Summary: The separation or resolution of the psyche into its constituent elements. The term has two separate meanings: 1. a procedure devised by Sigmund Freud, for investigating mental processes by means of free association, dream interpretation and interpretation of resistance and transference manifestations; and 2. a theory of psychology developed by Freud from his clinical experience with hysterical patients. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996).

Top Publications

  1. Gottesmann C. To what extent do neurobiological sleep-waking processes support psychoanalysis?. Int Rev Neurobiol. 2010;92:233-90 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, it is more difficult to find neurobiological evidence supporting an organized dream-work that would induce meaningful symbolic content, since dream mentation most often only shows psychotic-like activities. ..
  2. Tordjman S. At the crossroads between psychoanalysis and neuroscience: the importance of subjectivity. J Physiol Paris. 2010;104:232-42 pubmed publisher
    ..between the psyche and the body, and also for the development of interdisciplinary perspectives that connect psychoanalysis and neuroscience but still respect and preserve the specificities of each discipline...
  3. Plakun E. Treatment resistance and psychodynamic psychiatry: concepts psychiatry needs from psychoanalysis. Psychodyn Psychiatry. 2012;40:183-209 pubmed
    Over the last 30 years psychiatry and psychoanalysis have moved in substantially divergent directions. Psychiatry has become rich in methodology but conceptually limited, with a drift toward biological reductionism...
  4. Taubner S, Buchheim A, Rudyk R, Kachele H, Bruns G. How does neurobiological research influence psychoanalytic treatments?--Clinical observations and reflections from a study on the interface of clinical psychoanalysis and neuroscience. Am J Psychoanal. 2012;72:269-86 pubmed publisher
    One of the counterarguments against empirical research in psychoanalysis is that research negatively influences the treatment situation...
  5. Kernberg O. A severe sexual inhibition in the course of the psychoanalytic treatment of a patient with a narcissistic personality disorder. Int J Psychoanal. 1999;80 ( Pt 5):899-908 pubmed
    ..of narcissistic personalities, and the need for very careful assessment of the patient's sexual functioning before deciding on terminating the psychoanalysis of a patient with a successfully resolved narcissistic personality structure.
  6. Kandel E. Biology and the future of psychoanalysis: a new intellectual framework for psychiatry revisited. Am J Psychiatry. 1999;156:505-24 pubmed some letters deserves a more detailed answer, and that relates to whether biology is at all relevant to psychoanalysis. To my mind, this issue is so central to the future of psychoanalysis that it cannot be addressed with a brief ..
  7. Mancia M. The dream between neuroscience and psychoanalysis. Arch Ital Biol. 2004;142:525-31 pubmed
    ..Interest in dreams started with psychoanalysis in 1900, and 53 years later the discovery of REM sleep by Aserinski and Kleitman, and subsequent ..
  8. Gough B. Psychoanalysis as a resource for understanding emotional ruptures in the text: the case of defensive masculinities. Br J Soc Psychol. 2004;43:245-67 pubmed
    ..b>Psychoanalysis has been reworked so that concepts traditionally read as intra-psychic essences (e. g...
  9. De Masi F. The psychodynamic of panic attacks: a useful integration of psychoanalysis and neuroscience. Int J Psychoanal. 2004;85:311-36 pubmed

More Information


  1. Kubie L. Some implications for psychoanalysis of modern concepts of the organization of the brain. Psychoanal Q. 1953;22:21-68 pubmed
  2. Bernardi R, de Leon de Bernardi B. The concepts of vínculo and dialectical spiral: a bridge between intra- and intersubjectivity. Psychoanal Q. 2012;81:531-64 pubmed
    ..concepts of vínculo and dialectical spiral within the context of a historical review of the development of psychoanalysis in the Río de la Plata region of Uruguay and Argentina...
  3. Hadge L. A candidate's experience doing research during training. J Am Psychoanal Assoc. 2012;60:995-1013 pubmed publisher
  4. Basaure M. Foucault and the 'Anti-Oedipus movement': psychoanalysis as disciplinary power. Hist Psychiatry. 2009;20:340-59 pubmed
    What psychiatry was for the anti-psychiatry movement, psychoanalysis was for the French 'Anti-Oedipus movement' represented by Robert Castel, Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari...
  5. Kramer R. Rank on emotional intelligence, unlearning and self-leadership. Am J Psychoanal. 2012;72:326-51 pubmed publisher
    ..quot; By 1926, Rank had formulated a model of "creative willing"-self-leadership infused with the intelligence of the emotions-as the optimal way of being-in-relationship with others. ..
  6. Oliner M. An essay on Bion's beta function. Psychoanal Rev. 2013;100:167-83 pubmed publisher
    ..As a result, this essay is an attempt to clarify the source for Bion's theorizing, in order to be more specific about the applicability of his concepts and his precepts. ..
