personality development


Summary: Growth of habitual patterns of behavior in childhood and adolescence.

Top Publications

  1. Lucas R, Donnellan M. Personality development across the life span: longitudinal analyses with a national sample from Germany. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2011;101:847-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Mean levels of Conscientiousness increased among young adults and then decreased among older adults. Trajectories for Neuroticism were relatively flat, with slight increases during middle age and a slight decline in late life. ..
  2. Amianto F, Abbate Daga G, Morando S, Sobrero C, Fassino S. Personality development characteristics of women with anorexia nervosa, their healthy siblings and healthy controls: What prevents and what relates to psychopathology?. Psychiatry Res. 2011;187:401-8 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Personality development characteristics were assessed using the Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ), Temperament and Character ..
  3. Lin K, Twisk J, Rong J. Longitudinal interrelationships between frequent geographic relocation and personality development: results from the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study. Am J Orthopsychiatry. 2011;81:285-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Increased awareness of the potential interrelationships between frequent geographic relocation and personality development may have positive consequences for adult psychological health.
  4. Luyten P, Blatt S. Integrating theory-driven and empirically-derived models of personality development and psychopathology: a proposal for DSM V. Clin Psychol Rev. 2011;31:52-68 pubmed publisher
    ..findings increasingly suggest that an integration of theory-driven and empirically-derived models of personality development is not only possible, but also has the potential to provide a more comprehensive and clinically-relevant ..
  5. Specht J, Egloff B, Schmukle S. Stability and change of personality across the life course: the impact of age and major life events on mean-level and rank-order stability of the Big Five. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2011;101:862-82 pubmed publisher
    ..In sum, our analyses show that personality changes throughout the life span, but with more pronounced changes in young and old ages, and that this change is partly attributable to social demands and experiences. ..
  6. Bleidorn W, Kandler C, Riemann R, Spinath F, Angleitner A. Patterns and sources of adult personality development: growth curve analyses of the NEO PI-R scales in a longitudinal twin study. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2009;97:142-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Regarding the etiology of change, the analyses uncovered a more complex picture than originally stated, as findings suggest noticeable differences between traits with respect to the magnitude of genetic and environmental effects. ..
  7. McAdams D, Olson B. Personality development: continuity and change over the life course. Annu Rev Psychol. 2010;61:517-42 pubmed publisher
  8. Snyder J, Brooker M, Patrick M, Snyder A, Schrepferman L, Stoolmiller M. Observed peer victimization during early elementary school: continuity, growth, and relation to risk for child antisocial and depressive behavior. Child Dev. 2003;74:1881-98 pubmed
    ..At a short-term group level, antisocial behavior had a lagged suppressive effect on victimization for boys but a facilitating effect for girls. ..
  9. Roberts B, Robins R. Person-Environment Fit and its implications for personality development: a longitudinal study. J Pers. 2004;72:89-110 pubmed
    Continuity and change in Person-Environment Fit (PE Fit) and its relation to personality development was studied in a 4-year longitudinal study of college students (N=305)...

More Information


  1. Cillessen A, Mayeux L. From censure to reinforcement: developmental changes in the association between aggression and social status. Child Dev. 2004;75:147-63 pubmed
    ..Implications for the attainment of high status, processes of peer influence on antisocial behavior, and gender differences in the meaning of status are discussed. ..
  2. Caspi A, Roberts B, Shiner R. Personality development: stability and change. Annu Rev Psychol. 2005;56:453-84 pubmed
    In this review, we evaluate four topics in the study of personality development where discernible progress has been made since 1995 (the last time the area of personality development was reviewed in this series)...
  3. Luyckx K, Goossens L, Soenens B. A developmental contextual perspective on identity construction in emerging adulthood: change dynamics in commitment formation and commitment evaluation. Dev Psychol. 2006;42:366-80 pubmed
    ..Both commitment formation and commitment evaluation were at work in the reorientation group (i.e., students who repeated their freshman year or changed their major). Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. ..
  4. Anckarsater H, Stahlberg O, Larson T, Hakansson C, Jutblad S, Niklasson L, et al. The impact of ADHD and autism spectrum disorders on temperament, character, and personality development. Am J Psychiatry. 2006;163:1239-44 pubmed
    The authors describe personality development and disorders in relation to symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorders...
  5. Bosma H, Kunnen E. Identity-in-context is not yet identity development-in-context. J Adolesc. 2008;31:281-9 pubmed publisher
  6. Roberts B, Caspi A, Moffitt T. Work experiences and personality development in young adulthood. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2003;84:582-93 pubmed
    ..The relevance of the findings to theories of personality development is discussed.
