type a personality


Summary: Established behavior pattern characterized by excessive drive and ambition, impatience, competitiveness, sense of time urgency, and poorly contained aggression.

Top Publications

  1. Buddeberg Fischer B, Stamm M, Buddeberg C, Klaghofer R. [Anxiety and depression in residents - results of a Swiss longitudinal study]. Z Psychosom Med Psychother. 2009;55:37-50 pubmed
    ..Personality factors play an important role in physicians' ability to cope with job demands. Persons with an elevated vulnerability for anxiety and depression should be continuously supported and counselled by a mentor during residency. ..
  2. Godás Sieso T, Gomez Gil E, Salamero Baró M, Fernandez Huerta J, Fernández Solà J. [Relationship between chronic fatigue syndrome and type A behaviour]. Med Clin (Barc). 2009;133:539-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Subjects' mean z scores on the JAS were compared with those from the general population (healthy controls) and from patients with ischemic cardiopathy (pathologic controls)...
  3. Hisli Sahin N, Guler M, Basim H. [The relationship between cognitive intelligence, emotional intelligence, coping and stress symptoms in the context of type A personality pattern]. Turk Psikiyatri Derg. 2009;20:243-54 pubmed
    ..the relationships between cognitive and emotional intelligence, coping and stress symptoms in the context of Type A personality pattern...
  4. Kawachi I, Sparrow D, Kubzansky L, Spiro A, Vokonas P, Weiss S. Prospective study of a self-report type A scale and risk of coronary heart disease: test of the MMPI-2 type A scale. Circulation. 1998;98:405-12 pubmed
    ..The MMPI-2 Type A Scale predicts CHD incidence. Further research is warranted to examine the correlation, if any, between this scale and the videotaped clinical interview. ..
  5. Myrtek M. Meta-analyses of prospective studies on coronary heart disease, type A personality, and hostility. Int J Cardiol. 2001;79:245-51 pubmed
    Several large-scale prospective studies have failed to find an association between Type A personality (TAP) or hostility and coronary heart disease (CHD)...
  6. Perry A, Baldwin D. Further evidence of associations of type a personality scores and driving-related attitudes and behaviors. Percept Mot Skills. 2000;91:147-54 pubmed
    The present study examined the effects of Type A personality on specific self-reported driving attitudes and behaviors when operating a motor vehicle...
  7. Soufer R. Neurocardiac interaction during stress-induced myocardial ischemia: how does the brain cope?. Circulation. 2004;110:1710-3 pubmed
  8. Vermunt R, Peeters Y, Berggren K. How fair treatment affects saliva cortisol release in stressed low and high type-A behavior individuals. Scand J Psychol. 2007;48:547-55 pubmed
    ..Moreover, saliva cortisol scores are correlated positively with negative affect scores and negatively with positive affect scores. The discussion focuses on theoretical implications and suggestions for future research. ..
  9. Gostautas A, Perminas A. [Impact of the relationship between smoking and stressogenic behavior (type A behavior) and their cumulative effect on development of myocardial infarction and mortality (25-year follow-up data)]. Medicina (Kaunas). 2004;40:265-71 pubmed
    ..Smoking was more related to mortality rates; therefore mortality-related effect of responsibility factor was greater among non-smokers. ..

More Information


  1. Weisse A, Friedland G. Meyer Friedman. Clin Cardiol. 2004;27:308-9 pubmed
  2. Dishon Berkovits M, Koslowsky M. Determinants of employee punctuality. J Soc Psychol. 2002;142:723-39 pubmed
    ..Organizational commitment and age of employee's youngest child also distinguished between the groups. ..
  3. Cheng T. Evidence of type A personality in a Chinese lady who died of acute myocardial infarction 2,100 years ago. Tex Heart Inst J. 2002;29:154-5 pubmed
  4. Jepson E, Forrest S. Individual contributory factors in teacher stress: the role of achievement striving and occupational commitment. Br J Educ Psychol. 2006;76:183-97 pubmed
    ..The possible explanations for these findings, and potential implications, are discussed. Future research plans are outlined for exploring the relationships between these individual contributory factors and environmental stressors. ..
  5. Liu H, Saijo Y, Zhang X, Shiraishi Y, Luo Y, Maruyama M, et al. Impact of type A behavior on brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity in Japanese. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2006;209:15-21 pubmed
    ..Type A behavior pattern is confirmed as a risk factor for arteriosclerosis, and may increase the risk of the cardiovascular disease related to arteriosclerosis. ..
  6. Karlsson M, Edström Plüss C, Held C, Henriksson P, Billing E, Wallén N. Effects of expanded cardiac rehabilitation on psychosocial status in coronary artery disease with focus on type D characteristics. J Behav Med. 2007;30:253-61 pubmed
    ..01) but no significant changes were seen in type D score, depression or anxiety. Expanded cardiac rehabilitation reduces type D score, anxiety and depressive symptoms, and improves the quality of life in type D patients. ..
