arab world


Summary: A historical and cultural entity dispersed across a wide geographical area under the administrative, intellectual, social, and cultural domination of the Arab empire. The Arab world, under the impetus of Islam, by the eighth century A.D., extended from Arabia in the Middle East to all of northern Africa, southern Spain, Sardinia, and Sicily. Close contact was maintained with Greek and Jewish culture. While the principal service of the Arabs to medicine was the preservation of Greek culture, the Arabs themselves were the originators of algebra, chemistry, geology, and many of the refinements of civilization. (From A. Castiglioni, A History of Medicine, 2d ed, p260; from F. H. Garrison, An Introduction to the History of Medicine, 4th ed, p126)

Top Publications

  1. Boutayeb A, Serghini M. Health indicators and human development in the Arab region. Int J Health Geogr. 2006;5:61 pubmed
    ..pragmatic strategies susceptible to improve health conditions and consequently enhance human development in the Arab world. Data analysis using Principal Components Analysis is used to compare the achievements of the Arab countries in ..
  2. Afifi M. Mental health publications from the Arab world cited in PubMed, 1987-2002. East Mediterr Health J. 2005;11:319-28 pubmed
    ..Child psychiatry, especially attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and child autism, are not gaining much interest from Arab researchers. ..
  3. Takriti Y, El Sayeh H, Adams C. Internet-based search of randomised trials relevant to mental health originating in the Arab world. BMC Psychiatry. 2005;5:30 pubmed
    ..The population of the Arab World is comparable to that of the United States, yet it is widely believed to have a greatly contrasting output of ..
  4. Mokdad A, Jaber S, Aziz M, Albuhairan F, Alghaithi A, Alhamad N, et al. The state of health in the Arab world, 1990-2010: an analysis of the burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors. Lancet. 2014;383:309-20 pubmed publisher
    The Arab world has a set of historical, geopolitical, social, cultural, and economic characteristics and has been involved in several wars that have affected the burden of disease...
  5. Al Gazali L, Hamamy H, Al Arrayad S. Genetic disorders in the Arab world. BMJ. 2006;333:831-4 pubmed
  6. El Ansari W, Afifi Soweid R, Jabbour S. Geography of biomedical publications. Lancet. 2004;363:489; author reply 489-90 pubmed
  7. Miqdady M, Hayajneh W, Abdelhadi R, Gilger M. Ketamine and midazolam sedation for pediatric gastrointestinal endoscopy in the Arab world. World J Gastroenterol. 2011;17:3630-5 pubmed publisher
    ..the safety and effectiveness of intravenous ketamine-midazolam sedation during pediatric endoscopy in the Arab world. A retrospective cohort study of all pediatric endoscopic procedures performed between 2002-2008 at the shared ..
  8. Al Sayyari A. The history of renal transplantation in the Arab world: a view from Saudi Arabia. Am J Kidney Dis. 2008;51:1033-46 pubmed publisher
    The first successful renal transplantation in the Arab world took place in Jordan in 1972. Surprisingly, the kidney transplanted was from a non-heart-beating deceased donor...
  9. Adib S. From the biomedical model to the Islamic alternative: a brief overview of medical practices in the contemporary Arab world. Soc Sci Med. 2004;58:697-702 pubmed
    Following its climax in the 8th century under the Abbasids of Baghdad, the Arab world entered a prolonged period of division and decadence...

More Information


  1. Tadmouri G. Biomedical science journals in the Arab world. Saudi Med J. 2004;25:1331-6 pubmed
    ..At present, modern scientific publishing in the Arab world is in its developmental stage...
  2. Al Khader A. Enhancing research productivity in the Arab world. Saudi Med J. 2004;25:1323-7 pubmed
  3. Rahim H, Sibai A, Khader Y, Hwalla N, Fadhil I, Alsiyabi H, et al. Non-communicable diseases in the Arab world. Lancet. 2014;383:356-67 pubmed publisher
    ..burden of non-communicable diseases (cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic lung diseases, and diabetes) in the Arab world has increased, with variations between countries of different income levels...
