Summary: Voluntary acceptance of a child of other parents to be as one's own child, usually with legal confirmation.

Top Publications

  1. Barros V, Berger M, Martijena I, Sarchi M, Pérez A, Molina V, et al. Early adoption modifies the effects of prenatal stress on dopamine and glutamate receptors in adult rat brain. J Neurosci Res. 2004;76:488-96 pubmed
    ..Repeated restraint during the last week of pregnancy was used as a model of prenatal stress, and adoption at birth was used to change the postnatal environment...
  2. Pollak S, Nelson C, Schlaak M, Roeber B, Wewerka S, Wiik K, et al. Neurodevelopmental effects of early deprivation in postinstitutionalized children. Child Dev. 2010;81:224-36 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that specific aspects of brain-behavioral circuitry may be particularly vulnerable to postnatal experience. ..
  3. Klump K, Suisman J, Burt S, McGue M, Iacono W. Genetic and environmental influences on disordered eating: An adoption study. J Abnorm Psychol. 2009;118:797-805 pubmed publisher
    ..However, critics argue that study limitations constrain the conclusions that can be drawn. Adoption studies avoid many of these limitations, but to date, no adoption studies of eating pathology have been conducted...
  4. Stover C, Connell C, Leve L, Neiderhiser J, Shaw D, Scaramella L, et al. Fathering and mothering in the family system: linking marital hostility and aggression in adopted toddlers. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2012;53:401-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We used an adoption design to allow for a clear examination of environmental impact rather than shared genes of parents and children, ..
  5. Hendriksen R, Mikoleit M, Kornschober C, Rickert R, Duyne S, Kjelsø C, et al. Emergence of multidrug-resistant salmonella concord infections in Europe and the United States in children adopted from Ethiopia, 2003-2007. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2009;28:814-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Salmonella Concord was isolated from 78 persons from 2003 to 2007. Adoption status was known for 44 patients <or=3 years of age; 98% were adopted from Ethiopia...
  6. Gauthier K, Genesee F. Language development in internationally adopted children: a special case of early second language learning. Child Dev. 2011;82:887-901 pubmed publisher
    ..The results are discussed in terms of possible early age-of-acquisition effects that might affect adopted children's ability to acquire a second first language. ..
  7. Rhoades K, Leve L, Harold G, Neiderhiser J, Shaw D, Reiss D. Longitudinal pathways from marital hostility to child anger during toddlerhood: genetic susceptibility and indirect effects via harsh parenting. J Fam Psychol. 2011;25:282-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that children whose birth mothers report elevated frustration might inherit an emotional lability that makes them more sensitive to the effects of marital hostility. ..
  8. van den Dries L, Juffer F, van IJzendoorn M, Bakermans Kranenburg M. Infants' physical and cognitive development after international adoption from foster care or institutions in China. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2010;31:144-50 pubmed publisher
    ..girls adopted from China, aged between 11 and 16 months on arrival, were visited 2 and 6 months after adoption. Children's height, weight, and head circumference were measured...
  9. Tande D, Boisramé Gastrin S, Munck M, Hery Arnaud G, Gouriou S, Jallot N, et al. Intrafamilial transmission of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica Babelsberg among the families of internationally adopted children. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2010;65:859-65 pubmed publisher
    International adoption from developing countries has become an increasing phenomenon in recent years...

More Information


  1. von Borczyskowski A, Lindblad F, Vinnerljung B, Reintjes R, Hjern A. Familial factors and suicide: an adoption study in a Swedish National Cohort. Psychol Med. 2011;41:749-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Social drift over generations because of psychiatric disorders does not seem likely to explain the association of socio-economic living conditions in childhood to suicide. ..
  2. Petersen L, Sørensen T. The Danish Adoption Register. Scand J Public Health. 2011;39:83-6 pubmed publisher
    The Danish Adoption Register was established in 1963-1964 to explore the genetic and environmental contribution to familial aggregation of schizophrenia...
