united states national aeronautics and space administration


Summary: An independent Federal agency established in 1958. It conducts research for the solution of problems of flight within and outside the Earth's atmosphere and develops, constructs, tests, and operates aeronautical and space vehicles. (From U.S. Government Manual, 1993)

Top Publications

  1. Des Marais D, Nuth J, Allamandola L, Boss A, Farmer J, Hoehler T, et al. The NASA Astrobiology Roadmap. Astrobiology. 2008;8:715-30 pubmed publisher
    ..For each of these goals, Science Objectives outline more specific high priority efforts for the next three to five years. These eighteen objectives are being integrated with NASA strategic planning. ..
  2. Meck J, Dreyer S, Warren L. Long-duration head-down bed rest: project overview, vital signs, and fluid balance. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2009;80:A1-8 pubmed
    ..The dietary support and behavioral health papers provide additional information regarding those aspects of implementing bed rest studies successfully. ..
  3. Martín Redondo M, Martínez E, Sampedro M, Armiens C, Gomez Elvira J, Martinez Frias J. FTIR reflectance of selected minerals and their mixtures: implications for ground temperature-sensor monitoring on Mars surface environment (NASA/MSL-Rover Environmental Monitoring Station). J Environ Monit. 2009;11:1428-32 pubmed publisher
  4. Zacny K, Bar Cohen Y, Brennan M, Briggs G, Cooper G, Davis K, et al. Drilling systems for extraterrestrial subsurface exploration. Astrobiology. 2008;8:665-706 pubmed publisher
    ..A classification scheme based on drilling depth is proposed. Each of the 4 depth categories (surface drills, 1-meter class drills, 10-meter class drills, and deep drills) has distinct technological profiles and scientific ramifications. ..
  5. Warren L, Reinertson R, Camacho M, Paloski W. Implementation of the NASA Artificial Gravity Bed Rest Pilot Study. J Gravit Physiol. 2007;14:P1-4 pubmed
    ..This paper reports on implementation issues and lessons learned during the conduct of this complex study. ..
  6. Mervis J. U.S. research funding. Science adviser says that pruning is the key to a healthy budget. Science. 2007;315:927 pubmed
  7. Zayzafoon M, Gathings W, McDonald J. Modeled microgravity inhibits osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells and increases adipogenesis. Endocrinology. 2004;145:2421-32 pubmed
    ..This work will increase understanding and aid in the prevention of bone loss, not only in MG but also potentially in age-and disuse-related osteoporosis. ..
  8. Li S, Ma Z, Niu Z, Qian H, Xuan D, Hou R, et al. NASA-approved rotary bioreactor enhances proliferation and osteogenesis of human periodontal ligament stem cells. Stem Cells Dev. 2009;18:1273-82 pubmed publisher
  9. Watts G. More men (and women) on the Moon?. Lancet. 2005;366:1681-2 pubmed

More Information


  1. Reichhardt T. NASA homes in on sites for Mars exploration. Nature. 2003;422:653 pubmed
  2. Kahler S. NASA veterinarian treats Hubble Space Telescope. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2002;221:18-9 pubmed
  3. Garver L, Crouch M. NASA strategic planning for 2000 and beyond. Acta Astronaut. 2001;48:895-903 pubmed
    This short paper outlines the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration's development of its 2000 Strategic Plan.
  4. Barnes C, Snell E, Kundrot C. Thaumatin crystallization aboard the International Space Station using liquid-liquid diffusion in the Enhanced Gaseous Nitrogen Dewar (EGN). Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2002;58:751-60 pubmed
    ..Improvements in temperature control and the elimination of air gaps are needed, but the results show that the EGN on the ISS can be used to produce space-grown crystals that diffract to high resolution. ..