  4. Jaalouk D, Okasha A, Salamoun M, Karam E. Mental health research in the Arab world. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2012;47:1727-31 pubmed publisher
    To assess the progression of mental health research over four decades in the Arab world. Publications on mental health in 21 Arab countries from 1966 to 2006 were screened using PubMed and Psychinfo...
  5. Jabbour S. Health and development in the Arab world: which way forward?. BMJ. 2003;326:1141-3 pubmed
  6. Mahmadani A, Al G, Othman O. [Medical school's experience with Arabization 1993-2003: Gezira University]. East Mediterr Health J. 2005;11:175-80 pubmed
    ..The successes, failures, problems and obstacles are discussed in detail. The paper concludes with discussion and recommendations on how to boost success in Arabization based on previous experience. ..
  7. Nehring V. A snapshot of nursing in Qatar. Nurs Educ Perspect. 2003;24:226-9 pubmed
    ..She left the region shortly before the military action began. ..
  8. Abbes A, Balabane M, Farjoun E, Harris M, Rouquier R, Schapira P. Palestinian scientists are already restricted. Nature. 2002;417:221-2 pubmed
  9. Kandil O. The pharmaceutical industry in the Arab world: challenges, controversies, and future outlook. Drug Discov Today. 2004;9:543-5 pubmed
  10. Afifi M. Plagiarism is not fair play. Lancet. 2007;369:1428 pubmed
  11. Ghandour L, Chalak A, El Aily A, Yassin N, Nakkash R, Tauk M, et al. Alcohol consumption in the Arab region: What do we know, why does it matter, and what are the policy implications for youth harm reduction?. Int J Drug Policy. 2016;28:10-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The Arab world includes 22 diverse countries stretching from North Africa to Western Asia having varying dispositions with ..
  12. Abyad A. Science networks spread throughout the Arab world. Nature. 2006;443:144 pubmed
  13. Hankir A, Sadiq A. Lessons from psychiatry in the Arab world--a Lebanese trainee psychiatrist's qualitative views on the provision of mental healthcare services for Palestinian refugees in Lebanon and an interview with a consultant psychiatrist on the effects of the Ar. Psychiatr Danub. 2013;25 Suppl 2:S345-9 pubmed
  14. Jabbour S, El Zein A, Nuwayhid I, Giacaman R. Can action on health achieve political and social reform?. BMJ. 2006;333:837-9 pubmed
  15. Abdel Halim R, Elfaqih S. Pericardial pathology 900 years ago. A study and translations from an Arabic medical textbook. Saudi Med J. 2007;28:323-5 pubmed
    ..However, his description of solid substances accumulating on the inside of the hearts covering looking like layers upon layers of membranes could not have been made possible without post-mortem dissection. ..
  16. Hoffman J. Now in Arabic... Science classics get translated. Nature. 2007;450:591 pubmed
  17. Abdalla F, St Louis K. Arab school teachers' knowledge, beliefs and reactions regarding stuttering. J Fluency Disord. 2012;37:54-69 pubmed publisher
  18. Vasalou S. Subject and body in Basran Mu'tazilism, or: Mu'tazilite kal?m and the fear of triviality. Arab Sci Philos. 2007;17:267-98 pubmed
  19. Falagas M, Zarkadoulia E, Samonis G. Arab science in the golden age (750-1258 C.E.) and today. FASEB J. 2006;20:1581-6 pubmed
  20. Elshakry M. Knowledge in motion: The cultural politics of modern science translations in Arabic. Isis. 2008;99:701-30 pubmed
    ..The essay concludes by arguing for the need for greater attention to the local factors involved in the translation of scientific concepts across borders. ..
  21. Fins J, Rodriguez del Pozo P. The hidden and implicit curricula in cultural context: new insights from Doha and New York. Acad Med. 2011;86:321-5 pubmed publisher
  22. Ricordel J. [Debate about the theriac in Arabic treatises]. Rev Hist Pharm (Paris). 2010;58:271-84 pubmed
    ..These different approaches involve comments and criticisms and bring about the third attitude: a rich debate of ideas. The article proposes to recall through quotations of arab-muslim physicians the evolution of the matter. ..