  7. Holmes J. Charles Rycroft's contribution to contemporary psychoanalytic psychotherapy. Am J Psychoanal. 2010;70:180-92 pubmed publisher
    Charles Rycroft played a significant part in gaining psychoanalysis understanding and intellectual acceptance within the wider intellectual community of post-war Britain...
  8. van Schoonheten A. [Salzburg 1908. Karl Abraham caught between Freud and Jung]. Luzif Amor. 2010;23:7-23 pubmed
    ..Abraham, still a beginner in psychoanalysis, got in the way of Freud and Jung who at that time had a deep theoretical disagreement...
  9. Gerlach A. Research into witchcraft in psychoanalysis and history. Psychoanal Hist. 2011;13:25-38 pubmed
    ..In this article I shall attempt to set up a dialogue between psychoanalysis and history by way of the example of research into witchcraft...
  10. Trizzino A. [Psychoanalysis is a precious thread, fragile but precious": Vittorio Benussi and the Inventory of psychoanalysis (1926-1927)]. Physis Riv Int Stor Sci. 2008;45:303-24 pubmed
    The lessons of psychoanalysis held by Vittorio Benussi in Padua between 1926 and 1927 reveal the other aspect of his interests: that which regards psychoanalysis and its method...
  11. Sollars F. A further elaboration of needs in psychoanalysis: needs in conflict, compromise, and harmony. Psychoanal Rev. 2013;100:217-37 pubmed publisher
    The author begins by providing a brief history of the use of the concept of needs in psychoanalysis. Suggesting that a more phenomenological/contextual perspective of motivation would be useful, he conceptualizes a healthy versus ..
  12. Szykierski D. The traumatic roots of containment: the evolution of Bion's metapsychology. Psychoanal Q. 2010;79:935-68 pubmed
  13. Nanzer N, Sancho Rossignol A, Righetti Veltema M, Knauer D, Manzano J, Palacio Espasa F. Effects of a brief psychoanalytic intervention for perinatal depression. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2012;15:259-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Mother-infant relationship was well adapted for all 31 dyads at the end of the intervention. These results suggest that PCP is a promising intervention for treating perinatal depression and helping mothers engaging in parenting. ..
  14. Gitre E. Importing Freud: first-wave psychoanalysis, interwar social sciences, and the interdisciplinary foundations of an American social theory. J Hist Behav Sci. 2010;46:239-62 pubmed publisher
    ..During these early years, social scientists were attracted to psychoanalysis for reasons that were not only personal and idiosyncratic, but also intellectual, social, and professional...
  15. Modell A. Some comments on the Freudian unconscious. Psychoanal Rev. 2013;100:535-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The waking primary process is in the service of the reality principle. The growth of contemporary neuroscience has created challenging problems for psychoanalysis that did not exist in Freud's lifetime.
  16. Bergstein A. Transcending the caesura: reverie, dreaming and counter-dreaming. Int J Psychoanal. 2013;94:621-44 pubmed publisher
    ..This is illustrated clinically. ..
  17. McWilliams N. Psychoanalysis and research: some reflections and opinions. Psychoanal Rev. 2013;100:919-45 pubmed publisher
    The author argues that existing research on the outcome of psychoanalysis and the psychoanalytic therapies is sufficient to claim a solid basis in scientific evidence for psychodynamically oriented clinical work...
  18. Friedman R, Downey J. Sexual differentiation of childhood play: a contemporary psychoanalytic perspective. Arch Sex Behav. 2014;43:197-211 pubmed publisher
    ..These topics and other aspects of the sexual differentiation of behavior have been under-emphasized in psychoanalytic thought. ..
  19. Dahl G. The two time vectors of Nachträglichkeit in the development of ego organization: significance of the concept for the symbolization of nameless traumas and anxieties. Int J Psychoanal. 2010;91:727-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The two vectors should not be separated on the factual level, as both aspects of Nachträglichkeit are essential to the understanding of unconscious processes, combining as they do in a relationship of circular complementarity. ..
  20. Poster M. Ferenczi and Groddeck: simpatico. Roots of a paradigm shift in psychoanalysis. Am J Psychoanal. 2009;69:195-206 pubmed publisher
    ..1923 was a schismatic year in the history of psychoanalysis. Freud's appropriation of Groddeck's Das Es and its adaptation to Heinroth's tri-partite model (Freud, 1923; ..
  21. Mészáros J. Contribution of Hungarian psychoanalysts to psychoanalytic psychosomatics. Am J Psychoanal. 2009;69:207-20 pubmed publisher
    How is psyche related to soma? What tricks does the mind play on the body--and vice-versa? In psychoanalysis, few have probed these questions more deeply than analysts from the Budapest school...