  5. Lawler A. Space station. NASA plans expansion, new research agenda. Science. 2002;297:1977-8 pubmed
  6. Mervis J. U.S. science budget. NIH shrinks, NSF crawls as Congress finishes spending bills. Science. 2006;311:28-9 pubmed
  7. Convertino V, Ryan K. Identifying physiological measurements for medical monitoring: implications for autonomous health care in austere environments. J Gravit Physiol. 2007;14:P39-42 pubmed
    ..3. Continuous capture of PP, ECG R-wave amplitude, indices of HRV, cardiac BRS, and/or muscle PO2 could improve the sensitivity of closed-loop resuscitation and oxygen delivery by providing earlier indications of clinical status. ..
  8. Schmid Schonbein G, Diller K. Transport processes in biomedical systems: a roadmap for future research directions. Ann Biomed Eng. 2005;33:1136-41 pubmed
    ..Most central is the expanded integration of fundamental transport sciences into the understanding of living systems and the great potential of patient specific modeling in designing a broad array of medical procedures. ..
  9. Palinkas L, Allred C, Landsverk J. Models of research-operational collaboration for behavioral health in space. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2005;76:B52-60 pubmed
    ..To accomplish this, all stakeholders must participate in creating a culture of operational research. ..
  10. Cameron D, Hushen J, Nazian S. Formation of insulin-secreting, Sertoli-enriched tissue constructs by microgravity coculture of isolated pig islets and rat Sertoli cells. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim. 2001;37:490-8 pubmed
    ..Neither Matrigel nor Sertoli cells appeared to interfere with the ability of SICA or SICA mg to secrete insulin and express FasL. ..
  11. Dorr R. Facing harsh realities--in space, air, and war. Aerosp Am. 2003;41:8-9, 41 pubmed
    ..Also reviewed are legislative interest in airline safety and armed forces expansion. ..
  12. Uchihori Y, Benton E, Moeller J, Bendrick G. Radiation measurements aboard NASA ER-2 high altitude aircraft with the Liulin-4J portable spectrometer. Adv Space Res. 2003;32:41-6 pubmed
    ..With these instruments, we can measure not only absorbed dose, but also variation of the absorbed dose as a function of time. We report radiation dose measurements as function of time, altitude, and latitude for several ER-2 missions. ..
  13. Reichhardt T. Planetary exploration: a job for the droids?. Nature. 2004;428:888-90 pubmed
  14. Moissl C, Bruckner J, Venkateswaran K. Archaeal diversity analysis of spacecraft assembly clean rooms. ISME J. 2008;2:115-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Due to their potential capability to survive and proliferate in Martian conditions, screening for Archaea on spacecraft surfaces and instruments that are associated with future life detection missions may be necessary. ..
  15. Marris E, Gordon B. Q and A: Bart Gordon. Nature. 2006;444:251 pubmed
  16. Cáceres M. Creating a space exploration industry. Aerosp Am. 2005;43:10-2 pubmed
    ..The article provides an overview of funding for space exploration to the Moon and Mars under NASA's direction, and presents an argument for the creation of a commercial space industry. ..
  17. Shavers M, Zapp N, Barber R, Wilson J, Qualls G, Toupes L, et al. Implementation of ALARA radiation protection on the ISS through polyethylene shielding augmentation of the Service Module Crew Quarters. Adv Space Res. 2004;34:1333-7 pubmed
    ..Verification of shield concepts requires results from specific designs to be compared with onboard dosimetry. ..
  18. Thakoor S, Chahl J, Srinivasan M, Young L, Werblin F, Hine B, et al. Bioinspired engineering of exploration systems for NASA and DoD. Artif Life. 2002;8:357-69 pubmed
    ..We describe a few future mission scenarios for Mars exploration, uniquely enabled by these newly developed biomorphic flyers. ..
  19. Kintisch E. U.S. budget. Democratic Congress begins to put its stamp on science. Science. 2007;316:1828-9 pubmed
  20. Noyes J, Bruneau D. A self-analysis of the NASA-TLX workload measure. Ergonomics. 2007;50:514-9 pubmed
    ..This has implications for the practical use of the NASA-TLX as well as for other computer-based workload measures. ..