  3. Miller B, Kroupina M, Iverson S, Masons P, Narad C, Himes J, et al. Auxological evaluation and determinants of growth failure at the time of adoption in Eastern European adoptees. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2009;22:31-9 pubmed
    ..We recommend that IAs undergo screening upon US arrival to identify risk factors for poor growth, particularly evidence of LBW and fetal alcohol exposure. Catch-up growth should be monitored in all children following adoption.
  4. Kendler K, Sundquist K, Ohlsson H, Palmér K, Maes H, Winkleby M, et al. Genetic and familial environmental influences on the risk for drug abuse: a national Swedish adoption study. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2012;69:690-7 pubmed publisher
    ..No large-scale adoption study has previously attempted to verify and integrate these findings...
  5. Briley D, Tucker Drob E. Explaining the increasing heritability of cognitive ability across development: a meta-analysis of longitudinal twin and adoption studies. Psychol Sci. 2013;24:1704-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Results indicated that in early childhood, innovative genetic influences predominate but that innovation quickly diminishes, and amplified influences account for increasing heritability following age 8 years. ..
  6. Jacobs E, Miller L, Tirella L. Developmental and behavioral performance of internationally adopted preschoolers: a pilot study. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev. 2010;41:15-29 pubmed publisher
    ..005). Although IA have good catch-up in specific areas of development, difficulties with ATT regulation, EF, and sensory processing may increase the risk of later school problems. ..
  7. Lindblad F, Weitoft G, Hjern A. ADHD in international adoptees: a national cohort study. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2010;19:37-44 pubmed publisher
    ..A further purpose was to study gender, age at adoption and region of origin as predictors of ADHD medication in international adoptees...
  8. Silventoinen K, Rokholm B, Kaprio J, Sørensen T. The genetic and environmental influences on childhood obesity: a systematic review of twin and adoption studies. Int J Obes (Lond). 2010;34:29-40 pubmed publisher
    In this systematic review, we aimed to collect together all previous twin and adoption studies on childhood and adolescent obesity up to the age of 18 years...
  9. Teilmann G, Petersen J, Gormsen M, Damgaard K, Skakkebaek N, Jensen T. Early puberty in internationally adopted girls: hormonal and clinical markers of puberty in 276 girls examined biannually over two years. Horm Res. 2009;72:236-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Internationally adopted girls have a significantly higher risk of precocious pubertal maturation compared to Danish-born girls. ..
  10. Kaplan K, Kottsieper P, Scott J, Salzer M, Solomon P. Adoption and safe families act state statutes regarding parents with mental illnesses: a review and targeted intervention. Psychiatr Rehabil J. 2009;33:91-4 pubmed publisher
    ..states that list a parental mental illness/disability as an "aggravated circumstance" under the Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997 (ASFA), resulting in reasonable efforts not required to reunify a family...
  11. Fabre L, Delaune A, Espié E, Nygard K, Pardos de la Gándara M, Polomack L, et al. Chromosomal integration of the extended-spectrum beta-lactamase gene blaCTX-M-15 in Salmonella enterica serotype Concord isolates from internationally adopted children. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009;53:1808-16 pubmed publisher
  12. Lord L, Reider L, Herron M, Graszak K. Health and behavior problems in dogs and cats one week and one month after adoption from animal shelters. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2008;233:1715-22 pubmed publisher
    To characterize health and behavior problems in dogs and cats 1 week and 1 month after adoption from animal shelters and identify factors associated with the likelihood that owners of adopted animals would visit a veterinarian...
  13. Landgren M, Svensson L, Strömland K, Andersson Grönlund M. Prenatal alcohol exposure and neurodevelopmental disorders in children adopted from eastern Europe. Pediatrics. 2010;125:e1178-85 pubmed publisher
    ..cross-sectional, cohort study of 71 children adopted from eastern Europe, children were assessed 5 years after adoption, from pediatric, neuropsychological, and ophthalmologic perspectives...
  14. Ornoy A, Daka L, Goldzweig G, Gil Y, Mjen L, Levit S, et al. Neurodevelopmental and psychological assessment of adolescents born to drug-addicted parents: effects of SES and adoption. Child Abuse Negl. 2010;34:354-68 pubmed publisher
    ..emotional functioning of adolescents exposed to drugs prenatally, and investigated the extent to which the early adoption of children exposed prenatally to drugs would alleviate the possible effects of exposure...
