military psychiatry


Summary: Branch of psychiatry concerned with problems related to the prevention, diagnosis, etiology, and treatment of mental or emotional disorders of Armed Forces personnel.

Top Publications

  1. Nachshoni T, Singer Y. Reactivation of combat stress after a family member's enlistment. Mil Med. 2006;171:1211-4 pubmed
    ..This article explores the general meaning of enlistment for family members, and the reactivation that may accompany that enlistment, through the examination of two cases. ..
  2. Zimmermann P, Biesold K, Barre K, Lanczik M. Long-term course of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in German soldiers: effects of inpatient eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy and specific trauma characteristics in patients with non-combat-related PTSD. Mil Med. 2007;172:456-60 pubmed
    ..Other factors tested were of no significant influence. These results may influence further treatment strategies for traumatized German soldiers. ..
  3. Berg J, Grieger T, Spira J. Psychiatric symptoms and cognitive appraisal following the near sinking of a research submarine. Mil Med. 2005;170:44-7 pubmed
    ..Previous and subsequent life events may play a more significant role in the level of postdisaster symptoms. ..
  4. van Wijk C, Waters A. Positive psychology made practical: a case study with naval specialists. Mil Med. 2008;173:488-92 pubmed
    ..The model is based in a salutogenic approach and aims to recognize the depth of experience of the human existence and to enhance physical and mental health, as well as general coping, to promote the well-being of individuals. ..
  5. Gahm G, Lucenko B. Screening soldiers in outpatient care for mental health concerns. Mil Med. 2008;173:17-24 pubmed
    ..Clinical implications include the importance of provider awareness to the high rates of comorbidity across symptom domains. ..
  6. Ul ianov V, Ungurian G, Dorovskikh I, Gorchakov A, Shchukina E. [The efficiency of modern methods of narcomania prevention used in RF MD educational centers]. Voen Med Zh. 2005;326:24-6 pubmed
  7. Kudler H. The need for psychodynamic principles in outreach to new combat veterans and their families. J Am Acad Psychoanal Dyn Psychiatry. 2007;35:39-50 pubmed
    ..This approach carries with it the potential to reorient and revitalize the theory and practice of psychiatry. ..
  8. Deu N, Srinivasan M, Srinivasan P. Issues in temperamental unsuitability re-examining concepts and current practice in the British Army. J R Army Med Corps. 2004;150:179-81 pubmed
  9. MacGregor A, Shaffer R, Dougherty A, Galarneau M, Raman R, Baker D, et al. Psychological correlates of battle and nonbattle injury among Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans. Mil Med. 2009;174:224-31 pubmed
    ..More research is needed to further define this relationship by examining potential mechanisms and addressing the possible contributing effect of combat exposure. ..

More Information


  1. Copeland L, Zeber J, Bingham M, Pugh M, Noel P, Schmacker E, et al. Transition from military to VHA care: psychiatric health services for Iraq/Afghanistan combat-wounded. J Affect Disord. 2011;130:226-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Although physical trauma led to hospitalization in the DoD, high rates of psychiatric disorders were identified in subsequent VHA care, suggesting delay in development or recognition of psychiatric problems. ..
  2. Ritchie E. Psychiatry in the Korean War: perils, PIES, and prisoners of war. Mil Med. 2002;167:898-903 pubmed
    ..Mistakenly believed to be signs of moral decay, the psychiatric symptoms during and after release were probably a result of extended inhumane treatment and vitamin deficiencies. ..
  3. Silberzahn Jandt G, Schmuhl H. [Friedrich Mauz: T4 assessor and military psychiatrist]. Nervenarzt. 2012;83:321-8 pubmed publisher
  4. Lange C, Bradley J. Community meetings on a military inpatient psychiatric unit: a question of balance. Mil Med. 2001;166:48-52 pubmed
    ..We describe and discuss the common variables of community meetings, elucidate how the military aspects affect the meeting, and offer potential suggestions for the management of this unique large dynamic group. ..
  5. Bourgeois J, Chozinski J, Walker D, Orr K, Wisniewski W. Psychiatric treatment and operational readiness: clinical guidelines for Air Force practice. Mil Med. 2001;166:378-81 pubmed
    ..Clinicians and administrators are encouraged to refer to this paper for assistance in making decisions on mental health patients. ..