  23. Bizri O. Arab science is not stifled by censorship. Nature. 2002;416:365 pubmed
  24. Naderi S, Ture U, Pait T. History of the spinal cord localization. Neurosurg Focus. 2004;16:E15 pubmed
    ..Perhaps the next century will provide the answers to today's questions about spinal cord localization. ..
  25. Carusi P. [Birth control and mild therapies in Medieval Islam]. Med Secoli. 2001;13:523-48 pubmed
    ..Birth control is not allowed under particular conditions. The paper deals with the acquisition and reject of Islamic medicine in Western Latin texts from 12th century. ..
  26. Maziak W. Geography of biomedical publications. Lancet. 2004;363:490 pubmed
  27. Ricordel J, Bonmatin J. [Honey's virtues in theriacs]. Rev Hist Pharm (Paris). 2003;51:21-8 pubmed
    ..Honey will be a perfect food and drug if it was not subjected to the digestion's action after its absorption. ..
  28. Pavlidis N, Nicholas P, Gadallah M, Mohsen G, Cavalli F, Franco C, et al. Euro-Arab School of Oncology: an educational collaborative activity of the European School of Oncology with the Arab world. J Cancer Educ. 2011;26:129-33 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we assess the evaluation questionnaires given to the participants during the courses. ..
  29. Youssef H, Youssef F. Evidence for the existence of schizophrenia in medieval Islamic society. Hist Psychiatry. 1996;7:55-62 pubmed
    ..Despite the limitations of the evidence, we propose that medieval Islamic physicians probably diagnosed and treated many cases of schizophrenia. ..
  30. Bigman J. Violence versus freedom. Nature. 2002;417:690 pubmed
  31. HAMDY S. Not quite dead: why Egyptian doctors refuse the diagnosis of death by neurological criteria. Theor Med Bioeth. 2013;34:147-60 pubmed publisher
    ..This misdiagnosis has led to the suspension of a cadaveric procurement program for over 30 years, despite Egypt's pioneering efforts in kidney transplantation. ..
  32. Abdo D. My Qarina, my self: The homoerotic as Islamic feminism in Alifa Rifaat's "My World of the Unknown". J Lesbian Stud. 2012;16:398-415 pubmed publisher
    ..Rifaat reinterprets Islamic teachings and Arabic folklore to show how women's sexuality must be revered rather than feared. ..
  33. Amer S. Naming to empower: lesbianism in the Arab Islamicate world today. J Lesbian Stud. 2012;16:381-97 pubmed publisher
    ..lesbians a rich and empowering indigenous heritage, as well as home-grown modes of resistance that are poised to challenge homophobic attitudes and policies in the Arab world, and the hegemony of Western sexual and cultural imperialism.
  34. Husseini A, Saad R, LaPorte R. Health supercourse to end Arab isolation. Nature. 2002;417:788 pubmed
  35. Hassan M. Building bridges through cooperation in science. Nature. 2003;422:559 pubmed
  36. El Meidany Y, El Gaafary M, Ahmed I. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of an Arabic Health Assessment Questionnaire for use in rheumatoid arthritis patients. Joint Bone Spine. 2003;70:195-202 pubmed
    ..The Arabic HAQ is a reliable and valid instrument that can be self-administered to Arabic RA patients to evaluate their functional disability. Its measurement properties were comparable to versions in other languages. ..
  37. Bildirici M, Kökdener M, Ersin O. An empirical analysis of the effects of consanguineous marriages on economic development. J Fam Hist. 2010;35:368-94 pubmed
    ..It is shown that the countries that have reached high average development within the context of per capita GDP have overcome problems integral to consanguineous marriage. ..
  38. Al Zayed A, Jammah A, Al Nozha M. Physical assault on a medical resident. Saudi Med J. 2003;24:895-7 pubmed
    ..We report a physical assault on a 25-year-old male medical resident who was on-call in the emergency room. Causes of assault on physicians as well as how they can be avoided are discussed. ..
