political systems


Summary: The units based on political theory and chosen by countries under which their governmental power is organized and administered to their citizens.

Top Publications

  1. Weikart R. Darwinism and death: devaluing human life in Germany 1859-1920. J Hist Ideas. 2002;63:323-44 pubmed
  2. Navarro V, Muntaner C, Borrell C, Benach J, Quiroga A, Rodriguez Sanz M, et al. Politics and health outcomes. Lancet. 2006;368:1033-7 pubmed
  3. Kennett D, Breitenbach S, Aquino V, Asmerom Y, Awe J, Baldini J, et al. Development and disintegration of Maya political systems in response to climate change. Science. 2012;338:788-91 pubmed publisher
    ..E. that triggered the balkanization of polities, increased warfare, and the asynchronous disintegration of polities, followed by population collapse in the context of an extended drought between 1020 and 1100 C.E. ..
  4. Beckfield J, Krieger N. Epi + demos + cracy: linking political systems and priorities to the magnitude of health inequities--evidence, gaps, and a research agenda. Epidemiol Rev. 2009;31:152-77 pubmed publisher
    A new focus within both social epidemiology and political sociology investigates how political systems and priorities shape health inequities...
  5. McKee M. Cochrane on Communism: the influence of ideology on the search for evidence. Int J Epidemiol. 2007;36:269-73 pubmed
  6. Krob M. Medicine in a world gone mad: Stanislaw Lem's novel Hospital of the transfiguration. Med Humanit Rev. 2002;16:9-24 pubmed
  7. Cornet A. [Medical policies, state and religious missions in Rwanda (1920-1940). An authoritative design of colonial medicine?]. Studium (Rotterdam). 2009;2:105-15 pubmed
  8. Bellmann J. [Jewish urologists in Hamburg: eight biographies from Imperial Germany to Nazi Germany]. Urologe A. 2011;50:968-73 pubmed publisher
    ..One emigrant committed suicide shortly after arriving in the USA and while the other six continued to practice medicine, they did so under precarious conditions. ..
  9. Brijnath B, Antoniades J. "I'm running my depression:" Self-management of depression in neoliberal Australia. Soc Sci Med. 2016;152:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Such a disconnect, in turn, fosters conditions for risky health practices and poor health outcomes. ..

More Information


  1. James D, Mullen P, Pathé M, Meloy J, Preston L, Darnley B, et al. Stalkers and harassers of royalty: the role of mental illness and motivation. Psychol Med. 2009;39:1479-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The finding that some motivations are more likely to drive intrusive behaviours than others may help focus both health and protection interventions. ..
  2. Pick D. "In pursuit of the Nazi mind?" The deployment of psychoanalysis in the Allied struggle against Germany. Psychoanal Hist. 2009;11:137-57 pubmed
    ..quot; This is illustrated through a discussion of the treatment and interpretation of the deputy leader of the Nazi Party, Rudolf Hess, after his arrival in Britain in 1941. ..
  3. Andersen R, Smedby B, Vagero D. Cost containment, solidarity and cautious experimentation: Swedish dilemmas. Soc Sci Med. 2001;52:1195-204 pubmed
    ..Further, it appears that equal access to care, or solidarity, may be adversely affected by some of the system changes. ..
  4. Horvath M, Dunay G, Csonka R, Keller E. Deadly heroin or the death of heroin -- overdoses caused by illicit drugs of abuse in Budapest, Hungary between 1994 and 2012. Neuropsychopharmacol Hung. 2013;15:253-9 pubmed
    ..The emergence and spread of new designer drugs also change the mortality characteristics of the youngest abusers and pose a new challenge for researchers. ..
  5. Martin J. [Did the Queen of Pount suffer from cutis laxa?]. Vesalius. 2010;16:83-7 pubmed
    ..We propose a novel hypothesis taking into account all signs: a Cutis Laxa. ..