  6. Engstrom E. Cultural and social history of psychiatry. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2008;21:585-92 pubmed publisher
    ..In particular, it considers work in the history of psychiatric institutions, borderline disorders, 20th-century somatic therapies, military psychiatry, and colonial psychiatry.
  7. Ritchie E, Owens M. Military issues. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2004;27:459-71 pubmed
    ..Finally, current ideas on preparation for and intervention after weapons of mass destruction will be outlined. ..
  8. Ushakov I, Evdokimov V, Beliaeva I. [About prophylaxis of psychogenic disorders in servicemen]. Voen Med Zh. 2007;328:49-52 pubmed
  9. Mehlum L. [Prevention of suicide among young people--recent experiences from the armed forces]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 1998;118:1724-6 pubmed
    ..This suicide prevention programme, which has its origins in the military chain of command rather than the medical service, has so far been very well received and implemented throughout the Armed Forces. ..
  10. Kozaric Kovacic D, Borovecki A. Prevalence of psychotic comorbidity in combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder. Mil Med. 2005;170:223-6 pubmed
    ..Many patients demonstrated psychotic symptoms different from flashbacks and dissociative symptoms. Those psychotic symptoms are an integral part of PTSD and have a symbolic relation to the trauma. ..
  11. Okulate G. Psychiatric referrals during peace and wartimes: a Nigerian experience. Mil Med. 2005;170:563-5 pubmed
    ..Mental health workers engaged at the mission areas require more training in the identification of such cases. ..
  12. Payne S, Hill J, Johnson D. The use of unit watch or command interest profile in the management of suicide and homicide risk: rationale and guidelines for the military mental health professional. Mil Med. 2008;173:25-35 pubmed
    ..Although further research is indicated, this article provides support for the use of unit watch in military settings. ..
  13. Pflanz S, Ogle A. Job stress, depression, work performance, and perceptions of supervisors in military personnel. Mil Med. 2006;171:861-5 pubmed
    ..Targeting and eliminating sources of job stress should be a priority for the U.S. military to preserve and protect the mental health of military personnel. ..
  14. Sawamura T, Takahashi T, Hori M, Goto T, Ogata K, Nomura S. [Occupations and geographic areas: psychiatric care in the Tohoku area conducted by the National Defense Forces]. Seishin Shinkeigaku Zasshi. 2006;108:961-5 pubmed
  15. Benedek D, Schneider B, Bradley J. Psychiatric medications for deployment: an update. Mil Med. 2007;172:681-5 pubmed
  16. Warner C, Appenzeller G, Parker J, Warner C, Hoge C. Effectiveness of mental health screening and coordination of in-theater care prior to deployment to Iraq: a cohort study. Am J Psychiatry. 2011;168:378-85 pubmed publisher
    ..This predeployment screening process provides a feasible system for screening soldiers and coordinating mental health support during deployment. ..
  17. Steelfisher G, Zaslavsky A, Blendon R. Health-related impact of deployment extensions on spouses of active duty army personnel. Mil Med. 2008;173:221-9 pubmed
    ..However, spouses who experienced extensions were more likely to perceive the Army negatively during deployment. These findings suggest that deployment extensions may exacerbate certain problems and frustrations for Army spouses. ..
  18. Fikretoglu D, Brunet A, Guay S, Pedlar D. Mental health treatment seeking by military members with posttraumatic stress disorder: findings on rates, characteristics, and predictors from a nationally representative Canadian military sample. Can J Psychiatry. 2007;52:103-10 pubmed
    ..Trauma-related and illness and (or) need factors predicted treatment seeking. Of all the predictors of treatment seeking, comorbid depression most increased the likelihood of seeking treatment. ..
  19. Clack J. Psychiatry. J R Army Med Corps. 2007;153:63-8 pubmed
  20. Hardoff D, Halevy A. Health perspectives regarding adolescents in military service. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2006;18:371-5 pubmed
  21. Zimmermann P, Strohle A, Langner F, Lanczik M. Utilization of psychiatric services by female military personnel changes since admission of women to all German Armed Forces military careers. Mil Med. 2010;175:494-8 pubmed
    ..Gender-specific aspects should be considered more intensely in preventive and therapeutic psychiatric supply in the German Armed Forces. ..