  22. Wagner J. Psychoanalysis and its place in the evolutionary chain of academic disciplines. Int J Psychoanal. 2009;90:1097-101 pubmed publisher
    ..Proponents of academic psychoanalysis face similar challenges today.
  23. Camden V. 'My capital secret': literature and the psychoanalytic agon. Int J Psychoanal. 2009;90:1123-37 pubmed publisher
    ..246), I advocate for an integration of psychoanalysis with the arts, the humanities, and the social sciences in psychoanalytic training...
  24. Werbart A, Levander S. Vicissitudes of ideas of cure in analysands and their analysts: a longitudinal interview study. Int J Psychoanal. 2011;92:1455-81 pubmed publisher
    This longitudinal prospective study focuses on analysands' and analysts' implicit ideas of how psychoanalysis might help analysands' psychological problems. Seven analysands and their analysts were periodically interviewed...
  25. Panksepp J, Solms M. What is neuropsychoanalysis? Clinically relevant studies of the minded brain. Trends Cogn Sci. 2012;16:6-8 pubmed publisher
  26. Busch F. The workable here and now and the why of there and then. Int J Psychoanal. 2011;92:1159-81 pubmed publisher
    ..based upon the continuing influence of the Topographic theory, was thought to be the curative factor in psychoanalysis. Freud (1912, 1914) briefly expressed the importance of working in the present but his main focus remained the ..
    ..The role of illusion in everyday life is highlighted. ..
  28. Alfonso C, Olarte S. Contemporary practice patterns of dynamic psychiatrists--survey results. J Am Acad Psychoanal Dyn Psychiatry. 2011;39:7-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Survey of 555 members of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis and Dynamic Psychiatry conducted in 2009. 24...
  29. Anthi P, Haugsgjerd S. A note on the history of the Norwegian Psychoanalytic Society from 1933 to 1945. Int J Psychoanal. 2013;94:715-24 pubmed publisher
    ..This paper in part considers the courageous efforts of Nic Waal, whom Ernest Jones used as a delegate and courier to solve problems for the IPA and who was unjustly treated after the war. ..
  30. Stefini A, Reich G, Horn H, Winkelmann K, Ohmes U, Frost U, et al. [Interrater-reliability of the OPD-CA, the axes conflict and structure]. Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr. 2013;62:255-69 pubmed
    ..The rater agreements ranged from good to excellent, except for impulse control in the axis structure, where the results were satisfactory. The relevance of the results for clinical practice is discussed. ..
  31. Hatzigiannakoglou P, Triarhou L. A review of Heinrich Obersteiner's 1888 textbook on the central nervous system by the neurologist Sigmund Freud. Wien Med Wochenschr. 2011;161:315-25 pubmed publisher
    ..The present article provides an English translation of Freud's review and further discusses its historical context, especially regarding the influence of Theodor Meynert on his two illustrious students, Freud and Obersteiner. ..
  32. Roose S. The development of a psychoanalytic outcome study: choices, conflicts, and consensus. J Am Psychoanal Assoc. 2012;60:311-35 pubmed publisher
    This article tells the story of the development of an outcome study of psychoanalysis and describes the debate that took place over critical methodological issues...
  33. Bakman N. [Thirty years later. K. R. Eissler's interview with Joan Riviere (1953)]. Luzif Amor. 2009;22:64-78 pubmed
    ..her views on child analysis, and the confidentiality of this interview. With her well-known severity Riviere assessed Freud as analyst. She provided a testimony of his approach to training analyses. ..
  34. Smith P, Allan T. "We should be able to bear our patients in our teaching in some way": theoretical perspectives on how nurse teachers manage their emotions to negotiate the split between education and caring practice. Nurse Educ Today. 2010;30:218-23 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that nurse teachers and in particular the system in which they work need to recognise both split and projection so that they are able to bear their anxiety and manage it in their teaching. ..
  35. Colman W. The analyst in action: an individual account of what Jungians do and why they do it. Int J Psychoanal. 2010;91:287-303 pubmed publisher
  36. Dayan J, Olliac B. From hysteria and shell shock to posttraumatic stress disorder: comments on psychoanalytic and neuropsychological approaches. J Physiol Paris. 2010;104:296-302 pubmed publisher
    ..about the concepts of falsifiability and complexity in science are discussed with regard to neuroscience and psychoanalysis. We report the decisive discussions and descriptions of shell shock and hysteria that laid the foundation for ..
  37. May U. Karl Abraham's revolution of 1916: from sensual sucking to the oral-aggressive wish of destruction. Psychoanal Q. 2012;81:83-109 pubmed
    ..Thus, Abraham's thinking represents a basic theoretical change that had far-reaching consequences for psychoanalytic practice. ..
