rape

Summary

Summary: Sexual intercourse without consent of the victim.

Top Publications

  1. Nerum H, Halvorsen L, Straume B, Sørlie T, Øian P. Different labour outcomes in primiparous women that have been subjected to childhood sexual abuse or rape in adulthood: a case-control study in a clinical cohort. BJOG. 2013;120:487-95 pubmed publisher
    ..The best care for birthing women subjected to sexual abuse needs to be explored in further studies. ..
  2. Brown C. Rape as a weapon of war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Torture. 2012;22:24-37 pubmed
    The Democratic Republic of the Congo has been appropriately acknowledged as "the rape capital of the world." While the country has been trapped in conflict, the use of rape as a weapon of war has been rampant and unyielding...
  3. Zinzow H, Resnick H, McCauley J, Amstadter A, Ruggiero K, Kilpatrick D. Prevalence and risk of psychiatric disorders as a function of variant rape histories: results from a national survey of women. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2012;47:893-902 pubmed publisher
    b>Rape is an established risk factor for mental health disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive episodes (MDE), and substance use disorders...
  4. Gola H, Engler H, Schauer M, Adenauer H, Riether C, Kolassa S, et al. Victims of rape show increased cortisol responses to trauma reminders: a study in individuals with war- and torture-related PTSD. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2012;37:213-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Participants were 30 survivors of war and torture, with and without rape among the traumatic events experienced. Participants of both groups (raped vs...
  5. Jewkes R, Sikweyiya Y, Morrell R, Dunkle K. Gender inequitable masculinity and sexual entitlement in rape perpetration South Africa: findings of a cross-sectional study. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e29590 pubmed publisher
    To describe the prevalence and patterns of rape perpetration in a randomly selected sample of men from the general adult population, to explore factors associated with rape and to describe how men explained their acts of rape...
  6. Perilloux C, Duntley J, Buss D. The costs of rape. Arch Sex Behav. 2012;41:1099-106 pubmed
    The current study examined costs experienced by victims of completed rape (n=49) and attempted sexual assault (n=91) using quantitative analyses of 13 domains: health, self-esteem, self-perceived attractiveness, self-perceived mate value, ..
  7. Zinzow H, Amstadter A, McCauley J, Ruggiero K, Resnick H, Kilpatrick D. Self-rated health in relation to rape and mental health disorders in a national sample of college women. J Am Coll Health. 2011;59:588-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Interview modules assessed demographics, posttraumatic stress disorder, major depressive episode, substance use, rape experiences, and physical health...
  8. Booth B, Mengeling M, Torner J, Sadler A. Rape, sex partnership, and substance use consequences in women veterans. J Trauma Stress. 2011;24:287-94 pubmed publisher
    The association of rape history and sexual partnership with alcohol and drug use consequences in women veterans is unknown...
  9. Kelly J, Kabanga J, Cragin W, Alcayna Stevens L, Haider S, VanRooyen M. 'If your husband doesn't humiliate you, other people won't': gendered attitudes towards sexual violence in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Glob Public Health. 2012;7:285-98 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that for many survivors, rape has consequences far beyond the physiological and psychological trauma associated with the attack...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Glass N, Ramazani P, Tosha M, Mpanano M, Cinyabuguma M. A Congolese-US participatory action research partnership to rebuild the lives of rape survivors and their families in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Glob Public Health. 2012;7:184-95 pubmed publisher
    ..The last decade has seen the use of rape as a weapon of war in the DRC, where rebels and soldiers subject women and girls to brutalising attacks, rape, ..
  2. McGee H, O Higgins M, Garavan R, Conroy R. Rape and child sexual abuse: what beliefs persist about motives, perpetrators, and survivors?. J Interpers Violence. 2011;26:3580-93 pubmed publisher
    b>Rape myths are prejudicial and stereotyped beliefs about rape which persist in society. They may have a significant impact on those affected by rape as well as the performance of legal and public participants in the justice system...
