human body


Summary: The human being as a non-anatomical and non-zoological entity. The emphasis is on the philosophical or artistic treatment of the human being, and includes lay and social attitudes toward the body in history. (From J. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)

Top Publications

  1. Ding T, Schloss P. Dynamics and associations of microbial community types across the human body. Nature. 2014;509:357-60 pubmed publisher
    ..HMP) was to provide a reference collection of 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences collected from sites across the human body that would allow microbiologists to better associate changes in the microbiome with changes in health...
  2. Taylor S, Wilson D. The Human Tissue Act (2004), anatomical examination and the importance of body donation in Northern Ireland. Ulster Med J. 2007;76:124-6 pubmed
  3. Schicktanz S. Why the way we consider the body matters - reflections on four bioethical perspectives on the human body. Philos Ethics Humanit Med. 2007;2:30 pubmed
    Within the context of applied bioethical reasoning, various conceptions of the human body are focused upon by the author in relation to normative notions of autonomy...
  4. Thierry G, Pegna A, Dodds C, Roberts M, Basan S, Downing P. An event-related potential component sensitive to images of the human body. Neuroimage. 2006;32:871-9 pubmed
    ..In Experiment 1, a comparison of ERPs elicited by faces, bodies, objects and places showed that pictures of the human body (without the head) elicit a negative component peaking at 190 ms (an N190)...
  5. Lepicard E. An alternative to the cosmic and mechanic metaphors for the human body? The house illustration in Ma'aseh Tuviyah (1708). Med Hist. 2008;52:93-105 pubmed
  6. Schweda M, Schicktanz S. Public moralities concerning donation and disposition of organs: results from a cross-European study. Camb Q Healthc Ethics. 2008;17:308-17 pubmed publisher
  7. Minnebusch D, Suchan B, Daum I. Losing your head: behavioral and electrophysiological effects of body inversion. J Cogn Neurosci. 2009;21:865-74 pubmed publisher
    The present study aimed to further explore the mechanisms underlying the perception of human body shapes...
  8. Moseley G, Olthof N, Venema A, Don S, Wijers M, Gallace A, et al. Psychologically induced cooling of a specific body part caused by the illusory ownership of an artificial counterpart. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:13169-73 pubmed publisher
  9. Pichon S, de Gelder B, Grezes J. Emotional modulation of visual and motor areas by dynamic body expressions of anger. Soc Neurosci. 2008;3:199-212 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Aleong R, Paus T. Neural correlates of human body perception. J Cogn Neurosci. 2010;22:482-95 pubmed publisher
    ..novel in that they address potential sex differences in the lateralization of EBA and FBA responses to human body images...
  2. Glover P. Interaction of MRI field gradients with the human body. Phys Med Biol. 2009;54:R99-R115 pubmed publisher
    ..The experimental measurements, and analytic and computational modelling work in this area are reviewed. The review concludes with a discussion of current regulation in this area and current practice as both are applied to MRI. ..
  3. Courtiol A, Picq S, Godelle B, Raymond M, Ferdy J. From preferred to actual mate characteristics: the case of human body shape. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e13010 pubmed publisher
  4. Hugill N, Fink B, Neave N. The role of human body movements in mate selection. Evol Psychol. 2010;8:66-89 pubmed
  5. Song Y, Hao Q, Zhang K, Wang J, Jin X, Sun H. Signal transmission in a human body medium-based body sensor network using a Mach-Zehnder electro-optical sensor. Sensors (Basel). 2012;12:16557-70 pubmed publisher
    The signal transmission technology based on the human body medium offers significant advantages in Body Sensor Networks (BSNs) used for healthcare and the other related fields...
  6. Courtiol A, Ferdy J, Godelle B, Raymond M, Claude J. Height and body mass influence on human body outlines: a quantitative approach using an elliptic Fourier analysis. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2010;142:22-9 pubmed publisher
    Many studies use representations of human body outlines to study how individual characteristics, such as height and body mass, affect perception of body shape. These typically involve reality-based stimuli (e.g...
  7. Ullah S, Higgins H, Braem B, Latré B, Blondia C, Moerman I, et al. A comprehensive survey of Wireless Body Area Networks : on PHY, MAC, and Network layers solutions. J Med Syst. 2012;36:1065-94 pubmed publisher
    ..collection of low-power, miniaturized, invasive/non-invasive lightweight wireless sensor nodes that monitor the human body functions and the surrounding environment...