  6. Weiss Wendt A, Üngör U. Collaboration in genocide: the Ottoman Empire 1915–1916, the German-occupied Baltic 1941–1944, and Rwanda 1994. Holocaust Genocide Stud. 2011;25:404-37 pubmed
    ..The article concludes that, however vague, the concept of collaboration is useful in accentuating a bottom-up approach in the study of genocide. ..
  7. Pellegrino E. Medical ethics suborned by tyranny and war. JAMA. 2004;291:1505-6 pubmed
  8. Schlossmacher M. The life of Eugene Braunwald: a remarkable journey that began in Vienna. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 1998;110:27-34 pubmed
    ..This essay is also intended to raise awareness of, and foster academic investigation into, the long-lasting implications of Austrian Nazism on the "Viennese School of Medicine". ..
  9. Sheaff R. Governance in gridlock in the Russian health system; the case of Sverdlovsk oblast. Soc Sci Med. 2005;60:2359-69 pubmed
    ..Gridlock resulted from the interaction of the two, a problem to which all health system reform is potentially vulnerable. ..
  10. Hammel E. Kinship-based politics and the optimal size of kin groups. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:11951-6 pubmed
    ..The spectrum of alternatives for actors and groups, shaped by existing institutions and natural and cultural selection, is very broad. Nevertheless, selection may result in survival of particular kinds of political structures. ..
  11. Etzioni A. On a communitarian approach to bioethics. Theor Med Bioeth. 2011;32:363-74 pubmed publisher
    ..This discussion uses the debate in the US over funding for entitlements as a case study to apply the values of communitarian bioethics. ..
  12. Sandberg M, Lundberg P. Political institutions and their historical dynamics. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e45838 pubmed publisher
  13. Lena H, London B. The political and economic determinants of health outcomes: a cross-national analysis. Int J Health Serv. 1993;23:585-602 pubmed
    ..These findings support the conclusion that political systems make a difference in health and well-being independent of national (gross national product per capita) and ..
  14. Weber M. Psychiatric research and science policy in Germany: the history of the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fur Psychiatrie (German Institute for Psychiatric Research) in Munich from 1917 to 1945). Hist Psychiatry. 2000;11:235-58 pubmed
    ..These complex interactions underscore the importance of the DFA in understanding the recent history of medicine in Germany. ..
  15. Kaplan R. Treatment of homosexuality during apartheid. BMJ. 2004;329:1415-6 pubmed
  16. Barkun M. Community shielding and the political system. Int J Emerg Ment Health. 2002;4:265-70 pubmed
  17. Atlas M. Ethics and access to teaching materials in the medical library: the case of the Pernkopf atlas. Bull Med Libr Assoc. 2001;89:51-8 pubmed
    ..The results of a survey of academic medical libraries concerning their treatment of the Pernkopf atlas are reported, and the ethical implications of these issues as they affect the responsibilities of librarians is discussed. ..
  18. Idrovo A, Ruiz Rodríguez M. [A global view of population health in Colombia: role of social macro-determinants]. Biomedica. 2007;27:333-44 pubmed
    ..The macro-determinant of population health with the highest potential of effecting improvement in health conditions is to modify income inequality. ..
  19. Glassman M, Karno D. Ideology as instrument. Am Psychol. 2007;62:1075-6 pubmed
    ..So if we are to understand ideology, we can only understand it through its use in human activity. ..
  20. Kastner I. [Reactions of German medical intelligentsia to World War I]. Z Gesamte Hyg. 1990;36:626-9 pubmed
    ..Furthermore it is referred to the motives for the undiscriminating acceptance and support of fascist ideology by the majority of German physicians. ..
  21. Muntaner C, Lynch J, Hillemeier M, Lee J, David R, Benach J, et al. Economic inequality, working-class power, social capital, and cause-specific mortality in wealthy countries. Int J Health Serv. 2002;32:629-56 pubmed
    ..The popularity of social capital and exclusion of class-related political and welfare state indicators does not seem to be justified on empirical grounds. ..