  7. Calkins S, Fox N. Self-regulatory processes in early personality development: a multilevel approach to the study of childhood social withdrawal and aggression. Dev Psychopathol. 2002;14:477-98 pubmed
    ..Significant gaps remain in our knowledge of the pathways to disordered behavior and the role that self-regulation plays in such pathways. Suggestions are made for the ways in which future longitudinal studies might address these gaps. ..
  8. Crocetti E, Rubini M, Meeus W. Capturing the dynamics of identity formation in various ethnic groups: development and validation of a three-dimensional model. J Adolesc. 2008;31:207-22 pubmed
    ..Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. ..
  9. Iervolino A, Pike A, Manke B, Reiss D, Hetherington E, Plomin R. Genetic and environmental influences in adolescent peer socialization: evidence from two genetically sensitive designs. Child Dev. 2002;73:162-74 pubmed
    Harris argues that peer relationships are the chief determinants of personality development. Harris's thesis makes the behavioral genetic investigation of peer groups particularly timely...
  10. Bongers I, Koot H, van der Ende J, Verhulst F. Developmental trajectories of externalizing behaviors in childhood and adolescence. Child Dev. 2004;75:1523-37 pubmed
    ..The trajectories found in this study provide a basis against which deviations from the expected developmental course can be identified and classified as deviant or nondeviant. ..
  11. Luyckx K, Goossens L, Soenens B, Beyers W. Unpacking commitment and exploration: preliminary validation of an integrative model of late adolescent identity formation. J Adolesc. 2006;29:361-78 pubmed
    ..Exploration in Depth, on the other hand, was positively related to academic adjustment and negatively to substance use. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. ..
  12. Süss D. [Impacts of computer- and media usage on the personality development of children and young people]. Ther Umsch. 2007;64:103-8 pubmed
    ..If media usage is part of an environment which is adequat for children's wellbeeing, the psychosocial development will not be affected negatively by the media. ..
  13. Graziano W. Personality development: an introduction toward process approaches to long-term stability and change in persons. J Pers. 2003;71:893-903 pubmed
    ..the influence of racial and ethnic discrimination on subsequent adjustment, and cultural influences on personality development. The issue also includes a special contribution addressing methodological and statistical advances in ..
  14. Wiesner M, Capaldi D, Kim H. General versus specific predictors of male arrest trajectories: a test of the Moffitt and Patterson theories. J Youth Adolesc. 2012;41:217-28 pubmed publisher
    ..e., chronic and rare offender groups). No predictor differentially predicted membership in the two chronic groups, supporting the linear gradation argument. Theoretical and prevention implications are discussed. ..
  15. Malone J, Westen D, Levendosky A. Personalities of adults with traumatic childhood separations. J Clin Psychol. 2011;67:1259-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Both therapeutic interventions and case formulation might be strengthened by considering an individual's personality features and match to one of the identified subtypes. ..
  16. Robertson Hickling H, Paisley V, Guzder J, Hickling F. Fostering resilience in children at risk through a cultural therapy intervention in Kingston, Jamaica. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2009;20:31-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This initiative was undertaken by CARIMENSA, the Caribbean Institute for Mental Health and Substance Abuse. ..
  17. Reef J, Diamantopoulou S, van Meurs I, Verhulst F, van der Ende J. Predicting adult emotional and behavioral problems from externalizing problem trajectories in a 24-year longitudinal study. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2010;19:577-85 pubmed publisher
    ..e. increasing/decreasing/persisting) of the high-level trajectory. We can conclude that the level rather than the developmental change of externalizing behavior problems has a larger impact on adult outcome. ..
  18. Urgesi C, Romanò M, Fornasari L, Brambilla P, Fabbro F. Investigating the development of temperament and character in school-aged children using a self-report measure. Compr Psychiatry. 2012;53:875-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the use of the self-administered jTCI in clinical settings should be cautious, it may serve as a useful complementary instrument to describe the development of personality in childhood. ..
  19. Huang J, Yang Y, Wu J, Napolitano L, Xi Y, Cui Y. Childhood abuse in Chinese patients with borderline personality disorder. J Pers Disord. 2012;26:238-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings suggest that maternal physical abuse is as strong a predictor of BPD in China as sexual abuse, a finding not replicated in North America. ..
  20. Dahl A, Schuck R, Campos J. Do young toddlers act on their social preferences?. Dev Psychol. 2013;49:1964-70 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that social evaluations do affect toddlers' helping behavior but that interactions between human agents may be difficult to evaluate for very young children. ..
  21. Marcia J, Josselson R. Eriksonian personality research and its implications for psychotherapy. J Pers. 2013;81:617-29 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors, who are developmental, personality and clinical psychologists, illustrate the use of Eriksonian personality theory in psychotherapy by discussing case examples from their own psychotherapy practices. ..