  21. Painter T, Duval B, Thomas W, Mendez M, Heintzelman S, Dozier J. Detection and quantification of snow algae with an airborne imaging spectrometer. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2001;67:5267-72 pubmed
    ..From the spatial estimates of algal concentration, we calculated a total imaged algal biomass of 16.55 kg for the 0.495-km(2) snow-covered area, which gave an areal biomass concentration of 0.033 g/m(2). ..
  22. Brumfiel G. Moderate flies flag for science on Capitol Hill. Nature. 2003;422:365 pubmed
  23. Woike M, Abdul Aziz A, Oza N, Matthews B. New sensors and techniques for the structural health monitoring of propulsion systems. ScientificWorldJournal. 2013;2013:596506 pubmed publisher
  24. Trinh E. Physical sciences research plans for the International Space Station. Acta Astronaut. 2003;53:317-27 pubmed
    ..The current flight investigation research plan shows a large number of principal investigators selected to use the remaining planned research facilities. ..
  25. Croft J. Refuse-to-crash: NASA tackles loss of control. Aerosp Am. 2003;41:42-5 pubmed
  26. Hogan J. Astrobiology: life at the cutting edge. Nature. 2005;437:1080-2 pubmed
  27. Gontcharov I, Kovachevich I, Pool S, Navinkov A, Barratt M. Medical care system for NASA-Mir spaceflights. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2002;73:1219-23 pubmed
    ..Continued progress toward the integration of U.S. and Russian flight medical systems will further increase the effectiveness of the medical support of joint missions aboard the International Space Station. ..
  28. Lawler A. NASA budget. Griffin names winners and losers in cost squeeze. Science. 2005;308:1100-1 pubmed
  29. Brumfiel G. NASA explores scope for far-flung fix. Nature. 2007;447:620-1 pubmed
  30. Lowenstein D. BNL accelerator-based radiobiology facilities. Phys Med. 2001;17 Suppl 1:26-9 pubmed
    ..The BAF Project will be described and the future AGS and BAF operation plans will be presented. ..
  31. Khaoustov V, Risin D, Pellis N, Yoffe B. Microarray analysis of genes differentially expressed in HepG2 cells cultured in simulated microgravity: preliminary report. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim. 2001;37:84-8 pubmed
  32. Doarn C. Medical policy development for human spaceflight at NASA: an evolution. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2011;82:1073-7 pubmed
    ..This manuscript documents the evolution of medical policy in the NASA, and provides a historical account of the individuals, processes, and needs to develop policy. ..
  33. Moore J. Galileo gears up for swansong as crash-landing looms. Nature. 2003;425:229 pubmed
  34. Lawler A. Space program. Shuttle disaster puts NASA plans in tailspin. Science. 2003;299:796-7 pubmed
  35. Trombka J, Schweitzer J, Selavka C, Dale M, Gahn N, Floyd S, et al. Crime scene investigations using portable, non-destructive space exploration technology. Forensic Sci Int. 2002;129:1-9 pubmed
    ..Using data obtained from the open literature of the elemental composition of barium (Ba) and antimony (Sb) in handswipes of GSR, we believe that there may be a unique GSR signature based on the Sb to Ba ratio. ..
  36. Payne M, Williams D, Trudel G. Space flight rehabilitation. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2007;86:583-91 pubmed
    ..Evidence-based rehabilitation interventions are imperative not only to facilitate return to Earth but also to extend the safe duration of exposure to a physiologically hostile microgravity environment...
  37. Brumfiel G. Science agencies get fresh paymasters in Republican revamp. Nature. 2005;434:129 pubmed
  38. Summerer L, Izzo D, Rossini L. Brain-machine interfaces for space applications-research, technological development, and opportunities. Int Rev Neurobiol. 2009;86:213-23 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude by suggesting research and development steps considered necessary to include brain-machine interface technology in future architectures for human space flight. ..