  22. York R, Clark B. Critical materialism: science, technology, and environmental sustainability. Sociol Inq. 2010;80:475-99 pubmed
  23. Neely A. "Blame it on the weeds": politics, poverty, and ecology in the new South Africa. J South Afr Stud. 2010;36:869-87 pubmed publisher
  24. Dwyer J. Global health and justice. Bioethics. 2005;19:460-75 pubmed
    ..I try to show why an adequate political account must include three duties: a duty not to harm, a duty to reconstruct international arrangements, and a duty to assist. ..
  25. Delius P, Dilling H. The end of the Strecknitz asylum at Lübeck - a contribution to the social history of psychiatry during National Socialism. Hist Psychiatry. 1995;6:267-81 pubmed
    ..The long-term effects beyond the end of the NS-regime vary a lot. Some of the relatives' coping strategies are portrayed. In some cases the murder of close family members continues to have its effects in the form of family secrets. ..
  26. Currie T, Greenhill S, Gray R, Hasegawa T, Mace R. Rise and fall of political complexity in island South-East Asia and the Pacific. Nature. 2010;467:801-4 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that, despite the numerous contingent pathways of human history, there are regularities in cultural evolution that can be detected using computational phylogenetic methods. ..
  27. Amnestoy I, DeMagistris A. [The development of Joseph Stalin's housing system in St. Petersburg]. Stor Urbana. 2002;26:107-29 pubmed
  28. Lichterman B, Yarovinsky M. Medical ethics in Russia before the October revolution (1917). J Int Bioethique. 2005;16:17-32, 166-7 pubmed
    ..Medical morality was generally understood as moral life in action when deeds are much more important than words (e.g. formal codes of medical ethics). ..
  29. Lewis O, Steinmo S. Taking evolution seriously in political science. Theory Biosci. 2010;129:235-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show how evolutionary thinking adds insight into the study of political phenomena and research questions that are of central importance to the field, such as preference formation. ..
  30. Johnson J. German women in chemistry, 1925-1945 (Part II). NTM. 1998;6:65-90 pubmed
  31. Ramos R, Ferreira Pinto J, Brouwer K, Ramos M, Lozada R, Firestone Cruz M, et al. A tale of two cities: Social and environmental influences shaping risk factors and protective behaviors in two Mexico-US border cities. Health Place. 2009;15:999-1005 pubmed publisher
    ..g., family drug use, migration, drug use patterns). We observed distinct behavioral and structural influences in these two border cities that will require tailored intervention strategies to reduce HIV transmission. ..
  32. Chiu S, Ko L, Lee R. Decolonization and the movement for institutionalization of Chinese medicine in Hong Kong: a political process perspective. Soc Sci Med. 2005;61:1045-58 pubmed
    ..In the conclusion, we briefly consider the implications of this movement for the future development of alternative medicine in Hong Kong and other societies. ..
  33. Unger R. Religious ideology, a neglected variable. Am Psychol. 2007;62:1076-7 pubmed
    ..But we cannot learn more about these potential connections if we continue to ignore the importance of religious ideology as a psychological variable. ..
  34. Carpenter G. Aging in the United Kingdom and Europe--a snapshot of the future?. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2005;53:S310-3 pubmed
    ..With a life expectancy of 120, it will be these 80-year-olds who will be caring for their parents. Although humankind is resourceful, it will require a unified approach to aging to overcome the challenging diversity in our societies. ..
  35. Lewis L. Evidence not ideology: The NHS is still working. BMJ. 2005;331:964-5 pubmed
  36. Rechel B, McKee M. The effects of dictatorship on health: the case of Turkmenistan. BMC Med. 2007;5:21 pubmed
    ..The paper concludes that dictatorship has contributed to the health crisis facing Turkmenistan. One of the first tests of the new regime will be whether it can address this crisis. ..
  37. Frostegard J. [The new biology. Truth, social construction or something in between?]. Lakartidningen. 2004;101:2190, 2193 pubmed
  38. Atun R, McKee M, Drobniewski F, Coker R. Analysis of how the health systems context shapes responses to the control of human immunodeficiency virus: case-studies from the Russian Federation. Bull World Health Organ. 2005;83:730-8 pubmed
    ..Systematic analysis of the context within which vertical programmes are embedded is necessary to enhance understanding of how the relevant policies are prioritized and translated to action. ..