  38. Kernberg O. Psychoanalysis and the university: a difficult relationship. Int J Psychoanal. 2011;92:609-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Efforts already under way in this direction and practical recommendations for further steps to integrate psychoanalytic education and research within university settings are outlined. ..
  39. Holmes M. Subject of focus: the lives of emigrants. Düsseldorf-Berlin-Ankara-Washington: the life of Edith Weigert (née Vowinckel) (1894-1982). Psychiatry. 2010;73:1-33 pubmed publisher a female student of medicine, as an analyst in a hospital setting, as a non-Jewish emigrant, a pioneer of psychoanalysis in Turkey, and last but not least, as an autonomous individual in the conflict between classical-orthodox and ..
  40. Bach S. The Sense of Aliveness and Feelings of Being Real. Psychoanal Rev. 2016;103:1-15 pubmed publisher
    ..It also suggests that actively helping the patient to perform the eye exercises that she was unable to do on her own may have been a useful parameter in this case. ..
  41. Grimwade R. Freud's philosophical inheritance: Schopenhauer and Nietzsche in Beyond the Pleasure Principle. Psychoanal Rev. 2012;99:359-95 pubmed publisher
    ..It attempts to reveal two sides of Freud's philosophical inheritance and explores the structure of Freud's ambivalence toward his intellectual predecessors. ..
  42. Blass R, Carmeli Z. Further evidence for the case against neuropsychoanalysis: How Yovell, Solms, and Fotopoulou's response to our critique confirms the irrelevance and harmfulness to psychoanalysis of the contemporary neuroscientific trend. Int J Psychoanal. 2015;96:1555-73 pubmed publisher
    ..forth evidence and arguments which, they claim, demonstrate why neuroscience is relevant and important for psychoanalysis and hence why dialogue between the fields is necessary...
  43. Lester R. Brokering authenticity: Borderline personality disorder and the ethics of care in an American eating disorder clinic. Curr Anthropol. 2009;50:281-302 pubmed
  44. Dunn J. Toward a psychoanalytic way of teaching psychoanalysis. Psychoanal Rev. 2013;100:947-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Lear's (2003) definition of psychoanalysis as a subjective category contextualizes psychoanalytic teaching as a lived-out demonstration of its conceptual ..
  45. Oka K. [On suggestion and its related problems]. Seishin Shinkeigaku Zasshi. 2013;115:933-52 pubmed
    ..Janet, that has been under the shadow of Freud's psychoanalysis. Nevertheless, psychiatry, "Schulpsychiatrie" in German, has still paid little attention to the ..
  46. Watkins C. The beginnings of psychoanalytic supervision: the crucial role of Max Eitingon. Am J Psychoanal. 2013;73:254-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Max Eitingon, the "almost forgotten man" of psychoanalysis, looms large in any such consideration...
  47. Schmidt E. The Berlin tradition in Chicago: Franz Alexander and the Chicago Institute for Psychoanalysis. Psychoanal Hist. 2010;12:69-83 pubmed
    ..quot; Alexander went on to become the first director of the Chicago Institute for Psychoanalysis in 1932 and modeled some of the Chicago Institute's mission on his Berlin experiences...
  48. Gallo de Moraes E, Kother Macedo M. Sándor Ferenczi: from clinical turmoil to theoretical articulations. Am J Psychoanal. 2012;72:46-51 pubmed publisher
    ..We attempt to understand the uniqueness of the patient's history, and the ethical practice of deep analytic listening. ..
  49. Thomson M. 'The solution to his own enigma': connecting the life of Montague David Eder (1865-1936), socialist, psychoanalyst, Zionist and modern saint. Med Hist. 2011;55:61-84 pubmed
    ..The connections between his interest in medicine, psychoanalysis, socialism and Zionism are also explored...
  50. Stein M. Faith and the practising analyst. J Anal Psychol. 2011;56:397-406 pubmed publisher
    ..Traditional faith statements must be translated into depth psychological terms, however, in order for them to be applicable in post-modern, multicultural contexts. ..
  51. Forrest D. FRONTLINE: teaching affect recognition to medical students: evaluation and reflections. J Am Acad Psychoanal Dyn Psychiatry. 2011;39:229-41 pubmed publisher
  52. Wadlington W. The art of living in Otto Rank's Will Therapy. Am J Psychoanal. 2012;72:382-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Rank's creative legacy is an approach to psychotherapy that calls forth artistry and collaboration between therapist and client. ..
  53. Capps D. The verbal portrait: Erik H. Erikson's contribution to psychoanalytic discourse. J Relig Health. 2011;50:880-98 pubmed publisher
    ..became a focal feature of his work, and the testing ground for the cogency of his major contribution to psychoanalysis (the concept of identity)...