Summary: A system of government in which there is free and equal participation by the people in the political decision-making process.

Top Publications

  1. Lindenfors P, Jansson F, Sandberg M. The cultural evolution of democracy: saltational changes in a political regime landscape. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e28270 pubmed publisher
    Transitions to democracy are most often considered the outcome of historical modernization processes...
  2. Safaei J. Is democracy good for health?. Int J Health Serv. 2006;36:767-86 pubmed
    ..This study investigates the effect of democracy (or lack thereof) along with socioeconomic factors on population health...
  3. Franco A, Alvarez Dardet C, Ruiz M. Effect of democracy on health: ecological study. BMJ. 2004;329:1421-3 pubmed
  4. Holm S, Harris J. Free speech, democracy, and eugenics. J Med Ethics. 2004;30:519 pubmed
  5. Corbellini G. Scientists, bioethics and democracy: the Italian case and its meanings. J Med Ethics. 2007;33:349-52 pubmed
    ..are spreading the absurd and anti-historical view that scientific and technological advancements are threatening democracy and personal freedom...
  6. Shiffman J, Wu Y. Norms in tension: democracy and efficiency in Bangladeshi health and population sector reform. Soc Sci Med. 2003;57:1547-57 pubmed
    ..and effectiveness, reformers have paid insufficient attention to the process-oriented norms of sovereignty and democracy. As a result, citizens of sovereign states have been largely excluded from the deliberative process...
  7. Reilly R, McKee M. 'Decipio': examining Virchow in the context of modern 'democracy'. Public Health. 2012;126:303-7 pubmed publisher
    More than 100 years ago Rudolf Virchow advocated for enhanced democracy and socioeconomic reforms in order that the state could empower people to achieve better health...
  8. Rychetnik L, Carter S, Abelson J, Thornton H, Barratt A, Entwistle V, et al. Enhancing citizen engagement in cancer screening through deliberative democracy. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2013;105:380-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Deliberative democracy methods engage citizens in dialogue on substantial and complex problems: especially when evidence and values are ..
  9. Ruger J. Democracy and health. QJM. 2005;98:299-304 pubmed

More Information


  1. Kim S, Wall I, Stanczyk A, de Vries R. Assessing the public's views in research ethics controversies: deliberative democracy and bioethics as natural allies. J Empir Res Hum Res Ethics. 2009;4:3-16 pubmed publisher
    In a liberal democracy, policy decisions regarding ethical controversies, including those in research ethics, should incorporate the opinions of its citizens. Eliciting informed and well-considered ethical opinions can be challenging...
  2. Ncayiyana D. Is democracy good for people's health? A South African perspective. BMJ. 2004;329:1425-6 pubmed
  3. McKee M, Nolte E. Lessons from health during the transition from communism. BMJ. 2004;329:1428-9 pubmed
  4. Rosenberg A, Halpern M, Shulman S, Wexler C, Phartiyal P. Reinvigorating the role of science in democracy. PLoS Biol. 2013;11:e1001553 pubmed publisher
    ..The Center for Science and Democracy, a new initiative at the Union of Concerned Scientists, endeavors to change this dynamic to strengthen the role ..
  5. Shandra J, Nobles J, London B, Williamson J. Dependency, democracy, and infant mortality: a quantitative, cross-national analysis of less developed countries. Soc Sci Med. 2004;59:321-33 pubmed
    ..Subsequent analysis incorporating interaction effects suggest that the level of political democracy conditions the effects of dependency relationships based upon exports, investments from multinational ..
  6. Cooper D, Morroni C, Orner P, Moodley J, Harries J, Cullingworth L, et al. Ten years of democracy in South Africa: documenting transformation in reproductive health policy and status. Reprod Health Matters. 2004;12:70-85 pubmed
    The advent of democracy in South Africa in 1994 created a unique opportunity for new lows and policies to be passed...