  3. Jewkes R, Sikweyiya Y, Morrell R, Dunkle K. The relationship between intimate partner violence, rape and HIV amongst South African men: a cross-sectional study. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e24256 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the associations between intimate partner violence, rape and HIV among South African men. Cross-sectional study involving a randomly-selected sample of men...
  4. Resick P, Williams L, Suvak M, Monson C, Gradus J. Long-term outcomes of cognitive-behavioral treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder among female rape survivors. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2012;80:201-10 pubmed publisher
    ..22). We attempted to locate the 171 original participants, women with PTSD who had experienced at least one rape. Of 144 participants located, 87.5% were reassessed (N = 126), which constituted 73.7% of the original ITT sample...
  5. Malan S, Hemmings S, Kidd M, Martin L, Seedat S. Investigation of telomere length and psychological stress in rape victims. Depress Anxiety. 2011;28:1081-5 pubmed publisher
    Women are at an increased risk of depression and other mental health problems following rape. Various etiological factors for depression, including predisposing genetic factors, have been identified...
  6. Shannon K, Leiter K, Phaladze N, Hlanze Z, Tsai A, Heisler M, et al. Gender inequity norms are associated with increased male-perpetrated rape and sexual risks for HIV infection in Botswana and Swaziland. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e28739 pubmed publisher
    ..higher adherence to gender inequity norms on a) male sexual dominance (male-controlled sexual decision making and rape (forced sex)); b) sexual risk practices (multiple/concurrent sex partners, transactional sex, unprotected sex with ..
  7. Booth B, Davis T, Cheney A, Mengeling M, Torner J, Sadler A. Physical health status of female veterans: contributions of sex partnership and in-military rape. Psychosom Med. 2012;74:916-24 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to determine whether current physical health status in female veterans is associated with rape during military service and same-sex partnership...
  8. Eichhorn S, Klauer T, Grundke E, Freyberger H, Brahler E, Kuwert P. [Coping skills and social support in German long-time survivors of rape in the end of World War II]. Psychiatr Prax. 2012;39:169-73 pubmed publisher
    ..The found negative relationship between perceived social support and posttraumatic symptoms shows additionally the potentially long-lasting impact of these form of coping on psychological health in trauma victims. ..
  9. Jewkes R, Nduna M, Jama Shai N, Dunkle K. Prospective study of rape perpetration by young South African men: incidence & risk factors. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e38210 pubmed publisher
    There has been very little prospective research on rape perpetration among men. This paper describes the incidence and risk factors for new rape and attempted rape events among young South African men in an HIV prevention trial...
  10. Jewkes R. Comprehensive response to rape needed in conflict settings. Lancet. 2007;369:2140-2141 pubmed publisher
  11. Messman Moore T, Ward R, Brown A. Substance use and PTSD symptoms impact the likelihood of rape and revictimization in college women. J Interpers Violence. 2009;24:499-521 pubmed publisher
    ..e., substance use, sexual behavior) for predicting rape among 276 college women. It was of particular interest to determine whether traumatic responses (e.g...
  12. Linden J, Oldeg P, Mehta S, McCabe K, LaBelle C. HIV postexposure prophylaxis in sexual assault: current practice and patient adherence to treatment recommendations in a large urban teaching hospital. Acad Emerg Med. 2005;12:640-6 pubmed
    ..HIV nPEP was offered to less than half of sexual assault patients, and few completed treatment. Further studies are needed to evaluate and improve appropriateness of HIV nPEP administration and follow-up. ..
  13. Wasco S, Campbell R. A multiple case study of rape victim advocates' self-care routines: the influence of organizational context. Am J Community Psychol. 2002;30:731-60 pubmed
    This study assumes that rape victim advocates who provide community outreach services to victimized women must adjust to a heightened awareness of sexual violence to do their jobs...
  14. Faravelli C, Giugni A, Salvatori S, Ricca V. Psychopathology after rape. Am J Psychiatry. 2004;161:1483-5 pubmed
    This study evaluated the psychopathological consequences of a single rape occurring in adult women...