  8. Lenochova P, Roberts S, Havlicek J. Methods of human body odor sampling: the effect of freezing. Chem Senses. 2009;34:127-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Again no differences in subjective ratings were observed. These results suggest that freezing has no significant effect on perceived odor hedonicity and that samples can be reliably used after storage for relatively long periods. ..
  9. Willcock E, Imuta K, Hayne H. Children's human figure drawings do not measure intellectual ability. J Exp Child Psychol. 2011;110:444-52 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the DAP:QSS is not a valid measure of intellectual ability and should not be used as a screening tool. ..
  10. Hietanen J, Nummenmaa L. The naked truth: the face and body sensitive N170 response is enhanced for nude bodies. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e24408 pubmed publisher
    ..Such facilitated visual processing of other people's nude bodies is possibly beneficial in identifying potential mating partners and competitors, and for triggering sexual behavior. ..
  11. Sabatini A. Estimating three-dimensional orientation of human body parts by inertial/magnetic sensing. Sensors (Basel). 2011;11:1489-525 pubmed publisher
    ..robotics, virtual reality, where they can also be applied for real-time tracking of the orientation of human body parts in the three-dimensional (3D) space...
  12. Vermeeren G, Joseph W, Martens L. Statistical multi-path exposure method for assessing the whole-body SAR in a heterogeneous human body model in a realistic environment. Bioelectromagnetics. 2013;34:240-51 pubmed publisher
    ..This article describes the development of a statistical multi-path exposure method for heterogeneous realistic human body models. The method is applied for the 6-year-old Virtual Family boy (VFB) exposed to the GSM downlink at 950?MHz...
  13. Nie Z, Ma J, Li Z, Chen H, Wang L. Dynamic propagation channel characterization and modeling for human body communication. Sensors (Basel). 2012;12:17569-87 pubmed publisher
    This paper presents the first characterization and modeling of dynamic propagation channels for human body communication (HBC). In-situ experiments were performed using customized transceivers in an anechoic chamber...
  14. Urgesi C, Candidi M, Ionta S, Aglioti S. Representation of body identity and body actions in extrastriate body area and ventral premotor cortex. Nat Neurosci. 2007;10:30-1 pubmed
    ..This double dissociation suggests that whereas extrastriate body area mainly processes actors' body identity, premotor cortex is crucial for visual discriminations of actions. ..
  15. Taylor J, Wiggett A, Downing P. Functional MRI analysis of body and body part representations in the extrastriate and fusiform body areas. J Neurophysiol. 2007;98:1626-33 pubmed
    ..Specifically, we hypothesize that the EBA analyzes bodies at the level of parts (as has been proposed for faces in the OFA), whereas FBA (by analogy to FFA) may have a role in processing the configuration of body parts into wholes. ..
  16. Downing P, Jiang Y, Shuman M, Kanwisher N. A cortical area selective for visual processing of the human body. Science. 2001;293:2470-3 pubmed faces, few studies have considered the cortical representation of the appearance of the rest of the human body. We present a series of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies revealing substantial evidence for ..
  17. Schwoebel J, Coslett H. Evidence for multiple, distinct representations of the human body. J Cogn Neurosci. 2005;17:543-53 pubmed
    ..studies have suggested distinctions among structural, conceptual, and online sensorimotor representations of the human body. We developed a battery of tasks to further examine the prevalence and anatomic substrates of these body ..
  18. Peelen M, Downing P. Selectivity for the human body in the fusiform gyrus. J Neurophysiol. 2005;93:603-8 pubmed
    ..These results challenge accounts of the mid-fusiform gyrus that focus solely on faces and suggest that this region contains multiple distinct category-selective neural representations. ..
  19. Stekelenburg J, de Gelder B. The neural correlates of perceiving human bodies: an ERP study on the body-inversion effect. Neuroreport. 2004;15:777-80 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that, like faces, bodies are processed configurally, and that within each category qualitative differences are observed for emotional as opposed to neutral images. ..
  20. Coslett H, Lie E. Bare hands and attention: evidence for a tactile representation of the human body. Neuropsychologia. 2004;42:1865-76 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that the hand may serve as a conduit for attention and provide strong evidence for a distinct representation of the body surface that is at least in part independent of spatial representations. ..