  7. Richards J, Hof A, Alvarenga M. Serum lipids and their relationships with hostility and angry affect and behaviors in men. Health Psychol. 2000;19:393-8 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that in healthy men, the experience of strong angry affect in reaction to perceived rejection, criticism, or unfair treatment may be health-toxic because of its relationship to elevated unfavorable serum lipids. ..
  8. Lemogne C, Consoli S, Panjo H, Nabi H, Goldberg M, Zins M, et al. Personality and hormone therapy use among postmenopausal women in the GAZEL cohort study. Fertil Steril. 2012;98:929-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Questionnaires were mailed to measure type A personality and hostility...
  9. DeVaney S, Hughey A, Osborne W. Comparative effects of exercise reduction and relaxation training on mood states and Type A scores in habitual aerobic exercisers. Percept Mot Skills. 1994;79:1635-44 pubmed
    ..Further research on the use of aerobic exercise and relaxation training as auxiliary treatments for anxiety and depression is recommended. ..
  10. Rout U. Stress amongst district nurses: a preliminary investigation. J Clin Nurs. 2000;9:303-9 pubmed
    ..The implications of the findings for further research are considered. ..
  11. Rutledge T, Linden W, Davies R. Psychological risk factors may moderate pharmacological treatment effects among ischemic heart disease patients. Canadian Amlodipine/Atenolol in Silent Ischemia Study (CASIS) Investigators. Psychosom Med. 1999;61:834-41 pubmed
    ..05). These results indicate that psychological risk factors may have globally negative effects on the course of treatment and suggest particular factors that may warrant attention in trials targeting cardiac symptom reduction. ..
  12. Fassino S, Daga G, Pierò A, Delsedime N. Psychological factors affecting eating disorders. Adv Psychosom Med. 2007;28:141-68 pubmed
  13. Johnston J. A lesson never learned. J Mich Dent Assoc. 2008;90:14 pubmed
  14. Davis M, Matthews K. Do gender-relevant characteristics determine cardiovascular reactivity? Match versus mismatch of traits and situation. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1996;71:527-35 pubmed
    ..These results are consistent with the post hoc interpretation that environmental demands that fall outside of one's perceived areas of competency may result in exaggerated cardiovascular responsivity. ..
  15. Vingerhoets A, Ratliff Crain J, Jabaaij L, Menges L, Baum A. Self-reported stressors, symptom complaints and psychobiological functioning I: Cardiovascular stress reactivity. J Psychosom Res. 1996;40:177-90 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that the cardiovascular responses of low-symptom subjects more accurately followed the energetic demands of the body, whereas the high-symptom subjects were in a comparatively enduring state of arousal. ..
  16. Moller A, Botha H. Effects of a group rational-emotive behavior therapy program on the Type A behavior pattern. Psychol Rep. 1996;78:947-61 pubmed
    ..These improvements were maintained at follow-up and were accompanied by self-reports of significant positive changes in Type A behavior and irrational beliefs. ..
  17. Jumper J. Central serous chorioretinopathy. Br J Ophthalmol. 2003;87:663 pubmed
  18. Takao M, Ishihara N, Mori T. Morning-evening type and stress-related personality in Japanese college students. Percept Mot Skills. 2007;104:687-90 pubmed
    ..and positive correlation between Evening type as measured by the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire and Type A personality as measured by the Jenkins Activity Survey and the Bortner Type A Scale in Italian college students...
  19. Fedorets V, Radchenko V, Skoromets A. [Psychosomatic aspects of therapy in patients with ischemic heart disease of behavioral type A]. Klin Med (Mosk). 2004;82:54-6 pubmed
    ..Hormonal disorders in BTA CHA may be eliminated by anaprilin. Configuration of the personality profile was leveled in patients with CHA of "coronary" type. ..
  20. Sirri L, Fabbri S, Fava G, Sonino N. New strategies in the assessment of psychological factors affecting medical conditions. J Pers Assess. 2007;89:216-28 pubmed
    ..DSM-V]; not yet published) category of psychological factors affecting physical conditions appears to be feasible and may provide the clinician with better tools for identifying psychological distress. ..
  21. Munro B, Creamer A, Haggerty M, Cooper F. Effect of relaxation therapy on post-myocardial infarction patients' rehabilitation. Nurs Res. 1988;37:231-5 pubmed
    ..The practice of relaxation was found to have a significant effect on diastolic blood pressure. Behavior style was unrelated to the outcome measures. ..