  15. Patronek G. Use of geospatial neighborhood control locations for epidemiological analysis of community-level pet adoption patterns. Am J Vet Res. 2010;71:1321-30 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Adoption and control locations were spatially joined to census data and to defined lifestyle segments...
  16. Frisell T, Pawitan Y, Långström N, Lichtenstein P. Heritability, assortative mating and gender differences in violent crime: results from a total population sample using twin, adoption, and sibling models. Behav Genet. 2012;42:3-18 pubmed publisher
    ..4), appeared to result from both phenotypic assortment and social homogamy, but had only minor effect on variance components. Finally, we found significant gender differences in the etiology of violent crime. ..
  17. Bezdjian S, Baker L, Tuvblad C. Genetic and environmental influences on impulsivity: a meta-analysis of twin, family and adoption studies. Clin Psychol Rev. 2011;31:1209-23 pubmed publisher
    A meta-analysis of twin, family and adoption studies was conducted to estimate the magnitude of genetic and environmental influences on impulsivity...
  18. Pinborg A, Hougaard C, Nyboe Andersen A, Molbo D, Schmidt L. Prospective longitudinal cohort study on cumulative 5-year delivery and adoption rates among 1338 couples initiating infertility treatment. Hum Reprod. 2009;24:991-9 pubmed publisher
    ..2% (149/817) delivered after SC, two-thirds of these after a previous ART delivery. Adoption of a child occurred for 5.9% (48/817) of the women...
  19. Oladokun A, Arulogun O, Oladokun R, Morhason Bello I, Bamgboye E, Adewole I, et al. Acceptability of child adoption as management option for infertility in Nigeria: evidence from focus group discussions. Afr J Reprod Health. 2009;13:79-91 pubmed
    ..b>Adoption that may serve as an alternative strategy for the affected couples is not widely practiced...
  20. Pluháček J, Bartošová J, Bartos L. A case of adoption and allonursing in captive plains zebra (Equus burchellii). Behav Processes. 2011;86:174-7 pubmed publisher
    ..However, such behaviour is very rare in equids. This is the first report on adoption and allonursing in captive plains zebra (Equus burchellii), recorded in the Dv?r Králové Zoo, Czech Republic...
  21. Lipscomb S, Leve L, Harold G, Neiderhiser J, Shaw D, Ge X, et al. Trajectories of parenting and child negative emotionality during infancy and toddlerhood: a longitudinal analysis. Child Dev. 2011;82:1661-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Mothers' and fathers' developmental patterns were linked within but not across parenting domains. Limitations and directions for future research are discussed. ..
  22. Roeber B, Tober C, Bolt D, Pollak S. Gross motor development in children adopted from orphanage settings. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2012;54:527-31 pubmed publisher
    ..43, comparison children mean 19.97, SD 3.97). The length of time that children remained institutionalized before adoption predicted balance delays (b=-1.57, t=-2.33, p=0...
  23. Chisholm R. Information rights and donor conception: lessons from adoption?. J Law Med. 2012;19:722-41 pubmed
    This article reviews the Australian experience in providing information rights for people separated through adoption, and considers its relevance in adjusting the competing interests of those involved in donor conception...
  24. van der Vegt E, Tieman W, van der Ende J, Ferdinand R, Verhulst F, Tiemeier H. Impact of early childhood adversities on adult psychiatric disorders: a study of international adoptees. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2009;44:724-31 pubmed publisher adoptees who were taken out of their problematic environments as a consequence of their adoption to determine the effects of early adversities on adult psychiatric disorders, and to study whether these effects ..
  25. Keyes M, Legrand L, Iacono W, McGue M. Parental smoking and adolescent problem behavior: an adoption study of general and specific effects. Am J Psychiatry. 2008;165:1338-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Adolescents adopted in infancy were systematically ascertained from records of three private Minnesota adoption agencies; nonadopted adolescents were ascertained from Minnesota birth records...