  7. Lutz W, Cuaresma J, Abbasi Shavazi M. Demography, Education, and Democracy: global trends and the case of Iran. Popul Dev Rev. 2010;36:253-81 pubmed
    ..120 countries since 1970 are used to assess the global relationship between improvements in human capital and democracy. Democracy is measured by the Freedom House indicator of political rights...
  8. Hussein G. Democracy: the forgotten challenge for bioethics in the developing countries. BMC Med Ethics. 2009;10:3 pubmed publisher
    ..To achieve that, the article is proposing a practical framework for facilitating the development of the field of bioethics in the developing countries. ..
  9. Mathur S, Schmidt C. An open democracy. Mol Cancer. 2007;6:43 pubmed
    ..Governments are granted a privilege to collect, store and use such information to perform necessary tasks. How far does governmental privilege go relative to the intrinsic right of citizens to access and evaluate information? ..
  10. Wainwright C. Tyranny of democracies. N Z Med J. 2006;119:U2068 pubmed
  11. Gibson D. The gaps in the gaze in South African hospitals. Soc Sci Med. 2004;59:2013-24 pubmed
    ..It also militates against neutral policy objectives, consistent surveillance or a homogenised system of care. ..
  12. Campos G. [An anti-Taylor approach: the invention of a method for the cogovernance of health care institutions in order to produce freedom and compromise]. Cad Saude Publica. 1998;14:863-70 pubmed
  13. MacKenzie R. The Mongolia experience: transitioning within transition. Adolesc Med State Art Rev. 2009;20:1026-35, xii-xiii pubmed
    Although Mongolia has a long and distinguished history, as a new and emerging democracy it is experiencing the pains of transition-one that is moving the country from its pastoral and nomadic past into the 21st century...
  14. Beckfield J, Krieger N. Epi + demos + cracy: linking political systems and priorities to the magnitude of health inequities--evidence, gaps, and a research agenda. Epidemiol Rev. 2009;31:152-77 pubmed publisher
    ..g., life course, historical generation), choice of health outcomes, inclusion of polities, and specification of political mechanisms-to address the enormous gaps in knowledge that were identified. ..
  15. Tobbell D. "Who's winning the human race?"Cold war as pharmaceutical political strategy. J Hist Med Allied Sci. 2009;64:429-73 pubmed publisher
    ..This strategy proved critical to the industry's efforts to build political support for itself, particularly among the medical profession, and undermine Kefauver's reform agenda. ..
  16. de Vries R, Stanczyk A, Ryan K, Kim S. A framework for assessing the quality of democratic deliberation: enhancing deliberation as a tool for bioethics. J Empir Res Hum Res Ethics. 2011;6:3-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Implications and limitations of the paper are also discussed. ..
  17. Hillen T, Schaub R, Hiestermann A, Kirschner W, Robra B. Self rating of health is associated with stressful life events, social support and residency in East and West Berlin shortly after the fall of the wall. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2000;54:575-80 pubmed on self rated health seemed to be weaker in a former socialist society compared with that of a Western democracy. This study supports an "additive model" rather than a "buffering model" in explaining the ..
  18. Lecellier C. [The democratic side of science-fiction]. Med Sci (Paris). 2011;27:433-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we contend that science fiction has major assets that could face this challenge and facilitate the dialogue between sciences and society. ..
  19. Kotalik J. Examining the suitability of the principle of subsidiarity for bioethics. Kennedy Inst Ethics J. 2010;20:371-90 pubmed
    ..the only principle that addresses the issue of locus of decision making; it is strongly linked to human dignity, democracy, and solidarity; and it can assist in reaching agreements on the common good...
  20. Oakley J. Editorial. Monash Bioeth Rev. 2002;21:1-2 pubmed
  21. Graham I. Developing health and social care under the reforms of Tony Blair and Clement Attlee, Prime Ministers of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. J Allied Health. 2004;33:42-6 pubmed
    ..public have come to see the NHS and its free health care as a fundamental human right and a cornerstone to their democracy, and subsequent governments have been understandably reluctant to change or reform this popular program...