  21. Matto H. Investigating the validity of the Draw-A-Person: Screening Procedure for Emotional Disturbance: a measurement validation study with high-risk youth. Psychol Assess. 2002;14:221-5 pubmed
    ..Findings lend preliminary support to the DAP:SPED's validity in providing assessment information about child behavioral functioning. Continued validation investigation along these lines is recommended. ..
  22. Green R. What does it mean to use someone as "a means only": rereading Kant. Kennedy Inst Ethics J. 2001;11:247-61 pubmed
    ..Only the third of these interpretations, I conclude, offers a reasonable and coherent approach to moral judgment about the limits of commodification. ..
  23. Urgesi C, Berlucchi G, Aglioti S. Magnetic stimulation of extrastriate body area impairs visual processing of nonfacial body parts. Curr Biol. 2004;14:2130-4 pubmed
    Functional magnetic resonance imaging indicates that observation of the human body induces a selective activation of a lateral occipitotemporal cortical area called extrastriate body area (EBA)...
  24. McClintock M, Bullivant S, Jacob S, Spencer N, Zelano B, Ober C. Human body scents: conscious perceptions and biological effects. Chem Senses. 2005;30 Suppl 1:i135-7 pubmed
  25. Smith B, Munn K, Papakin I. Bodily systems and the spatial-functional structure of the human body. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2004;102:39-63 pubmed
    The human body is a system made of systems...
  26. Ramanathan N. A NEW WEIGHTING SYSTEM FOR MEAN SURFACE TEMPERATURE OF THE HUMAN BODY. J Appl Physiol. 1964;19:531-3 pubmed
  27. Winkler C, Rhodes G. Perceptual adaptation affects attractiveness of female bodies. Br J Psychol. 2005;96:141-54 pubmed
    ..Substantial changes in what looked normal were accompanied by congruent changes in what looked attractive, suggesting that a normal or average body shape may function as a reference point against which body attractiveness is judged. ..
  28. Sharp L. The commodification of the body and its parts. Annu Rev Anthropol. 2000;29:287-328 pubmed
    The human body--and its parts--has long been a target for commodification within myriad cultural settings...
  29. Ehrsson H, Holmes N, Passingham R. Touching a rubber hand: feeling of body ownership is associated with activity in multisensory brain areas. J Neurosci. 2005;25:10564-73 pubmed
    ..We propose that this could be the mechanism for the feeling of body ownership. ..
  30. Schwarzlose R, Baker C, Kanwisher N. Separate face and body selectivity on the fusiform gyrus. J Neurosci. 2005;25:11055-9 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate strong selectivities in distinct but adjacent regions in the fusiform gyrus for only faces in one region (the FFA*) and only bodies in the other (the FBA*). ..
  31. Wilkinson S. Commodification arguments for the legal prohibition of organ sale. Health Care Anal. 2000;8:189-201 pubmed
    ..Secondly, in the light of this analysis, the claim that organ sale involves commodifying the human body is examined...
  32. Kamel Boulos M, Roudsari A, Carso N E. HealthCyberMap: a semantic visual browser of medical Internet resources based on clinical codes and the human body metaphor. Health Info Libr J. 2002;19:189-200 pubmed
    ..HCM also introduces a useful form of cyberspatial analysis for the detection of topical coverage gaps in the resource metadata base using choropleth (shaded) maps of human body systems.
  33. Gliga T, Dehaene Lambertz G. Structural encoding of body and face in human infants and adults. J Cogn Neurosci. 2005;17:1328-40 pubmed
    ..This could either be related to an innate knowledge of this particular type of biological object, or to fast learning through intense exposure during the first months of life. ..
  34. Reed C, Nyberg A, Grubb J. Contributions of visual and embodied expertise to body perception. Perception. 2012;41:436-46 pubmed
    Recent research has demonstrated that our perception of the human body differs from that of inanimate objects...
  35. Cleret de Langavant L, Trinkler I, Remy P, Thirioux B, McIntyre J, Berthoz A, et al. Viewing another person's body as a target object: a behavioural and PET study of pointing. Neuropsychologia. 2012;50:1801-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Strikingly, their performance gradually improves for figurative human body targets...
  36. Bolt S, Eisinga R, Altena M, Venbrux E, Gerrits P. Over my dead body: body donation and the rise in donor registrations in The Netherlands. Omega (Westport). 2012;66:57-77 pubmed
    ..We argue that the choice for body donation in contemporary, individualized Dutch society is an autonomous way to give meaning and sense to life and death outside the framework of institutionalized religion. ..