  15. Kim J, Martin L, Denny L. Rape and HIV post-exposure prophylaxis: addressing the dual epidemics in South Africa. Reprod Health Matters. 2003;11:101-12 pubmed
    ..AIDS epidemic and high levels of sexual violence, the issue of HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) following rape has recently come to the fore, and a policy supporting provision of PEP has been approved by the national ..
  16. Amstadter A, Zinzow H, McCauley J, Strachan M, Ruggiero K, Resnick H, et al. Prevalence and correlates of service utilization and help seeking in a national college sample of female rape victims. J Anxiety Disord. 2010;24:900-2 pubmed publisher
    This study examines prevalence and correlates of help seeking for emotional problems among undergraduate female rape victims...
  17. Ali F, Israr S, Ali B, Janjua N. Association of various reproductive rights, domestic violence and marital rape with depression among Pakistani women. BMC Psychiatry. 2009;9:77 pubmed publisher
    ..61% of the cases and 43% of the controls were ever abused by spouse and the frequency of marital rape was 33% in cases and 13% in controls...
  18. Fisher B. The effects of survey question wording on rape estimates: evidence from a quasi-experimental design. Violence Against Women. 2009;15:133-47 pubmed publisher
    The measurement of rape is among the leading methodological issues in the violence against women field. Methodological discussion continues to focus on decreasing measurement errors and improving the accuracy of rape estimates...
  19. Nerøien A, Schei B. Partner violence and health: results from the first national study on violence against women in Norway. Scand J Public Health. 2008;36:161-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Partner violence is common and was associated with a range of somatic and mental health problems. Thus, violence against women by their partners is an important public health concern. ..
  20. Littleton H. An evaluation of the coping patterns of rape victims: integration with a schema-based information-processing model. Violence Against Women. 2007;13:789-801 pubmed
    ..To test this hypothesis, a cluster analysis of rape victims' coping patterns was conducted...
  21. Avegno J, Mills T, Mills L. Sexual assault victims in the emergency department: analysis by demographic and event characteristics. J Emerg Med. 2009;37:328-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Differences between patients according to demographic and event characteristics may have important implications for ED management and treatment plans. ..
  22. Jaycox L, Zoellner L, Foa E. Cognitive-behavior therapy for PTSD in rape survivors. J Clin Psychol. 2002;58:891-906 pubmed
    ..In this article, we present a model of cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) for PTSD in rape survivors...
  23. Limb S, Kawsar M, Forster G. HIV post-exposure prophylaxis after sexual assault: the experience of a sexual assault service in London. Int J STD AIDS. 2002;13:602-5 pubmed
    ..The uptake and adverse events of HAART in this scenario were similar to previously published studies. A multidisciplinary approach to the management of this patient group will improve adherence to PEP. ..
  24. Kerr E, Cottee C, Chowdhury R, Jawad R, Welch J. The Haven: a pilot referral centre in London for cases of serious sexual assault. BJOG. 2003;110:267-71 pubmed
    Several schemes have been reported to improve treatment of rape and to encourage reporting...
  25. Drobnic K. Analysis of DNA evidence recovered from epithelial cells in penile swabs. Croat Med J. 2003;44:350-4 pubmed
    In the rape case presented here, no semen, hair, or other biological evidence were left by the perpetuator at the crime scene or on the victim. The alleged assailant was arrested soon after the crime...
  26. Coggins M, Bullock L. The wavering line in the sand: the effects of domestic violence and sexual coercion. Issues Ment Health Nurs. 2003;24:723-38 pubmed
    ..Health care providers can use this information to better understand their clients, to assist them in obtaining and using effective contraception, and to support clients as they make their decisions. ..
  27. Islam M, Islam M. Retrospective study of alleged rape victims attended at Forensic Medicine Department of Dhaka Medical College, Bangladesh. Leg Med (Tokyo). 2003;5 Suppl 1:S351-3 pubmed
    ..We carried out a retrospective study of 675 alleged rape victims out of total examined 1665 cases during 1994-2000...