  22. Conradt L, Roper T. Group decision-making in animals. Nature. 2003;421:155-8 pubmed
    ..Here, we model the fitness consequences of two possible decision-making mechanisms: 'despotism' and 'democracy'...
  23. Bailey A. How personal is the political? Democratic revolution and fertility decline. J Fam Hist. 2009;34:407-25 pubmed
    ..Results demonstrate that popular democratic revolutions -- but not institutionalized democratic structures -- predict the timing of the onset of fertility decline. ..
  24. Alubo O. Breaking the wall of silence: AIDS policy and politics in Nigeria. Int J Health Serv. 2002;32:551-66 pubmed
    ..The author suggests that the new democratic government needs to go beyond professed commitment to demonstrable action to halt the spread and address social and other impacts of the epidemic. ..
  25. Betts C. Nursing and the reality of politics. Nurs Inq. 2009;16:261-72 pubmed publisher
  26. Mackenbach J, McKee M. Government, politics and health policy: A quantitative analysis of 30 European countries. Health Policy. 2015;119:1298-308 pubmed publisher
    ..a wide range of process and outcome indicators of health policy and four groups of political factors (levels of democracy, e.g. voice and accountability; political representation, e.g. voter turnout; distribution of power, e.g...
  27. Watts R, Diemer M, Voight A. Critical consciousness: current status and future directions. New Dir Child Adolesc Dev. 2011;2011:43-57 pubmed publisher
    ..They highlight promising research related to these constructs and innovative applied work including youth action-research methodology. Their conclusion offers ideas for closing some of the critical gaps in CC theory and research. ..
  28. Dubler N. Commentary on Fiester's "Ill-placed democracy: ethics consultations and the moral status of voting". J Clin Ethics. 2011;22:373-9 pubmed
  29. Bispo Júnior J, Gerschman S. [Participatory potential and deliberative function: a debate on broadening the scope of democracy through the health councils]. Cien Saude Colet. 2013;18:7-16 pubmed
    This article reflects upon the relation between democracy and health councils. It seeks to analyze the councils as a space for broadening the scope of democracy...
  30. McGovern P. The young Lipset on the iron law of oligarchy: a taste of things to come. Br J Sociol. 2010;61 Suppl 1:29-42 pubmed publisher
    Lipset's 'Democracy in Private Government' was a remarkable publication for three reasons...
  31. Yazahmeidi B, Holman C. A survey of suppression of public health information by Australian governments. Aust N Z J Public Health. 2007;31:551-7 pubmed
    ..The suppression of public health information is widely practised by Australian governments. Systemic interventions are necessary to preserve the integrity of public health research conducted with government involvement. ..
  32. Cappell M. A more than one-hundred-fold higher per capita rate of authorship of five democratic nations versus their relatively undemocratic neighboring nations among 6,437 articles in 14 medical journals: does democracy and civil liberties promote intellectual. Dig Dis Sci. 2009;54:1609-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Democracies were quantitatively defined according to the Freedom House Index and the Economist's Index of Democracy. The frequency of publication of Israeli authors of unsolicited articles (excludes editorials) was found to be 1...
  33. Berlinguer G. Population, ethics, and equity. Cad Saude Publica. 1999;15 Suppl 1:111-22 pubmed
    ..This paper examines how these could be reinterpreted in the context of choices regarding population. ..
  34. Jones R. Cultural bias and liberal neutrality: reconsidering the relationship between religion and liberalism through the lens of the physician-assisted suicide debate. J Soc Christ Ethics. 2002;22:229-63 pubmed
    ..I conclude that the praiseworthy liberal goal of impartiality in policy decisions would best be met not by the inaccessible norm of neutrality but by a norm of inclusivity, which intentionally solicits multiple cultural perspectives. ..
