future studies incorporate pedestrian networks into their analyses. ..
  30. Albert D, Liu L. The effect of buildings on acoustic pulse propagation in an urban environment. J Acoust Soc Am. 2010;127:1335-46 pubmed publisher
    ..The FDTD method also produced good agreement with many of the measured waveform characteristics. ..
  31. Gulgun B, Yörük I, Turkyilmaz B, Bolca M, Güneş A. Determination of the effects of temporal change in urban and agricultural land uses as seen in the example of the town of Akhisar, using remote sensing techniques. Environ Monit Assess. 2009;150:427-36 pubmed publisher
    ..449 km(2) occupied in 1939, in the year 2000 this had risen to 1.9472 and 2.3238 km(2) in the year 2007. This planless urbanization in the study area has led to great losses of farmland. ..
  32. Brown R, Keath N, Wong T. Urban water management in cities: historical, current and future regimes. Water Sci Technol. 2009;59:847-55 pubmed publisher
    ..From a research perspective it can be an underpinning framework for future work on transitions policy research. ..
  33. Meresman S, Rice M, Vizzotti C, Frassia R, Vizzotti P, Akerman M. Contributions for repositioning a regional strategy for Healthy Municipalities, Cities and Communities (HM&C): results of a pan-American survey. J Urban Health. 2010;87:740-54 pubmed publisher
  34. Hughes J, Kemp L. Building health impact assessment capacity as a lever for healthy public policy in urban planning. N S W Public Health Bull. 2007;18:192-4 pubmed
    ..A conceptual framework to guide understanding of capacity building evolved during a three-year capacity building project that supported the implementation of HIA. This is also applicable to the broader agenda of healthy public policy. ..
  35. Maas J, Verheij R, de Vries S, Spreeuwenberg P, Schellevis F, Groenewegen P. Morbidity is related to a green living environment. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2009;63:967-73 pubmed publisher
    ..The study stresses the importance of green space close to home for children and lower socioeconomic groups. ..
  36. Pan Y, Xiao H, Yu Z. [Spatial evaluation on ecological and aesthetic quality of Beijing agricultural landscape]. Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao. 2009;20:2455-60 pubmed
    ..To construct a large-scale integrated index system based on remote sensing data and landscape indices would have significance in evaluating the spatial variation of agricultural landscape quality. ..
  37. Ashton P. "This villa life": town planning, suburbs and the "new social order" in early twentieth-century Sydney. Plan Perspect. 2010;25:457-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Reformist and radical features of town planning were stripped from suburban agendas. Suburbs, once held up as the cradle of the 'new social order', were to become places for quarantining class and reinvigorating liberalism. ..
  38. Acero J, Simon A, Padro A, Santa Coloma O. Impact of local urban design and traffic restrictions on air quality in a medium-sized town. Environ Technol. 2012;33:2467-77 pubmed
    ..Consequently, urban planners should consider all these aspects when dealing with urban air pollution control. ..
  39. De Ville K, Sparrow S. Zoning, urban planning, and the public health practitioner. J Public Health Manag Pract. 2008;14:313-6 pubmed publisher
  40. Zhang P, Hu Y, Xiong Z, Liu M. [Variation pattern and its affecting factors of three-dimensional landscape in urban residential community of Shenyang]. Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao. 2011;22:453-9 pubmed
    ..Population growth and economic development had positive correlations with floor area rate, road density, and greening rate, but negative correlation with building coverage rate. ..
  41. Cupers K. The expertise of participation: mass housing and urban planning in post-war France. Plan Perspect. 2011;26:29-53 pubmed publisher
    ..The last part of the article looks at the concrete influence of ideas of participation on subsequent urban policies during the 1970s. ..
  42. Li Y, Xiao D, Gao Q, Hu Z, Zhou R, Hu Y. [Urban landscape functional regionalization and development strategy in Shenyang City]. Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao. 2007;18:2821-6 pubmed
    ..In ecological barrier region, the ecological environment was in instability, where the protection and production should be dealt with equally. ..
  43. Quon Huber M, Van Egeren L, Pierce S, Foster Fishman P. GIS applications for community-based research and action: mapping change in a community-building initiative. J Prev Interv Community. 2009;37:5-20 pubmed publisher
    ..We explore the benefits and challenges of using GIS with community audiences and highlight additional quantitative analysis tools for future use in this ongoing initiative. ..
  44. Abdullah S, Hezri A. From forest landscape to agricultural landscape in the developing tropical country of Malaysia: pattern, process, and their significance on policy. Environ Manage. 2008;42:907-17 pubmed publisher
    ..The final section outlines the usefulness of landscape analysis in the policy-making process to prevent further fragmentation of the landscape and forest loss in Malaysia in the face of rapid economic development. ..
  45. Gao K, Zhou Z, Yang Y, Li H. [Characteristics and changes of landscape pattern in Wuhan City based on Ripley's K function]. Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao. 2010;21:2621-6 pubmed
    ..Ripley's K function was proved to be an efficient means for analyzing landscape pattern in different scales, and fit for the supplement and support of landscape metrics. ..
  46. Hu W, Donnell E. Median barrier crash severity: some new insights. Accid Anal Prev. 2010;42:1697-704 pubmed publisher
  47. Hu A, Acosta A, McDaniel A, Gittelsohn J. Community perspectives on barriers and strategies for promoting locally grown produce from an urban agriculture farm. Health Promot Pract. 2013;14:69-74 pubmed publisher
    ..These community perspectives can provide insights for those promoting healthy eating in urban African American communities through urban food security projects. ..
  48. Sugiyama T, Neuhaus M, Cole R, Giles Corti B, Owen N. Destination and route attributes associated with adults' walking: a review. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2012;44:1275-86 pubmed publisher
    ..To better inform initiatives to promote adults' walking in the planning and transport sectors, future studies need to examine how accessible such destinations should be, as well as the effect of the quality of recreational destinations. ..
  49. Rosenberg D, Ding D, Sallis J, Kerr J, Norman G, Durant N, et al. Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale for Youth (NEWS-Y): reliability and relationship with physical activity. Prev Med. 2009;49:213-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The NEWS-Y has acceptable reliability and subscales were significantly correlated with specific types of youth PA. The NEWS-Y can be used to examine neighborhood environment correlates of youth PA. ..
  50. Yannis G, Weijermars W, Gitelman V, Vis M, Chaziris A, Papadimitriou E, et al. Road safety performance indicators for the interurban road network. Accid Anal Prev. 2013;60:384-95 pubmed publisher
    ..The proposed method has some limitations and could be further improved. The paper presents directions for further research to further develop the SPI. ..
  51. Masucci A, Stanilov K, Batty M. Limited urban growth: London's street network dynamics since the 18th century. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e69469 pubmed publisher
  52. Ozmen O, Tian Z, Gibby A. Safety of the Las Vegas left-turn display. Accid Anal Prev. 2014;62:95-101 pubmed publisher
    ..Before and after studies were conducted using the crash data from 10 intersections. Results from the analyses indicated that no obvious safety concerns due to use of the special display. ..
  53. Siña M, Wood R, Saldarriaga E, Lawler J, Zunt J, Garcia P, et al. Understanding Perceptions of Climate Change, Priorities, and Decision-Making among Municipalities in Lima, Peru to Better Inform Adaptation and Mitigation Planning. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0147201 pubmed publisher
    ..Different aspects of increased climate change awareness seem to be connected to having experienced extreme weather events, whether related or not to climate change, and to higher socioeconomic status. ..