  28. Khaldi N, Miras A, Botti K, Benali L, Gromb S. Evaluation of three rapid detection methods for the forensic identification of seminal fluid in rape cases. J Forensic Sci. 2004;49:749-53 pubmed
    ..Unlike cytology, results obtained with AP and PSA were not influenced by spermatozoa concentration. PSA detection results remained constant up to 72 h and were more reliable after 48 h than those obtained by AP detection. ..
  29. Voorhees J, Ferrance J, Landers J. Enhanced elution of sperm from cotton swabs via enzymatic digestion for rape kit analysis. J Forensic Sci. 2006;51:574-9 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that cellulose-digesting enzymes enhance the release of sperm and epithelial cells from a cotton swab over buffer alone, providing for efficient DNA analysis. ..
  30. Logan T, Evans L, Stevenson E, Jordan C. Barriers to services for rural and urban survivors of rape. J Interpers Violence. 2005;20:591-616 pubmed
    A significant proportion of survivors of rape do not utilize formal services to cope with the aftermath of rape...
  31. Wyatt G, Myers H, Williams J, Kitchen C, Loeb T, Carmona J, et al. Does a history of trauma contribute to HIV risk for women of color? Implications for prevention and policy. Am J Public Health. 2002;92:660-5 pubmed
    ..Trauma history was a general risk factor for women, irrespective of race/ethnicity. Limited material resources, exposure to violence, and high-risk sexual behaviors were the best predictors of HIV risk. ..
  32. Nishith P, Resick P, Griffin M. Pattern of change in prolonged exposure and cognitive-processing therapy for female rape victims with posttraumatic stress disorder. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2002;70:880-6 pubmed
    Curve estimation techniques were used to identify the pattern of therapeutic change in female rape victims with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)...
  33. Santtila P, Zappalà A, Laukkanen M, Picozzi M. Testing the utility of a geographical profiling approach in three rape series of a single offender: a case study. Forensic Sci Int. 2003;131:42-52 pubmed
    ..The functions used showed less predictive ability when the offender was a commuter. Explanations for the variations in the findings as well as suggestions for improvements were outlined in the discussion. ..
  34. Robertson J. Rape among incarcerated men: sex, coercion and STDs. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2003;17:423-30 pubmed
    ..Criminologists have yet to reach consensus on the prevalence of male inmate-on-inmate rape. The leading prevalence studies found that 7-12% of the responding male inmates had been raped an average of nine ..
  35. Campbell R, Sefl T, Ahrens C. The impact of rape on women's sexual health risk behaviors. Health Psychol. 2004;23:67-74 pubmed
    This study used cluster analysis to identify three patterns of sexual health risk behaviors in a sample of adult rape survivors (N=102)...
  36. Mohler Kuo M, Dowdall G, Koss M, Wechsler H. Correlates of rape while intoxicated in a national sample of college women. J Stud Alcohol. 2004;65:37-45 pubmed
    Heavy alcohol use is widespread among college students, particularly in those social situations where the risk of rape rises. Few studies have provided information on rapes of college women that occur when they are intoxicated...
  37. Carries S, Muller F, Muller F, Morroni C, Wilson D. Characteristics, treatment, and antiretroviral prophylaxis adherence of South African rape survivors. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2007;46:68-71 pubmed
    To assess the characteristics, treatment received, and adherence to antiretroviral prophylaxis among South African rape survivors...
  38. Templeton D, Davies S, Garvin A, Garsia R. The uptake of HIV post-exposure prophylaxis within a sexual assault setting in Sydney, Australia. Int J STD AIDS. 2005;16:108-11 pubmed
    ..In this study, HIV PEP, when prescribed, was in accord with existing guidelines. Future studies should aim to better document HIV seroconversions in victims of sexual assault and HIV seroprevalence in assailants. ..
  39. Yuan N, Koss M, Polacca M, Goldman D. Risk factors for physical assault and rape among six Native American tribes. J Interpers Violence. 2006;21:1566-90 pubmed
    Prevalence and correlates of adult physical assault and rape in six Native American tribes are presented (N = 1,368). Among women, 45% reported being physically assaulted and 14% were raped since age 18 years...