  39. Hertzfeld H. Technology transfer in the space sector: an international perspective. J Technol Transf. 2002;27:307-9 pubmed
    ..This article is an introduction to four articles in this issue, all related to the different policy objectives and approaches of technology transfer in space programs run by the United States, the European Space Agency, Canada, and Russia. ..
  40. Reichhardt T. Cutbacks 'will cripple space station science'. Nature. 2002;418:263 pubmed
  41. Neufeld M, Charles J. Practicing for space underwater: inventing neutral buoyancy training, 1963-1968. Endeavour. 2015;39:147-59 pubmed publisher
  42. Hoehler T, Westall F. Mars exploration program analysis group goal one: determine if life ever arose on Mars. Astrobiology. 2010;10:859-67 pubmed publisher
    ..The finalized revision, which appears in the version of the MEPAG Goals Document posted on September 24, 2010, is presented here. ..
  43. Mehta S, Crucian B, Pierson D, Sams C, Stowe R. Monitoring immune system function and reactivation of latent viruses in the Artificial Gravity Pilot Study. J Gravit Physiol. 2007;14:P21-5 pubmed
  44. Reichhardt T. Mars orbiter ready to scout for future landing sites as NASA looks ahead. Nature. 2005;436:613 pubmed
  45. Dudley Rowley M, Cohen M, Flores P. 1985 NASA-Rockwell Space Station Crew Safety Study: results from Mir. Aviakosm Ekolog Med. 2004;38:15-28 pubmed
    ..This comparison and analysis can provide a foundation for future space crew safety and related human factors support. ..
  46. Dorr R. Taking stock--of shuttles, missiles, and money. Aerosp Am. 2003;41:8-10 pubmed
  47. Wilde R, McBarron J, Manatt S, McMann H, Fullerton R. One hundred US EVAs: a perspective on spacewalks. Acta Astronaut. 2002;51:579-90 pubmed
    ..Now, EVA is supporting assembly of ISS. This paper highlights development of US EVA capability within the context of the overarching mission objectives of the US human space flight program. ..
  48. David L. Steering the station back on course. Aerosp Am. 2002;40:36-8,41-3 pubmed
    ..International response to the panel report was negative with space agencies from Japan, Russia, Canada, and Europe taking issue with the expected impact on ISS construction and use. ..
  49. Pilcher C. Conversations: with Carl Pilcher [interview by Johan Benson]. Aerosp Am. 1998;36:16-8 pubmed
  50. . Technology Transfer--Bridging Space and Society. The Students of the Technology Transfer Design Project Team (ISU Summer Session 1997). Acta Astronaut. 1997;41:493-505 pubmed
    ..These include the development of a generic metrics system and the implementation of better appropriate procedures and mechanisms for a positive diffusion process between space and non-space sectors. ..
  51. Boyd J, Du B, Vaksman Z, Locke J, Putcha L. Relative bioavailability of scopolamine dosage forms and interaction with dextroamphetamine. J Gravit Physiol. 2007;14:P107-8 pubmed
    ..We estimated bioavailability of four different oral formulations used by the NASA RGO physicians for the treatment of motion sickness. ..
  52. Loehr J, Lee S, English K, Sibonga J, Smith S, Spiering B, et al. Musculoskeletal adaptations to training with the advanced resistive exercise device. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011;43:146-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Because FW training mitigates bed rest-induced deconditioning, the ARED may be an effective countermeasure for spaceflight-induced deconditioning and should be validated during spaceflight. ..
  53. Doarn C. An historical summary of advisory boards for aerospace medicine at NASA. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2013;84:252-9 pubmed
    ..This paper provides an historical summary chronicling those individuals and the groups they led when aerospace medicine was emerging as a discipline for human spaceflight beginning in 1957. ..