  37. Wancata A. No value for a pound of flesh: extending market-inalienability of the human body. J Law Health. 2003;18:199-228 pubmed
  38. Camões Costa V, Erjavec M, Horne P. The impact of body-part-naming training on the accuracy of imitative performances in 2- to 3-year-old children. J Exp Anal Behav. 2011;96:291-315 pubmed publisher
    ..This demonstration has a bearing on our interpretation of imitation reported in the behavior analytic, cognitive developmental, and comparative literature. ..
  39. Svoboda J. Circumcision of male infants as a human rights violation. J Med Ethics. 2013;39:469-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Social norm theory predicts that once the circumcision rate falls below a critical value, the social norms that currently distort our perception of the practice will dissolve and rates will quickly fall. ..
  40. da Rocha A, Tormes D, Lehmann N, Schwab R, Canto R. The body donation program at the Federal University of Health Sciences of Porto Alegre: a successful experience in Brazil. Anat Sci Educ. 2013;6:199-204 pubmed publisher
    ..Consequently, the quality and quantity of the material available for educational purposes have greatly improved. ..
  41. Segura Jorda G. [The wounded body, knowledge and art symbolism]. Rev Enferm. 2011;34:42-6 pubmed
    ..Different disciplines such as anthropology history and philosophy medicine, and now the art, we have provided different interpretations about the meaning representation and wounded human body through the centuries.
  42. Vigarello G. [A researcher's itinary on the history of the body]. Gesnerus. 2013;70:7-16 pubmed
    ..In such a perspective, the history of the body sheds light on a specific era, underlines its culture, while indicating its possible homogeneity. ..
  43. Ward R, Campbell S. Mixing methods to explore appearance in dementia care. Dementia (London). 2013;12:337-47 pubmed publisher
  44. Kim K, Sim H, Shin J, Hwang J, Lee S. The Relationship between Explanation and Patient Compliance in Hirudotherapy. Arch Craniofac Surg. 2017;18:179-185 pubmed publisher
    ..Also because of the biological traits that leeches carry; staying attached to a leg or other body parts of the host, sucking blood, and leaving wounds...
  45. Thakkar K, Nichols H, McIntosh L, Park S. Disturbances in body ownership in schizophrenia: evidence from the rubber hand illusion and case study of a spontaneous out-of-body experience. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e27089 pubmed publisher
    ..We aimed to assess the RHI in schizophrenia using quantifiable measures: proprioceptive drift and stimulation-dependent changes in hand temperature...
  46. Blay J. [Fragments and body unity: questions and artistic opinions of neoclassical and realist painters in France in the first half of the 19th century]. Stadion (Koln). 2002;28:155-71 pubmed
  47. Cerveri P, Sarro K, Marchente M, Barros R. Isomap transform for segmenting human body shapes. Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin. 2011;14:783-95 pubmed publisher
    Segmentation of the 3D human body is a very challenging problem in applications exploiting volume capture data. Direct clustering in the Euclidean space is usually complex or even unsolvable...
  48. Bolt S, Eisinga R, Venbrux E, Kuks J, Gerrits P. Personality and motivation for body donation. Ann Anat. 2011;193:112-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This is a fruitful starting point for approaching potential donors and anticipating their needs. ..
  49. Castro F, de Araújo Lopes F. Romantic preferences in Brazilian undergraduate students: from the short term to the long term. J Sex Res. 2011;48:479-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Resource-related traits were less important than the other traits, and were more important for women than for men. ..
  50. Yovel G, Pelc T, Lubetzky I. It's all in your head: why is the body inversion effect abolished for headless bodies?. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform. 2010;36:759-67 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that intact discrimination of body posture relies heavily on the head position. Our findings also imply that the BIE and the face inversion effect may be generated by different mechanisms. ..
  51. Petkova V, Ehrsson H. When right feels left: referral of touch and ownership between the hands. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6933 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding is important because it reveals a new bilateral multisensory mechanism for tactile perception and limb ownership. ..
  52. Waltz E. The body snatchers. Nat Med. 2006;12:487-8 pubmed
  53. Cohen E. Biotechnology and the spirit of capitalism. New Atlantis. 2006;12:9-23 pubmed