  40. Zinzow H, Resnick H, Amstadter A, McCauley J, Ruggiero K, Kilpatrick D. Drug- or alcohol-facilitated, incapacitated, and forcible rape in relationship to mental health among a national sample of women. J Interpers Violence. 2010;25:2217-36 pubmed publisher
    b>Rape is a well-established risk factor for mental health disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression...
  41. Silva M, Billings D, Garcia S, Lara D. Physicians' agreement with and willingness to provide abortion services in the case of pregnancy from rape in Mexico. Contraception. 2009;79:56-64 pubmed publisher
    In Mexico, abortion is not penalized when a woman gets pregnant as a result of rape, yet access to abortion services is limited...
  42. Loiselle M, Fuqua W. Alcohol's effects on women's risk detection in a date-rape vignette. J Am Coll Health. 2007;55:261-6 pubmed
    Researchers have established that alcohol is a risk factor for date rape for both victims and perpetrators...
  43. Jewkes R, Martin L, Penn Kekana L. The virgin cleansing myth: cases of child rape are not exotic. Lancet. 2002;359:711 pubmed
  44. Zinzow H, Resnick H, McCauley J, Amstadter A, Ruggiero K, Kilpatrick D. The role of rape tactics in risk for posttraumatic stress disorder and major depression: results from a national sample of college women. Depress Anxiety. 2010;27:708-15 pubmed publisher
    College women are at high risk for substance-involved rape. However, most studies have focused on forcible rape and have not differentiated these tactics from tactics that involve drug or alcohol intoxication...
  45. Townsend L, Jewkes R, Mathews C, Johnston L, Flisher A, Zembe Y, et al. HIV risk behaviours and their relationship to intimate partner violence (IPV) among men who have multiple female sexual partners in Cape Town, South Africa. AIDS Behav. 2011;15:132-41 pubmed publisher
  46. Elklit A, Christiansen D. ASD and PTSD in rape victims. J Interpers Violence. 2010;25:1470-88 pubmed publisher
    ..The predictive power of ASD on PTSD was examined in a population of 148 female rape victims who visited a center for rape victims shortly after the rape or attempted rape...
  47. Kaestle C, Halpern C, Brown J. Music videos, pro wrestling, and acceptance of date rape among middle school males and females: an exploratory analysis. J Adolesc Health. 2007;40:185-7 pubmed
    Exposure to televised music videos and pro wrestling were associated with rape acceptance (lower levels of agreeing with the statement "forcing a partner to have sex is never OK") among males, but not females, in a sample of 904 ..
  48. Muganyizi P, Kilewo C, Moshiro C. Rape against women: the magnitude, perpetrators and patterns of disclosure of events in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Afr J Reprod Health. 2004;8:137-46 pubmed
    ..The objectives were to establish the magnitude of rape against women, the perpetrators, disclosure of events and other related factors...
  49. Donovan P. Rape and HIV/AIDS in Rwanda. Lancet. 2002;360 Suppl:s17-8 pubmed
  50. Sims C, Noel N, Maisto S. Rape blame as a function of alcohol presence and resistance type. Addict Behav. 2007;32:2766-75 pubmed
    Attributions of rape blame may be related to variables such as alcohol presence and resistance type used during a sexual assault...
  51. Koss M, Figueredo A, Prince R. Cognitive mediation of rape's mental, physical, and social health impact: tests of four models in cross-sectional data. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2002;70:926-41 pubmed
    Four nested, theoretically specified, increasingly complex models were tested representing cognitive mediation of rape's effects on mental, physical, and social health. Data were cross-sectional (N = 253 rape survivors)...
  52. Welch J, Mason F. Rape and sexual assault. BMJ. 2007;334:1154-8 pubmed
  53. Griffin M. A prospective assessment of auditory startle alterations in rape and physical assault survivors. J Trauma Stress. 2008;21:91-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings lend support to a sensitization model of trauma reactivity in which startle response develops over time along with PTSD symptoms. ..