  26. Kupka M, Dorn C, Richter O, Schmutzler A, van der Ven H, Kulczycki A. Stress relief after infertility treatment--spontaneous conception, adoption and psychological counselling. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2003;110:190-5 pubmed
    ..Ten percent of all treated couples applied for adoption. The miscarriage rate was significantly higher in the group of treatment dependent pregnancies compared to the ..
  27. Hjern A, Lindblad F, Vinnerljung B. Suicide, psychiatric illness, and social maladjustment in intercountry adoptees in Sweden: a cohort study. Lancet. 2002;360:443-8 pubmed
    ..We advise professionals to give appropriate consideration to the high risk of suicide in patients who are intercountry adoptees. ..
  28. Petersen L, Andersen P, Sørensen T. Genetic and environmental effects on mortality before age 70 years. Epidemiology. 2008;19:472-6 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Adoption studies, which rest on different assumptions, may also be used to estimate separately the genetic and ..
  29. Osler M, Holst C, Prescott E, Sørensen T. Influence of genes and family environment on adult smoking behavior assessed in an adoption study. Genet Epidemiol. 2001;21:193-200 pubmed
    ..smoking status were collected using a mailed questionnaire in a sample of 840 adoptive families from the Danish Adoption Register including all non-familial adoptions from 1924 through 1947...
  30. Perrin E. Technical report: coparent or second-parent adoption by same-sex parents. Pediatrics. 2002;109:341-4 pubmed
    ..Children's optimal development seems to be influenced more by the nature of the relationships and interactions within the family unit than by the particular structural form it takes. ..
  31. Wright J, Amoss R. Prevalence of house soiling and aggression in kittens during the first year after adoption from a humane society. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2004;224:1790-5 pubmed
    ..Sixty-three kittens were neutered prior to adoption; the remaining 63 were neutered at 5 to 7 months of age, after the second behavioral assessment...
  32. Venne V, Botkin J, Buys S. Professional opportunities and responsibilities in the provision of genetic information to children relinquished for adoption. Am J Med Genet A. 2003;119A:41-6 pubmed
    We report a case involving the disclosure of BRCA1 mutation results to a woman who had placed a child for adoption 30 years prior to learning her mutation status...
  33. Cantor Graae E, Pedersen C. Risk for schizophrenia in intercountry adoptees: a Danish population-based cohort study. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2007;48:1053-60 pubmed
    ..The increased risk was independent of age at onset and age at, or region of, adoption, and was not attributable to mental illness in a foster parent, the foster parent's age, or to urbanisation...
  34. Kreppner J, O Connor T, Rutter M. Can inattention/overactivity be an institutional deprivation syndrome?. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2001;29:513-28 pubmed
  35. Shih R, Belmonte P, Zandi P. A review of the evidence from family, twin and adoption studies for a genetic contribution to adult psychiatric disorders. Int Rev Psychiatry. 2004;16:260-83 pubmed
    Family, twin and adoption studies have provided major evidence for the role of genetics in numerous psychiatric disorders including obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia ..
  36. Miller L. International adoption, behavior, and mental health. JAMA. 2005;293:2533-5 pubmed
  37. Schulte J, Maloney S, Aronson J, San Gabriel P, Zhou J, Saiman L. Evaluating acceptability and completeness of overseas immunization records of internationally adopted children. Pediatrics. 2002;109:E22 pubmed
  38. Cadoret R, Troughton E, O Gorman T, Heywood E. An adoption study of genetic and environmental factors in drug abuse. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1986;43:1131-6 pubmed
  39. Rutter M, Kreppner J, Croft C, Murin M, Colvert E, Beckett C, et al. Early adolescent outcomes of institutionally deprived and non-deprived adoptees. III. Quasi-autism. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2007;48:1200-7 pubmed
    ..Although there were important similarities with 'ordinary' autism, the dissimilarities suggest a different meaning. ..
  40. Langbehn D, Cadoret R, Yates W, Troughton E, Stewart M. Distinct contributions of conduct and oppositional defiant symptoms to adult antisocial behavior: evidence from an adoption study. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1998;55:821-9 pubmed
    We conducted an exploratory multivariate analysis of juvenile behavior symptoms in an adoption data set. One goal was to see if a few DSM-interpretable symptom dimensions economically captured information within the data...