  22. Pinder R, Fear N, Wessely S, Reid G, Greenberg N. Mental health care provision in the U.K. armed forces. Mil Med. 2010;175:805-10 pubmed
    ..Although veteran's healthcare is provided by the National Health Service, considerable efforts have been made to ensure their services best meet the needs of veterans and their families. ..
  23. Lamberg L. Military psychiatrists strive to quell soldiers' nightmares of war. JAMA. 2004;292:1539-40 pubmed
  24. Caruso K, Benedek D, Auble P, Bernet W. Concealment of psychopathology in forensic evaluations: a pilot study of intentional and uninsightful dissimulators. J Am Acad Psychiatry Law. 2003;31:444-50 pubmed
    ..Although further study is indicated, it appears that dissimulators are a heterogeneous group. ..
  25. Vetter S. Understanding human behavior in times of war. Mil Med. 2007;172:7-10 pubmed
    ..This article is an attempt to show how cognition of societies and individuals slowly changes during longer conflicts. Furthermore, it tries to summarize the possibilities we have to confront these tendencies. ..
  26. Maguen S, Turcotte D, Peterson A, Dremsa T, Garb H, McNally R, et al. Description of risk and resilience factors among military medical personnel before deployment to Iraq. Mil Med. 2008;173:1-9 pubmed
  27. Adler A, Cawkill P, Van den Berg C, Arvers P, Puente J, Cuvelier Y. International military leaders' survey on operational stress. Mil Med. 2008;173:10-6 pubmed
    ..The information obtained here was used to develop a Human Factors and Medicine -081/RTG Leader's Guide on operational stress. ..
  28. Krahl P, Litow F. Mental health disorders in a cohort of U.S. Navy and Marine Corps personnel receiving waivers of medical accession standards. Mil Med. 2009;174:232-5 pubmed
    ..We recommend further analysis of the waiver cohort to identify disqualifying conditions without excess disability risk. Targeting these conditions for policy changes could increase manpower without incurring long-term disability costs. ..
  29. Nikolova R, Aleksiev L, Vukov M. Psychophysiological assessment of stress and screening of health risk in peacekeeping operations. Mil Med. 2007;172:44-8 pubmed
    ..The advantage of psychophysiological stress assessment and screening of health risk in PKMs is that results indicate the mechanisms of the effects of stress on cognitive function and health status. ..
  30. Gates T, Duffy K, Moore J, Howell W, McDonald W. Alcohol screening instruments and psychiatric evaluation outcomes in military aviation personnel. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2007;78:48-51 pubmed
    ..Given the higher sensitivity of the SAAST it may be the most beneficial if administered first. The AUDIT can be used as a follow-up diagnostic test given its higher specificity. ..
  31. Rowan A, Campise R. A multisite study of Air Force outpatient behavioral health treatment-seeking patterns and career impact. Mil Med. 2006;171:1123-7 pubmed
    ..The implications of these findings, in terms of targeting interventions to increase self-initiated help-seeking behavior, and recommendations for future research are discussed. ..
  32. Carter P, Willman A, Kuber A. Dealing with the disturbed soldier in primary care. J R Army Med Corps. 2003;149:106-9 pubmed
    ..In addition, the rules on the arrest and detention of soldiers have changed considerably since the introduction of Human Rights legislation (2). ..
  33. Spirić Z, Preradović M, Zeljkovic J. [History of Serbian and Yugoslav military psychiatry: founding and development of the Clinic of Military Psychiatry from 1932 to 2002]. Vojnosanit Pregl. 2002;59:681-7 pubmed
  34. Solomon Z. The impact of posttraumatic stress disorder in military situations. J Clin Psychiatry. 2001;62 Suppl 17:11-5 pubmed
    ..The longer-term detrimental consequences of PTSD and the impact of secondary traumatization. reactivation, and delayed-onset PTSD are also addressed. ..
  35. Ray S. Contemporary treatments for psychological trauma from the perspective of peacekeepers. Can J Nurs Res. 2009;41:115-28 pubmed
    ..Studies on the efficacy of different treatment modalities for psychological trauma, including mind-body complementary therapies, are needed. ..
  36. Crawford M, Sharpe D, Rutter D, Weaver T. Prevention of suicidal behaviour among army personnel: a qualitative study. J R Army Med Corps. 2009;155:203-7 pubmed
    ..Greater efforts should also be made to publicise existing sources of help and reduce levels of alcohol misuse. ..