  22. Grühn D, Gilet A, Studer J, Labouvie Vief G. Age-relevance of person characteristics: persons' beliefs about developmental change across the lifespan. Dev Psychol. 2011;47:376-87 pubmed publisher
    The authors investigated normative beliefs about personality development. Young, middle-aged, and older adults indicated the age-relevance of 835 French adjectives by specifying person characteristics as typical for any age decade from 0 ..
  23. Pedersen S, Schiffer A. The distressed (Type D) personality. A risk marker for poor health outcomes in ICD patients. Herzschrittmacherther Elektrophysiol. 2011;22:181-8 pubmed publisher
  24. El Sheikh M, Hinnant J. Marital conflict, respiratory sinus arrhythmia, and allostatic load: interrelations and associations with the development of children's externalizing behavior. Dev Psychopathol. 2011;23:815-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Findings for girls were more mixed. Results are discussed in the context of developmental psychobiology, allostatic load, and implications for the development of psychopathology. ..
  25. Vaish A, Carpenter M, Tomasello M. Young children's responses to guilt displays. Dev Psychol. 2011;47:1248-62 pubmed publisher
  26. Stupica B, Sherman L, Cassidy J. Newborn irritability moderates the association between infant attachment security and toddler exploration and sociability. Child Dev. 2011;82:1381-9 pubmed publisher
  27. Dolan T, Fowler J. Early memories, object relations, and current relationship functioning. Bull Menninger Clin. 2011;75:205-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Results are considered in light of the clinical utility of EMs. ..
  28. Staude Müller F. [Violent video games and aggression: long-term impact and selection effects]. Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr. 2011;60:745-61 pubmed
    ..Adolescents with aggressive traits intensified their video game behavior only in terms of their uncontrolled video game use. This was found even after controlling for sensation seeking and parental media control. ..
  29. Mireault G, Sparrow J, Poutre M, Perdue B, Macke L. Infant humor perception from 3- to 6-months and attachment at one year. Infant Behav Dev. 2012;35:797-802 pubmed publisher
    ..Future studies should examine the importance of smiling and laughter as they relate to other developmental phenomena in the first year. ..
  30. Alderfer M, Long K, Lown E, Marsland A, Ostrowski N, Hock J, et al. Psychosocial adjustment of siblings of children with cancer: a systematic review. Psychooncology. 2010;19:789-805 pubmed publisher
    ..Siblings of children with cancer are a psychosocially at-risk group and should be provided with appropriate supportive services. ..
  31. Wong T, Branje S, VanderValk I, Hawk S, Meeus W. The role of siblings in identity development in adolescence and emerging adulthood. J Adolesc. 2010;33:673-82 pubmed publisher
    ..It is apparent from this study that both the gender and birth order of siblings affect whether their own identity formation processes influence those of adolescents and emerging adults. ..
  32. Li Y, Lerner J, Lerner R. Personal and ecological assets and academic competence in early adolescence: the mediating role of school engagement. J Youth Adolesc. 2010;39:801-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Implications of the findings for evaluating the role of behavioral and/or emotional school engagement in academic competence and positive youth development are discussed. ..
  33. Dunkel C, Harbke C, Papini D. Direct and indirect effects of birth order on personality and identity: support for the null hypothesis. J Genet Psychol. 2009;170:159-75 pubmed publisher
    ..They discuss results in the context of the mixed-research findings regarding birth order and suggest further research on the proposed developmental dynamics that may produce birth-order effects. ..
  34. Adams P, Abela J, Auerbach R, Skitch S. Self-criticism, dependency, and stress reactivity: an experience sampling approach to testing Blatt and Zuroff's (1992) theory of personality predispositions to depression in high-risk youth. Pers Soc Psychol Bull. 2009;35:1440-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that dependency and self-criticism represent distinct vulnerability factors to depression in youth. ..
  35. Pulkkinen L, Kokko K, Rantanen J. Paths from socioemotional behavior in middle childhood to personality in middle adulthood. Dev Psychol. 2012;48:1283-91 pubmed publisher
  36. Wellman H, Lane J, LaBounty J, Olson S. Observant, nonaggressive temperament predicts theory of mind development. Dev Sci. 2011;14:319-26 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings contribute to our understanding of how theory of mind develops in the formative preschool period; they may also inform debates as to the evolutionary origins of theory of mind. ..
  37. Björkqvist K, Osterman K, Berg P. Higher rates of victimization to physical abuse by adults found among victims of school bullying. Psychol Rep. 2011;109:167-8 pubmed
    ..8%). No sex difference was found. The finding raises questions about whether victimization by physical abuse puts a child at greater risk for developing a "victim personality". ..