  39. Launer J. Cultural nepotism. QJM. 2004;97:111-2 pubmed
  40. El Miedany Y, Youssef S, Mehanna A, Shebrya N, Abu Gamra S, El Gaafary M. Defining disease status in ankylosing spondylitis: validation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Arabic Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), and the Bath Ankylosing S. Clin Rheumatol. 2008;27:605-12 pubmed publisher
    ..The measurement properties were comparable to versions in other languages indicating that the questionnaires can be used for evaluation of AS Arabic-speaking patients. ..
  41. Shanableh T, Assaleh K, Al Rousan M. Spatio-temporal feature-extraction techniques for isolated gesture recognition in Arabic sign language. IEEE Trans Syst Man Cybern B Cybern. 2007;37:641-50 pubmed
    ..This is actually advantageous for both computational and storage requirements of the classifier. ..
  42. Chedid K, Chedid M. The "tract" of history in the treatment of lumbar degenerative disc disease. Neurosurg Focus. 2004;16:E7 pubmed
    ..In this paper, the authors attempt to outline the history of DDD of the lumbar spine in an unbiased and scientific fashion. Physiological, diagnostic, and therapeutic implications will all be addressed in this study. ..
  43. Makhoul J, El Barbir F. Obstacles to health in the Arab world. BMJ. 2006;333:859 pubmed
  44. Brewer H. Historical perspectives on health. Early Arabic medicine. J R Soc Promot Health. 2004;124:184-7 pubmed
    ..The legacy of Arabic medical care is still with us today and deserves understanding and greater appreciation. ..
  45. Parvari R, Moses S, Hershkovitz E, Carmi R, Bashan N. Characterization of the mutations in the glucose-6-phosphatase gene in Israeli patients with glycogen storage disease type 1a: R83C in six Jews and a novel V166G mutation in a Muslim Arab. J Inherit Metab Dis. 1995;18:21-7 pubmed
    ..These families may benefit now from pre- and postnatal diagnosis by analysis of DNA from blood and amniotic fluid or chorionic villus cells rather than liver biopsy. No mutations in the G6Pase gene were detected in two GSD 1b patients. ..
  46. Barcia Goyanes J. [Persian terminology in Arabic anatomical texts]. Asclepio. 1995;47:23-31 pubmed
  47. Foster A, Wynn L, Rouhana A, Polis C, Trussell J. Reproductive health, the Arab world and the internet: usage patterns of an Arabic-language emergency contraception web site. Contraception. 2005;72:130-7 pubmed
    ..Arabic web site users demonstrate significant interest in general reproductive health issues not specific to EC, suggesting a need for greater availability of Arabic-language health education resources through the Internet. ..
  48. Abdel Fattah M. Arabic sign language: a perspective. J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ. 2005;10:212-21 pubmed
    Sign language in the Arab World has been recently recognized and documented...
  49. Ganayim D, Ibrahim R. How do typographical factors affect reading text and comprehension performance in Arabic?. Hum Factors. 2013;55:323-32 pubmed
  50. Stol M. An Assyriologist reads Hippocrates. Stud Anc Med. 2004;27:63-78 pubmed
    ..They are found in the oldest layer in the Corpus Hippocraticum, De morbis 2.12-75; supposedly 'Cnidian opinions'. A good example is a method of draining pus from the chest that is also found in Babylonia. ..
  51. Mohit A. Mental health and psychiatry in the Middle East: historical development. East Mediterr Health J. 2001;7:336-47 pubmed
    ..The Middle East is considered as a cultural entity and the influence of the beliefs and practices of ancient times on the collective mind of the people of the Region is discussed. ..
  52. Littner M, Littner D. [The history of dentistry along the tunnel of time]. Refuat Hapeh Vehashinayim (1993). 2008;25:47-56 pubmed
  53. Hicdonmez T, Ozek M. Hydrocephalus in Sabuncuo?lu's textbook of surgery: Cerrahiyyet' ul Haniyye. Childs Nerv Syst. 2006;22:545-6 pubmed