group structure


Summary: The informal or formal organization of a group of people based on a network of personal relationships which is influenced by the size and composition, etc., of the group.

Top Publications

  1. Sueur C, Deneubourg J, Petit O, Couzin I. Group size, grooming and fission in primates: a modeling approach based on group structure. J Theor Biol. 2011;273:156-66 pubmed publisher
    ..It could, however, also have implications when considering the cognitive capacities of primates. ..
  2. Dolmans D, Schmidt H. What do we know about cognitive and motivational effects of small group tutorials in problem-based learning?. Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract. 2006;11:321-36 pubmed
    ..Although the studies demonstrate that group learning in PBL may have positive effects, much more research is needed to obtain more evidence and deeper insight in the cognitive and emotional effects of small group learning in PBL. ..
  3. Pagliari C, Grimshaw J. Impact of group structure and process on multidisciplinary evidence-based guideline development: an observational study. J Eval Clin Pract. 2002;8:145-53 pubmed
    ..These findings are likely to generalize to other health care settings in view of the growing emphasis on multidisciplinary decision-making and the clear status hierarchies inherent within the medical and allied fields. ..
  4. Swann W, Milton L, Polzer J. Should we create a niche or fall in line? Identity negotiation and small group effectiveness. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2000;79:238-50 pubmed
    ..In addition, self-verification effects were more prevalent than appraisal effects. The authors discuss the implications of these findings for understanding the links among self-verification, self-categorization, and group outcomes. ..
  5. Iranzo J, Floría L, Moreno Y, Sánchez A. Empathy emerges spontaneously in the ultimatum game: small groups and networks. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e43781 pubmed publisher
  6. Kim Y, Ko E, Lappan S, Kezele A, Kwon S, Choe J. Changes in fecal estrogen levels and sexual behavior in captive sichuan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) following a male replacement. Zoo Biol. 2013;32:342-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide preliminary evidence that social and behavioral changes affect estrogen levels in R. roxellana. ..
  7. Vodosek M. The relationship between relational models and individualism and collectivism: evidence from culturally diverse work groups. Int J Psychol. 2009;44:120-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the findings from this study will enable future researchers to explain and predict what relational models are likely to be used in a certain cultural context. ..
  8. Schönbrodt F, Back M, Schmukle S. TripleR: an R package for social relations analyses based on round-robin designs. Behav Res Methods. 2012;44:455-70 pubmed publisher
    ..The package requires only minimal knowledge of R, and results can be exported for subsequent analyses to other software packages. We demonstrate the use of TripleR with several didactic examples. ..
  9. Whilde J, Marples N. Effect of a birth on the behavior of a family group of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) at Dublin Zoo. Zoo Biol. 2012;31:442-52 pubmed publisher
    ..This type of group structure is very beneficial as it allows group members to experience events such as births in the group, and means ..

More Information


  1. Harkins L, Beech A. Examining the impact of mixing child molesters and rapists in group-based cognitive-behavioral treatment for sexual offenders. Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol. 2008;52:31-45 pubmed
    ..There are no differences in recidivism rates between groups as a function of group composition. The results are discussed in the light of mixing child molesters and rapists in group-based CBT. ..
  2. Gaertner L, Iuzzini J, Witt M, Orina M. Us without them: evidence for an intragroup origin of positive in-group regard. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2006;90:426-39 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that group formation and in-group regard have intragroup origins and do not require comparison with a contrasting social aggregate. ..
  3. Botteldooren D, Lercher P. Soft-computing base analyses of the relationship between annoyance and coping with noise and odor. J Acoust Soc Am. 2004;115:2974-85 pubmed
    ..This closes the loop that is responsible for at least some of the dynamics of the response to a stressor. This work thus provides all essential building blocks for designing models for annoyance in changing environments. ..
  4. See Y, Petty R. Effects of mortality salience on evaluation of ingroup and outgroup sources: the impact of pro- versus counterattitudinal positions. Pers Soc Psychol Bull. 2006;32:405-16 pubmed
  5. Jacobs A, Maumy M, Petit O. The influence of social organisation on leadership in brown lemurs (Eulemur fulvus fulvus) in a controlled environment. Behav Processes. 2008;79:111-3 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support the hypothesis of an influence of social organisation upon the decision-making processes but still remain to be studied in a more relevant ecological context. ..