  37. Ben Ezra M, Palgi Y, Shrira A, Sternberg D, Essar N. Changes in post-traumatic symptom pattern during and after exposure to extreme war stress: an uncontrolled, preliminary study supporting the dose-response model. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2010;25:38-41 pubmed
    ..These results are in line with the dose-response model. The results suggest that a pattern of decline in PTSD symptoms confirm the dose-response model for PTSD. ..
  38. Dickstein B, McLean C, Mintz J, Conoscenti L, Steenkamp M, Benson T, et al. Unit cohesion and PTSD symptom severity in Air Force medical personnel. Mil Med. 2010;175:482-6 pubmed
    ..Results did not support the curvilinear interaction hypothesis, although evidence of cohesion's protective effects was found, suggesting that unit cohesion protects against PTSD regardless of level of stress exposure. ..
  39. Ivany C, Gray S. Franklin Delano Jones, M.D., and war psychiatry. J Am Acad Psychoanal Dyn Psychiatry. 2007;35:1-12 pubmed
    ..His neutrality, persistence, and sharp intellect stabilized and strengthened American military psychiatry in the post-Vietnam era...
  40. Carroll D. Perspectives in psychiatric consultation liaison nursing. Care of the wounded soldier by a PCLN team. Perspect Psychiatr Care. 2008;44:211-5 pubmed publisher
  41. McLay R, Klinski A. Changes in prescription habits with the introduction of generic fluoxetine. Mil Med. 2008;173:100-4 pubmed
    ..Examination of all Department of Defense prescriptions for the 16 months surrounding the introduction of generic fluoxetine showed a similar drop in its market share. ..
  42. Finnegan A, Finnegan S, Gamble D. A review of one year of British Armed Forces mental health hospital admissions. J R Army Med Corps. 2007;153:26-31 pubmed
    ..The results highlight the importance of further studies regarding depression to ensure that the Armed Forces are in a better position to maximise the use of MH resources. ..
  43. Turner M, Neal L. Military forensic psychiatry. Br J Psychiatry. 2003;183:10-1 pubmed
  44. Malone R, Benedek D, Carr R. Occupational psychiatry services in a military setting. Mil Med. 2002;167:982-5 pubmed
    ..Case material is presented that illustrates our approach and the range of services encompassed. ..
  45. Weisaeth L. The European history of psychotraumatology. J Trauma Stress. 2002;15:443-52 pubmed
    ..Towards the end of the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth century the study of psychic trauma identified important intrapsychic phenomena, and, consequently, there was a neglect of the external stressor. ..
  46. Dalenius E. [Reduced but better health care for armed forces]. Lakartidningen. 2000;97:3624-8 pubmed
  47. Howard M, Cox R. Collaborative intervention: a model for coordinated treatment of mental health issues within a ground combat unit. Mil Med. 2008;173:339-48 pubmed
    ..This article presents a model whereby medical officers and chaplains can enter this void together, treating these emotional issues collaboratively. ..
  48. Garvey Wilson A, Messer S, Hoge C. U.S. military mental health care utilization and attrition prior to the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2009;44:473-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The research indicates that in the military population the burden of mental illness in outpatient clinics is significantly greater when V-code diagnoses are included along with conventional mental disorder diagnostic codes. ..
  49. Uhac I, Kovac Z, Muhvic Urek M, Kovacević D, Franciskovic T, Simunovic Soskic M. The prevalence of temporomandibular disorders in war veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder. Mil Med. 2006;171:1147-9 pubmed
    ..The study supports the concept that PTSD patients are at increased risk for the development of temporomandibular disorder symptoms. ..
  50. Winter A. Film and the construction of memory in psychoanalysis, 1940-1960. Sci Context. 2006;19:111-36 pubmed
    ..The paper develops a social historical account of this relationship, and reflects on its significance for the history of selfhood in the twentieth century. ..
  51. Clark P. Medical ethics at Guantanamo Bay and Abu Ghraib: the problem of dual loyalty. J Law Med Ethics. 2006;34:570-80, 481 pubmed
    ..The United States military medical system failed to protect detainee's human rights, violated the basic principles of medical ethics and ignored the basic tenets of medical professionalism. ..
  52. Brady J. Conversation with Joseph V. Brady. Addiction. 2005;100:1805-12 pubmed
  53. Jetly R. Psychiatric lessons learned in Kandahar. Can J Surg. 2011;54:S142-4 pubmed publisher