  22. Farag N, Mills P. What's next in behavioral hypertension research?. Ann Behav Med. 2004;27:1-2 pubmed
  23. Grandi S, Fabbri S, Tossani E, Mangelli L, Branzi A, Magelli C. Psychological evaluation after cardiac transplantation: the integration of different criteria. Psychother Psychosom. 2001;70:176-83 pubmed
    ..The joint use of DSM and DCPR criteria was found to improve the identification of psychological factors which could result in a worsening of quality of life in heart-transplanted patients. ..
  24. Wallace J, Kass S, Stanny C. The cognitive failures questionnaire revisited: dimensions and correlates. J Gen Psychol. 2002;129:238-56 pubmed
    ..e., boredom proneness, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, Type A behavior pattern). ..
  25. Woynarowska B, Tabak I. [Risk factors of early sexual initiation]. Med Wieku Rozwoj. 2008;12:541-7 pubmed
    ..The knowledge about risk factors of early sexual debut and monitoring trends in their change should be taken into consideration in planning prevention programmes and school sexual education. ..
  26. Chida Y, Hamer M. Chronic psychosocial factors and acute physiological responses to laboratory-induced stress in healthy populations: a quantitative review of 30 years of investigations. Psychol Bull. 2008;134:829-85 pubmed publisher
    ..The results largely reflect an integrated stress response pattern of hypo- or hyperactivity depending on the specific nature of the psychosocial background. ..
  27. Jakovljevic G, Culić S, Benko M, Jakupcević K, Stepan J, Sprajc M. Parental type of personality, negative affectivity and family stressful events in children with cancer. Psychiatr Danub. 2010;22:436-40 pubmed
    ..Our results support the hypothesis that stress is a cancer risk factor and the idea that impaired parental functioning may be a mechanism linking family stress with the aetiology of cancer. ..
  28. Cosci F. Assessment of personality in psychosomatic medicine: current concepts. Adv Psychosom Med. 2012;32:133-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Alexithymia is currently recognized as a risk factor for medical, psychiatric, or behavioral problems; type A personality is recognized to increase the risk for coronary artery disease, and type D personality has been related to ..
  29. Lisspers J, Hofman Bang C, Nordlander R, Ryden L, Sundin O, Ohman A, et al. Multifactorial evaluation of a program for lifestyle behavior change in rehabilitation and secondary prevention of coronary artery disease. Scand Cardiovasc J. 1999;33:9-16 pubmed
    ..This program had a considerable effect on a number of important factors for rehabilitation and secondary prevention of coronary artery disease. ..
  30. Smith T, MacKenzie J. Personality and risk of physical illness. Annu Rev Clin Psychol. 2006;2:435-67 pubmed
    ..In these efforts, greater incorporation of concepts and methods in the structural, social-cognitive, and interpersonal perspectives in the field of personality are needed. ..
  31. Shiri S, Wexler I, Feintuch U, Meiner Z, Schwartz I. Post-polio syndrome: impact of hope on quality of life. Disabil Rehabil. 2012;34:824-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Fostering future-oriented coping related to hope may improve the self-perceived mental and physical status of patients with PPS. ..
  32. Lacour C, Consoli S. [Psychological and behavior characteristics predicting blood pressure reactivity to mental stress]. Arch Mal Coeur Vaiss. 1993;86:1177-80 pubmed
    ..05): there was no significant difference between the two samples but in HT, SBP elevation persisted after the stress session, contrary to the NT, whose SBP quickly decreased to the reference values.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  33. Lemogne C, Nabi H, Zins M, Cordier S, Ducimetiere P, Goldberg M, et al. Hostility may explain the association between depressive mood and mortality: evidence from the French GAZEL cohort study. Psychother Psychosom. 2010;79:164-71 pubmed publisher
    ..97 (1.39-2.77)]. Cognitive hostility may either confound or mediate the association between depressive mood and mortality. ..
  34. Toda M, Den R, Hasegawa Ohira M, Morimoto K. Influence of personal patterns of behavior on the effects of Tai Chi: a pilot study. Environ Health Prev Med. 2011;16:61-3 pubmed publisher
    ..No change was observed in the type B behavior pattern group. These findings suggest that a brief period of Tai Chi exercise is mentally beneficial, particularly to individuals with type A characteristics. ..
  35. Ikeda A, Iso H, Kawachi I, Inoue M, Tsugane S. Type A behaviour and risk of coronary heart disease: the JPHC Study. Int J Epidemiol. 2008;37:1395-405 pubmed publisher
    ..Among males, type B behavioural patterns appear to confer increased CHD risk. Our findings suggest that the cardio-toxic effect of type A behaviour is gender-specific and culturally contingent. ..
  36. Vijendren A, Yung M, Sanchez J, Shiralkar U, Weigel L. An exploratory investigation of personality types attracted to ENT. J Laryngol Otol. 2016;130:587-95 pubmed publisher
    ..ENT surgeons are more likely to be of type A personality in comparison to foundation doctors...