  41. Schulpen T, van Seventer A, Rumke H, van Loon A. Immunisation status of children adopted from China. Lancet. 2001;358:2131-2 pubmed
    ..These children, unlike those adopted from other countries who have documented evidence of adequate vaccination status, should be tested for antibody concentrations or reimmunised. ..
  42. Fuglestad A, Lehmann A, Kroupina M, Petryk A, Miller B, Iverson S, et al. Iron deficiency in international adoptees from Eastern Europe. J Pediatr. 2008;153:272-7 pubmed publisher
    To assess iron deficiency (ID) in international adoptees after adoption. Participants (n = 37) were adopted into the United States from Eastern Europe before they were 24 months of age...
  43. von Borczyskowski A, Hjern A, Lindblad F, Vinnerljung B. Suicidal behaviour in national and international adult adoptees: a Swedish cohort study. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2006;41:95-102 pubmed
    ..Clinicians should be aware that an increased risk for suicide and suicide attempts in international adoptees is a topic that is equally relevant to child and adult psychiatry. ..
  44. Wynne L, Tienari P, Nieminen P, Sorri A, Lahti I, Moring J, et al. I. Genotype-environment interaction in the schizophrenia spectrum: genetic liability and global family ratings in the Finnish Adoption Study. Fam Process. 2006;45:419-34 pubmed
    In the Finnish Adoption Study, a national sample of adoptees with high versus low genetic liability for schizophrenia spectrum disorders was indexed by DSM-III-R diagnoses of their biological, adopting-away mothers...
  45. Cardno A, Thomas K, McGuffin P. Clinical variables and genetic loading for schizophrenia: analysis of published Danish adoption study data. Schizophr Bull. 2002;28:393-9 pubmed
    ..We investigated this by analyzing published data from the adoption study of Kety et al. (1994) in Denmark...
  46. Langbehn D, Cadoret R, Caspers K, Troughton E, Yucuis R. Genetic and environmental risk factors for the onset of drug use and problems in adoptees. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2003;69:151-67 pubmed
    Applying survival analysis methodology to age-of-onset data from an adoption study (N = 196), we present evidence that risks for both drug use and drug problems (DSM abuse or dependence) are elevated when combined antisocial personality (..
  47. Bharadwaj A. Why adoption is not an option in India: the visibility of infertility, the secrecy of donor insemination, and other cultural complexities. Soc Sci Med. 2003;56:1867-80 pubmed
    Child adoption in the face of reproduction gone awry continues to remain an under researched aspect of contemporary Indian reality...
  48. Widdows H, Maccallum F. Disparities in parenting criteria: an exploration of the issues, focusing on adoption and embryo donation. J Med Ethics. 2002;28:139-42 pubmed
    This paper examines the consistency of parent selection procedures, focusing on adoption and embryo donation...
  49. Juffer F, van IJzendoorn M. Behavior problems and mental health referrals of international adoptees: a meta-analysis. JAMA. 2005;293:2501-15 pubmed
    International adoption involves more than 40,000 children a year moving among more than 100 countries...
  50. Weitzman C, Albers L. Long-term developmental, behavioral, and attachment outcomes after international adoption. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2005;52:1395-419, viii pubmed concerns including attachment difficulties that may impact children and their families after international adoption. Pediatricians must be thoughtful to individualize the care of adoptive children and not make assumptions shortly ..
  51. Miller B, Fan X, Christensen M, Grotevant H, van Dulmen M. Comparisons of adopted and nonadopted adolescents in a large, nationally representative sample. Child Dev. 2000;71:1458-73 pubmed
  52. Kendler K, Gruenberg A, Kinney D. Independent diagnoses of adoptees and relatives as defined by DSM-III in the provincial and national samples of the Danish Adoption Study of Schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1994;51:456-68 pubmed
    ..independent application of DSM-III criteria to the adoptees and relatives in the Provincial sample of the Danish Adoption Study of Schizophrenia of Kety and colleagues...
  53. Gunnar M, Pollak S. Supporting parents so that they can support their internationally adopted children: the larger challenge lurking behind the fatality statistics. Child Maltreat. 2007;12:381-2; author reply 385-6 pubmed