  39. Gill S, Bakker I. New constitutionalism and the social reproduction of caring institutions. Theor Med Bioeth. 2006;27:35-57 pubmed
    ..This is one of the reasons why neo-liberalism is increasingly contested in both the North and the global South. ..
  40. López Muñoz F, Alamo C, Dudley M, Rubio G, García García P, Molina J, et al. Psychiatry and political-institutional abuse from the historical perspective: the ethical lessons of the Nuremberg Trial on their 60th anniversary. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2007;31:791-806 pubmed
    ..Various strategies can be used to combat such abuses, though it is uncertain how effective they are in preventing them. ..
  41. Ip P. Developing medical ethics in China's reform era. Dev World Bioeth. 2005;5:176-87 pubmed
    ..After all, to institutionalize medical ethics is no easy task for a country as old and as big as China. Chinese medical ethicists seem ready to confront these difficulties in their effort to develop medical ethics in Reform China. ..
  42. Gogstad A, Løvold T. [Deserved punishment? Legal settlement 1945-50. Sociomedical aspects]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 1999;119:2495-500 pubmed
    ..As additional punishment, most lost their jobs and certain citizen's rights for a number of years, others had homes and property confiscated, and many became welfare cases. ..
  43. Lipcsey M, Eastwood G, Jones D, Wanek K, Castegren M, Tønnesen E, et al. [Prevalence of partially treated supralabial hirsutism in dictators]. Ugeskr Laeger. 2012;174:3078-81 pubmed
    ..Electorates the world over can now support political candidates with PTSLH without increased fear of becoming victims of a dictatorial system or having an increased risk of mortality after their ascent to power. ..
  44. Kelly B. The power gap: freedom, power and mental illness. Soc Sci Med. 2006;63:2118-28 pubmed
  45. Ebrahim S. The lessons of history. Int J Epidemiol. 2003;32:177 pubmed
  46. Cherif A, Barley K. Cliophysics: socio-political reliability theory, polity duration and African political (in)stabilities. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e15169 pubmed publisher
    ..The quasi-U-shape relationship between average polity duration and regime types corroborates historical precedents and explains the stability of the autocracies and democracies. ..
  47. Espelt A, Borrell C, Rodriguez Sanz M, Muntaner C, Pasarín M, Benach J, et al. Inequalities in health by social class dimensions in European countries of different political traditions. Int J Epidemiol. 2008;37:1095-105 pubmed publisher
    ..This study is one of the first to show the impact of different political traditions on social class inequalities in health. These results emphasize the need to evaluate the impact of the implementation of public policies. ..
  48. Lundberg O. Commentary: Politics and public health--some conceptual considerations concerning welfare state characteristics and public health outcomes. Int J Epidemiol. 2008;37:1105-8 pubmed publisher
  49. Duff B. The inertia of sex: Henry Adams on family and the politics of unconditional love. J Fam Hist. 2010;35:286-307 pubmed
  50. Walter B. [National socialist "children's euthanasia" program in the province of Westphalia (1940-1945)]. Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr. 2001;50:211-27 pubmed
    ..The attempts of scientific justification are exposed as cover-ups. ..
  51. Jen M, Sund E, Johnston R, Jones K. Trustful societies, trustful individuals, and health: An analysis of self-rated health and social trust using the World Value Survey. Health Place. 2010;16:1022-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results support and extend the Wilkinson hypothesis that the level of trust, an indicator of social cohesion, is predictive of individuals' health. ..
  52. Wilson K. Health care, federalism and the new Social Union. CMAJ. 2000;162:1171-4 pubmed
    ..The primary advantage of the new collaborative model is protection of jurisdictional autonomy. Its primary disadvantages are blurring of accountability and potential for exclusion of the public from decision-making. ..
  53. Adams M, Allen G, Weiss S. Human heredity and politics: A comparative institutional study of the Eugenics Record Office at Cold Spring Harbor (United States), the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics (Germany), and the Maxim Gorky Medical Gen. Osiris. 2005;20:232-62 pubmed