  37. Tloczynski J, Fritzsch S. Intercessory prayer in psychological well-being: using a multiple-baseline, across-subjects design. Psychol Rep. 2002;91:731-41 pubmed
    ..Subjects' lower mean anxiety scores somewhat matched the sequential timing of being prayed for. ..
  38. Lepore S. Cynicism, social support, and cardiovascular reactivity. Health Psychol. 1995;14:210-6 pubmed
    ..Results suggest that cynical attitudes may undermine the stress buffering potential of interpersonal support. ..
  39. Pulkkinen L. Behavioral precursors to accidents and resulting physical impairment. Child Dev. 1995;66:1660-79 pubmed
    ..For females, the predictions of accidents and impairment were less accurate than for males. ..
  40. Cole S, Kawachi I, Liu S, Gaziano J, Manson J, Buring J, et al. Time urgency and risk of non-fatal myocardial infarction. Int J Epidemiol. 2001;30:363-9 pubmed
    ..Prospective cohort studies of time urgency/impatience and incident CHD events are needed to confirm or refute these observations from a case-control study. ..
  41. Hemingway H, Whitty C, Shipley M, Stansfeld M, Brunner E, Fuhrer R, et al. Psychosocial risk factors for coronary disease in White, South Asian and Afro-Caribbean civil servants: the Whitehall II study. Ethn Dis. 2001;11:391-400 pubmed
    ..psychosocial work characteristics (job control, effort-reward imbalance), hostility levels and presence of Type A personality. South Asians, compared to Whites, had more depression, higher negative supports, less social support at ..
  42. Søgaard A, Dalgard O, Holme I, Røysamb E, Haheim L. Associations between type A behaviour pattern and psychological distress : 28 years of follow-up of the Oslo Study 1972/1973. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2008;43:216-23 pubmed
    ..This knowledge permits early detection of individuals who have a higher probability of experiencing psychological distress over a considerable period of time. ..
  43. Rafanelli C, Roncuzzi R, Finos L, Tossani E, Tomba E, Mangelli L, et al. Psychological assessment in cardiac rehabilitation. Psychother Psychosom. 2003;72:343-9 pubmed
    ..Type A behavior was present in about a quarter of patients and can be studied in specific subgroups of cardiovascular patients defined by DCPR. ..
  44. Keltikangas Jarvinen L, Heinonen K. Childhood roots of adulthood hostility: family factors as predictors of cognitive and affective hostility. Child Dev. 2003;74:1751-68 pubmed
    ..Results underline the need to consider the conjoint effects of various factors because the same characteristics play different roles in different contexts. ..
  45. Miller M. Questions & answers. What is Type D personality?. Harv Ment Health Lett. 2005;22:8 pubmed
  46. Dumitrescu A. Investigating the relationship between self-reported oral health status, oral health-related behaviors, type A behavior pattern, perceived stress and emotional intelligence. Rom J Intern Med. 2007;45:67-76 pubmed
    ..01). The result suggested that emotional intelligence might be a psychosocial risk marker that influences self-reported oral health status and behaviour. ..
  47. Elovainio M, Kivimaki M, Puttonen S, Heponiemi T, Pulkki L, Keltikangas Jarvinen L. Temperament and depressive symptoms: a population-based longitudinal study on Cloninger's psychobiological temperament model. J Affect Disord. 2004;83:227-32 pubmed
    ..Our results strengthen the view that depressive symptoms are independently influenced by temperamental dispositions. ..
  48. Glassman A. Depression and cardiovascular disease. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2008;41:221-5 pubmed publisher
    ..However, that evidence is not definitive and the reason behind the association between depression and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality remains uncertain. ..
  49. Haukkala A, Konttinen H, Laatikainen T, Kawachi I, Uutela A. Hostility, anger control, and anger expression as predictors of cardiovascular disease. Psychosom Med. 2010;72:556-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies should examine whether Anger Control is specific to anger or reflects more general psychosocial factors. ..
  50. Sluyter F, Keijser J, Boomsma D, van Doornen L, van den Oord E, Snieder H. Genetics of testosterone and the aggression-hostility-anger (AHA) syndrome: a study of middle-aged male twins. Twin Res. 2000;3:266-76 pubmed
  51. Yeragani V, Kumar H. Heart period and QT variability, hostility, and type-A behavior in normal controls and patients with panic disorder. J Psychosom Res. 2000;49:401-7 pubmed
    ..Our results do not support the hypothesis that higher hostility and higher type-A scores are associated with decreased cardiac vagal function. ..
  52. Fichera L, Andreassi J. Stress and personality as factors in women's cardiovascular reactivity. Int J Psychophysiol. 1998;28:143-55 pubmed
    ..It was concluded that Type A personality and hostility can predict greater reactivity in women to two different stressors...
  53. Thong J, Woods C, Lo S, Knight J. Type A personality in dizzy patients. Clin Otolaryngol. 2007;32:417-8 pubmed