  6. Bell R, Pliner P. Time to eat: the relationship between the number of people eating and meal duration in three lunch settings. Appetite. 2003;41:215-8 pubmed
  7. Gayle R. Co-creating meaningful structures within long-term psychotherapy group culture. Int J Group Psychother. 2009;59:311-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Three examples of intersubjective hermeneutical interaction within long-term psychotherapy groups lend insight into global, cultural, and societal groups. ..
  8. Schulz Hardt S, Brodbeck F, Mojzisch A, Kerschreiter R, Frey D. Group decision making in hidden profile situations: dissent as a facilitator for decision quality. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2006;91:1080-93 pubmed
    ..The beneficial effect of dissent on group decision quality was mediated primarily by greater discussion intensity and to some extent also by less discussion bias in dissent groups. ..
  9. Fraser S, Spink K. Examining the role of social support and group cohesion in exercise compliance. J Behav Med. 2002;25:233-49 pubmed
    ..As a secondary objective, it was found that cohesion and social support variables both contributed to the successful prediction of attendance. ..
  10. van Knippenberg D, Schippers M. Work group diversity. Annu Rev Psychol. 2007;58:515-41 pubmed
  11. Hoehl M. [Parent-child group concept in the first year of life with BISS (meeting--information--play--fun)]. Kinderkrankenschwester. 2006;25:291-5 pubmed
  12. Pollard K, Blumstein D. Social group size predicts the evolution of individuality. Curr Biol. 2011;21:413-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that social group size may promote the evolution of individual signatures and that the sociality-individuality relationship may be a general phenomenon in nature. ..
  13. Addlakha R. The dilemmas of independent researchers. Indian J Med Ethics. 2005;2:24 pubmed
  14. Sacchi S, Rusconi P, Russo S, Bettiga R, Cherubini P. New knowledge for old credences: asymmetric information search about in-group and out-group members. Br J Soc Psychol. 2012;51:606-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Possible consequences of these hypothesis-testing processes in preserving a positive social identity for intergroup relations are discussed. ..
  15. Porter L. Social organization, reproduction and rearing strategies of Callimico goeldii: new clues from the wild. Folia Primatol (Basel). 2001;72:69-79 pubmed
    ..Postpartum ovulation and aseasonal resource availability appear to permit females to have biannual birth seasons, further increasing the potential reproductive output. ..
  16. Levine M, Prosser A, Evans D, Reicher S. Identity and emergency intervention: how social group membership and inclusiveness of group boundaries shape helping behavior. Pers Soc Psychol Bull. 2005;31:443-53 pubmed
    ..Taken together, the studies show the importance of both shared identity between bystander and victim and the inclusiveness of salient identity for increasing the likelihood of emergency intervention. ..
  17. Bergman J, Rentsch J, Small E, Davenport S, Bergman S. The shared leadership process in decision-making teams. J Soc Psychol. 2012;152:17-42 pubmed
    ..This study supports previous findings that shared leadership contributes to overall team functioning, and begins to delineate the extent to which team members may naturally share leadership. ..
  18. Fischer V. Integrating patients into medical education. GMS Z Med Ausbild. 2012;29:Doc13 pubmed publisher
    ..Because this professional planning is better derived from the legal basis it offers new arguments against an economically oriented hospital management. ..
  19. Schulz Hardt S, Frey D, Lüthgens C, Moscovici S. Biased information search in group decision making. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2000;78:655-69 pubmed
    ..Higher commitment and confidence in homogeneous groups mediated this effect. Functional and dysfunctional aspects of biased information seeking in group decision making are discussed. ..
  20. Webb N. The teacher's role in promoting collaborative dialogue in the classroom. Br J Educ Psychol. 2009;79:1-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Common threads through the research are the importance of students explaining their thinking, and teacher strategies and practices that may promote student elaboration of ideas. ..
  21. Kramer Moore D. Asymmetrical clustering by sex in free-forming groups: an observational field study. Psychol Rep. 2010;107:245-50 pubmed
    ..This was significantly more pronounced among women than among men. Several explanations were considered. ..