  35. Emery E. Specters of democracy: dense objects and states of mourning. Psychoanal Rev. 2006;93:145-66 pubmed
  36. Cheraghali A. Blood safety and democracy. Lancet. 2007;369:463 pubmed
  37. Klomp J, de Haan J. Is the political system really related to health?. Soc Sci Med. 2009;69:36-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that democracy has a positive relationship with the health of individuals, while regime instability has a negative relationship ..
  38. Childress J, Bernheim R. Public health ethics. Public justification and public trust. Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz. 2008;51:158-63 pubmed publisher
  39. Davies G, Burgess J. Challenging the 'view from nowhere': citizen reflections on specialist expertise in a deliberative process. Health Place. 2004;10:349-61 pubmed
  40. Spisak B. The general age of leadership: older-looking presidential candidates win elections during war. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e36945 pubmed publisher
    ..This indicates that democratic voting can be systematically adjusted by activating innate biases. These findings appear to create a new line of research regarding the biology of leadership and contextual cues of age. ..
  41. Montgomery C. Protocols and participatory democracy in a 'North-South' product development partnership. Sociol Health Illn. 2012;34:1053-69 pubmed publisher
    ..that two tools of government were central to MDP's cohesiveness: institutional discourses of participatory democracy and capacity building and scientific protocols...
  42. Rollin B. An ethicist's commentary on released time for voting, etc. Can Vet J. 2003;44:537 pubmed
  43. Friele M. Do committees ru(i)n the bio-political culture? On the democratic legitimacy of bioethics committees. Bioethics. 2003;17:301-18 pubmed
  44. Giffin K. [Marketizing of the State, erosion of democracy and impoverishment of citizenship: global tendencies?]. Cien Saude Colet. 2007;12:1491-504 pubmed
    ..In recent debates, terms such as 'citizenship' and 'democracy' have been subject to critical scrutiny, revealing changes in the relations between citizens and the State which ..
  45. Meneu R, Ortún V. [Transparency and good healthcare governance: an aid to overcoming the crisis]. Gac Sanit. 2011;25:333-8 pubmed publisher
  46. Davis C, Bowers J, Memon A. Social influence in televised election debates: a potential distortion of democracy. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e18154 pubmed publisher
    ..We argue that there is an urgent need to reconsider the simultaneous broadcast of average response data with televised election debates. ..
  47. Enchev Y, Eftimov T. Bulgarian military neurosurgery: from Warsaw Pact to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Neurosurg Focus. 2010;28:E15 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to outline the background and the history of Bulgarian military neurosurgery as well as its future trends in the conditions of world globalization. ..
  48. Kaminsky C. [Public health ethics as applied ethics. Debates on the legitimacy and limits of public health engagement]. Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz. 2008;51:127-36 pubmed publisher
    ..The value system of free democratic societies serves as the ethical framework that public health ethics has to refer to. Public health ethics is thus to be regarded as an applied ethical discourse distinct from biomedical ethics. ..
  49. Stevenson C. Postmodernising clinical supervision in nursing. Issues Ment Health Nurs. 2005;26:519-29 pubmed
    ..They feel strengthened by the cohesion of a group with a flattened hierarchy and, within limits, able to challenge existing policy and practice. ..
  50. Ratzan S. Engagement in democratic health reform. J Health Commun. 2006;11:363-4 pubmed
  51. Jensen M. [Righteous war for peace and democracy]. Ugeskr Laeger. 2003;165:2674 pubmed
  52. Abelson J, Forest P, Eyles J, Smith P, Martin E, Gauvin F. Deliberations about deliberative methods: issues in the design and evaluation of public participation processes. Soc Sci Med. 2003;57:239-51 pubmed
  53. Duff S. Battles at the ballot box. Voters to decide a variety of healthcare referendums. Mod Healthc. 2002;32:26 pubmed