  38. Taylor R. Risk and resilience in low-income African American families: Moderating effects of kinship social support. Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol. 2010;16:344-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings are discussed in terms of the need for more information on factors that moderate families' access to social support. ..
  39. Morrow E. Genomic copy number variation in disorders of cognitive development. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2010;49:1091-104 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, CNV studies in disorders of cognitive development have revealed interesting and important new insights and have opened an avenue of investigation that holds great promise for neuropsychiatric disease. ..
  40. Erath S, El Sheikh M, Hinnant J, Cummings E. Skin conductance level reactivity moderates the association between harsh parenting and growth in child externalizing behavior. Dev Psychol. 2011;47:693-706 pubmed publisher
    ..Results are discussed from a developmental psychopathology perspective with reference to models of antisocial behavior in childhood. ..
  41. Skaletz C, Seiffge Krenke I. Models of developmental regulation in emerging adulthood and links to symptomatology. New Dir Child Adolesc Dev. 2010;2010:71-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, our findings indicate that focusing, selecting, and sequencing of developmental goals during emerging adulthood is adaptive for a healthy transition. ..
  42. Kroeber H. [Prosocial personality. Why is cooperation and moral adjustment the rule?]. Nervenarzt. 2011;82:37-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Some mechanism of social learning and norm orientation are reported, leading to some presumptions about the roots of antisocial behavior. ..
  43. Rosch D, Villanueva J. Motivation to Develop as a Leader. New Dir Stud Leadersh. 2016;2016:49-59 pubmed publisher
    ..This chapter explains the role of motivation in readying leaders to succeed. Suggestions are also offered for leadership developers in harnessing motivational factors to optimize their educational programs. ..
  44. Novick J, Novick K. Two systems and defenses. Psychoanal Rev. 2013;100:185-200 pubmed publisher
    ..Freud's concept of defense differentiated psychoanalysis from other medical and psychological theories of personality development and functioning then and now...
  45. Koelen J, Luyten P, Eurelings Bontekoe L, Diguer L, Vermote R, Lowyck B, et al. The impact of level of personality organization on treatment response: a systematic review. Psychiatry. 2012;75:355-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Potential implications for clinical practice and guidelines for future research are discussed. ..
  46. Sutin A, Zonderman A, Ferrucci L, Terracciano A. Personality traits and chronic disease: implications for adult personality development. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2013;68:912-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Discussion. This research indicates that personality traits confer risk for disease, in part, through health-risk behaviors. These traits, however, were relatively resistant to the effect of serious disease. ..
  47. Chassin L, Dmitrieva J, Modecki K, Steinberg L, Cauffman E, Piquero A, et al. Does adolescent alcohol and marijuana use predict suppressed growth in psychosocial maturity among male juvenile offenders?. Psychol Addict Behav. 2010;24:48-60 pubmed publisher
  48. Terrassier J. [Intellectually precocious children]. Arch Pediatr. 2009;16:1603-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In order to help them manage their abilities linked to their intelligence, it matters firstly to identify and recognize them as precocious to help them fully express their personality and achieve their full potential. ..
  49. Williams K, Ciarrochi J, Heaven P. Inflexible parents, inflexible kids: a 6-year longitudinal study of parenting style and the development of psychological flexibility in adolescents. J Youth Adolesc. 2012;41:1053-66 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding how parenting changes and the consequences of such change for the development of psychological flexibility. ..
  50. Rothe E. Psychotherapy with a narcissistic playboy facing the end of his life: a self-psychology and object relations perspective. J Am Acad Psychoanal Dyn Psychiatry. 2010;38:229-41 pubmed publisher
  51. Nosko A, Tieu T, Lawford H, Pratt M. How do I love thee? Let me count the ways: parenting during adolescence, attachment styles, and romantic narratives in emerging adulthood. Dev Psychol. 2011;47:645-57 pubmed publisher
    ..The implications of these findings for links between attachment models and the life story are discussed. ..
  52. Salvatore J, Kuo S, Steele R, Simpson J, Collins W. Recovering from conflict in romantic relationships: a developmental perspective. Psychol Sci. 2011;22:376-83 pubmed publisher
  53. Prenoveau J, Craske M, Zinbarg R, Mineka S, Rose R, Griffith J. Are anxiety and depression just as stable as personality during late adolescence? Results from a three-year longitudinal latent variable study. J Abnorm Psychol. 2011;120:832-43 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that symptoms of depression are more episodic in nature, whereas symptoms of anxiety are more similar to personality variables in their expression of stability. ..