  22. Tarantelli C. The Italian Red Brigades and the structure and dynamics of terrorist groups. Int J Psychoanal. 2010;91:541-60 pubmed publisher
  23. Guastello S. Self-organization and leadership emergence in emergency response teams. Nonlinear Dynamics Psychol Life Sci. 2010;14:179-204 pubmed
    ..Group size, group performance, and competitive behavior contributed to the control parameters in the swallowtail model for ER Teams. ..
  24. Prado F, Sheih A, West J, Kerr B. Coevolutionary cycling of host sociality and pathogen virulence in contact networks. J Theor Biol. 2009;261:561-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The way pathogens move through the network (e.g., their interhost transmission and probability of superinfection) and the structure of the network can influence the existence and form of cycling. ..
  25. Cummings J, Kiesler S, Bosagh Zadeh R, Balakrishnan A. Group heterogeneity increases the risks of large group size: a longitudinal study of productivity in research groups. Psychol Sci. 2013;24:880-90 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide evidence that group heterogeneity moderates the effects of group size, and they suggest that desirable diversity in groups may be better leveraged in smaller, more cohesive units. ..
  26. Le Bas P, Bonvalot T, Keromnes F, Gallas J, Palaric R, Roquebert A. [Health and justice coordination in prisons]. Soins Psychiatr. 2016;:24-9 pubmed publisher
    ..It is an invitation to work together around the same population, on their respective and different missions. The implementation of a structured therapeutic group with sex offenders constitutes a positive experience. ..
  27. Hoga L, Reberte L. [Action-research as a strategy to develop pregnant women group: the participants' perception]. Rev Esc Enferm USP. 2007;41:559-66 pubmed
    ..Some limitations imposed by the use of the strategy were mentioned and suggestions for improvement were cited. Based on the group members' positive evaluation, the use of the action-research strategy is encouraged. ..
  28. Cui L, Huo S, Zhong T, Xiang Z, Xiao W, Quan R. Social organization of black-and-white snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) at Deqin, China. Am J Primatol. 2008;70:169-74 pubmed
    ..3 in 1994 to 5.1 in 2001, and then decreasing to 3.8 in 2005. This article suggests three possible explanations for this variation, but more data are needed for these hypotheses to be tested. ..
  29. Gans J, Rutan J, Lape E. The demonstration group: a tool for observing group process and leadership style. Int J Group Psychother. 2002;52:233-52 pubmed
    ..Guidelines that are likely to promote successful demonstration group experiences are provided. The leader's facility with the unconscious defense mechanism of projective identification is stressed. ..
  30. Heetkamp M, Schrama J, Schouten W, Swinkels J. Energy metabolism in young pigs as affected by establishment of new groups prior to transport. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl). 2002;86:144-52 pubmed
    ..This symptom of possible reallocation of energy between different vital live processes (e.g. behavior, protein turn-over) might be one of the first indications of an impaired well-being. ..
  31. Yamaguchi T, Ito M. [Experimental test of the ideal free distribution in humans: the effects of reinforcer magnitude and group size]. Shinrigaku Kenkyu. 2006;76:547-53 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that larger absolute reinforcer magnitude and smaller group size produce higher sensitivity to resource distribution. ..
  32. Forrester W, Tashchian A. Characteristics of work groups and their relationship with social and task cohesion in student teams. Psychol Rep. 2004;95:207-14 pubmed
  33. Goodson J, Evans A, Lindberg L, Allen C. Neuro-evolutionary patterning of sociality. Proc Biol Sci. 2005;272:227-35 pubmed
  34. Braun S, Mejía R, Jaganath R. An Argentinean icon as a useful tool to sell BAT's cigarettes. Tob Control. 2008;17:70 pubmed publisher
  35. Beauchamp G, Ruxton G. Changes in vigilance with group size under scramble competition. Am Nat. 2003;161:672-5 pubmed
  36. Owen J, Antle B, Barbee A. Alliance and group cohesion in relationship education. Fam Process. 2013;52:465-76 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the group dynamics among the members in the group are important ingredients in relationship education. Implications for relationship programs are provided. ..
  37. Abbass A. Small-group videotape training for psychotherapy skills development. Acad Psychiatry. 2004;28:151-5 pubmed
    ..The author concludes that small-group videotape training is an efficient psychotherapy training format that encourages self-monitoring and the exchange of supportive peer feedback. ..
  38. Fuller P. Matching clients to group therapies based on psychological readiness. J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv. 2013;51:22-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This heuristic model can be used to integrate the diverse approaches to group treatment currently in use and to better tailor group interventions to individuals. ..
  39. Pepper J. Relatedness in trait group models of social evolution. J Theor Biol. 2000;206:355-68 pubmed
    ..Recognizing the distinction between these trait types resolves some apparent contradictions in the literature, and clarifies the limits of some previous results. ..
  40. Watts D, Muhamad R, Medina D, Dodds P. Multiscale, resurgent epidemics in a hierarchical metapopulation model. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:11157-62 pubmed
    ..Informed by our model's behavior, we suggest measures for characterizing epidemic thresholds and discuss implications for the control of epidemics. ..
  41. Rydenfält C, Johansson G, Larsson P, Akerman K, Odenrick P. Social structures in the operating theatre: how contradicting rationalities and trust affect work. J Adv Nurs. 2012;68:783-95 pubmed publisher
    ..It can also help to decrease communication thresholds and establish stronger relations of trust. How this organization structure should be developed needs to be further investigated. ..
  42. Hart C, Van Vugt M. From fault line to group fission: understanding membership changes in small groups. Pers Soc Psychol Bull. 2006;32:392-404 pubmed
    ..The authors discuss the implications of these findings for theory and research on membership changes in small groups. ..
  43. Levine M, Taylor P, Best R. Third parties, violence, and conflict resolution: the role of group size and collective action in the microregulation of violence. Psychol Sci. 2011;22:406-12 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude by emphasizing the importance of collective third-party dynamics in understanding conflict resolution. ..
  44. Kilian A. [Concepts in discussion groups in psychiatric outpatient care - an individual "Patchwork Design"? Results of a qualitative investigation]. Psychiatr Prax. 2001;28:383-7 pubmed
  45. Stillman J, Fletcher R, Carr S. Netball team members, but not hobby group members, distinguish team characteristics from group characteristics. J Sport Exerc Psychol. 2007;29:253-66 pubmed
    ..Team and group characteristics were more clearly defined to team members than they were to other participant groups. The research has implications for coaches and practitioners. ..
  46. Ridgers N, Stratton G, McKenzie T. Reliability and validity of the System for Observing Children's Activity and Relationships during Play (SOCARP). J Phys Act Health. 2010;7:17-25 pubmed
    ..SOCARP is a valid and reliable observation system for assessing physical activity and play behavior in a recess context. ..
  47. Voelkl B, Noe R. The influence of social structure on the propagation of social information in artificial primate groups: a graph-based simulation approach. J Theor Biol. 2008;252:77-86 pubmed publisher
    ..The social structure of primate groups is highly diverse and it has been proposed that differences in the group structure shall influence the patterns of social information transmission...
  48. Pisal H, Bandewar S. Research with transgendered people. Indian J Med Ethics. 2005;2:22-3 pubmed
  49. Curşeu P, Schruijer S, Boroş S. Socially rejected while cognitively successful? The impact of minority dissent on groups' cognitive complexity. Br J Soc Psychol. 2012;51:570-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The groups without a history of dissent have the lowest cognitive complexity. ..
  50. Smith T, Tomlinson A, Mlotkiewicz J, Abbott D. Female marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus) can be identified from the chemical composition of their scent marks. Chem Senses. 2001;26:449-58 pubmed
  51. Katabarwa N, Richards F, Ndyomugyenyi R. In rural Ugandan communities the traditional kinship/clan system is vital to the success and sustainment of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2000;94:485-95 pubmed
    ..This effect is of minor importance in a rural disease, such as onchocerciasis, but is likely to be of greater significance in the control of diseases, such as tuberculosis and lymphatic filariasis, which thrive in urban environments. ..
  52. Read S, Urada D. A neural network simulation of the outgroup homogeneity effect. Pers Soc Psychol Rev. 2003;7:146-69 pubmed
    ..The psychological relevance of these parameters and ways to study them are presented. Advantages of the model in terms of breadth of coverage for studying social cognitive phenomena are discussed. ..
  53. Liu Y, Ipe M. How do they become nodes? Revisiting team member network centrality. J Psychol. 2010;144:243-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, results supported the idea that education and team tenure are positively related to network centrality. The authors discuss the theoretical contributions and implications. ..