water deprivation


Summary: The withholding of water in a structured experimental situation.

Top Publications

  1. Wotus C, Osborn J, Nieto P, Engeland W. Regulation of corticosterone production by vasopressin during water restriction and after drinking in rats. Neuroendocrinology. 2003;78:301-11 pubmed
    ..Moreover, they support the hypothesis that the decline in corticosterone after restriction-induced drinking is due, in part, to a decline in plasma VP. ..
  2. Petri N, Dropulic N, Kardum G. Effects of voluntary fluid intake deprivation on mental and psychomotor performance. Croat Med J. 2006;47:855-61 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that the duration of fluid intake deprivation can be a useful indicator of mental and psychomotor deterioration level but not of mood self-estimates. ..
  3. Shirreffs S, Merson S, Fraser S, Archer D. The effects of fluid restriction on hydration status and subjective feelings in man. Br J Nutr. 2004;91:951-8 pubmed
    ..Thirst increased from 0-13 h of FR then did not increase further (P>0.05). The subjects reported feelings of headache during the FR trial and also that their ability to concentrate and their alertness were reduced. ..
  4. Freeman K, Brooks V. AT(1) and glutamatergic receptors in paraventricular nucleus support blood pressure during water deprivation. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2007;292:R1675-82 pubmed
    b>Water deprivation activates sympathoexcitatory neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN); however, the neurotransmitters that mediate this activation are unknown...
  5. Salas S, Giacaman A, Vio C. Renal and hormonal effects of water deprivation in late-term pregnant rats. Hypertension. 2004;44:334-9 pubmed
    ..Because pregnant rats actively retain water, we postulate that water deprivation (WD) would cause a greater reduction in plasma volume in pregnant than in nonpregnant rats...
  6. De Mota N, Reaux Le Goazigo A, El Messari S, Chartrel N, Roesch D, Dujardin C, et al. Apelin, a potent diuretic neuropeptide counteracting vasopressin actions through inhibition of vasopressin neuron activity and vasopressin release. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:10464-9 pubmed
    ..Moreover, water deprivation, which increases systemic AVP release and causes depletion of hypothalamic AVP stores, decreased plasma ..
  7. Oliver S, Laing S, Wilson S, Bilzon J, Walsh N. Saliva indices track hypohydration during 48h of fluid restriction or combined fluid and energy restriction. Arch Oral Biol. 2008;53:975-80 pubmed publisher
    ..05) and returned to within 0h values with rehydration. Sosm, and to a lesser extent UFR, track hydration status during a 48h period of RF or RF+RE and after subsequent exercise and rehydration. ..
  8. Chatelain D, Montel V, Dickes Coopman A, Chatelain A, Deloof S. Trophic and steroidogenic effects of water deprivation on the adrenal gland of the adult female rat. Regul Pept. 2003;110:249-55 pubmed
    The effects of a 3-day water deprivation were studied in adult female rats in order to know what are the different zones of the adrenal gland and the hormonal factors involved in the growth and the activity of the adrenal gland...
  9. Aguila F, Oliveira Pelegrin G, Yao S, Murphy D, Rocha M. Anteroventral third ventricle (AV3V) lesion affects hypothalamic neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) expression following water deprivation. Brain Res Bull. 2011;86:239-45 pubmed publisher
    ..05). We conclude that the AV3V region plays a role in regulating the expression of nNOS in the SON of rats submitted to dehydration, and thus may affect the local nitric oxide production and the secretion of vasopressin. ..

More Information


  1. Elgot A, Ahboucha S, Bouyatas M, Fevre Montange M, Gamrani H. Water deprivation affects serotoninergic system and glycoprotein secretion in the sub-commissural organ of a desert rodent Meriones shawi. Neurosci Lett. 2009;466:6-10 pubmed publisher
    b>Water deprivation is a stress that has been associated with activation of several endocrine systems, including circumventricular organs of the central nervous system...
  2. Jia Z, Liu G, Downton M, Dong Z, Zhang A, Yang T. mPGES-1 deletion potentiates urine concentrating capability after water deprivation. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2012;302:F1005-12 pubmed publisher
    ..potential role of microsomal PGE synthase (mPGES)-1 in the regulation of urine concentrating ability after water deprivation (WD)...
  3. Szinnai G, Morgenthaler N, Berneis K, Struck J, Muller B, Keller U, et al. Changes in plasma copeptin, the c-terminal portion of arginine vasopressin during water deprivation and excess in healthy subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92:3973-8 pubmed
    ..studies were used in 24 healthy adults to produce changes in plasma osmolality and/or volume: 1) a 28-h water deprivation, 2) a 17-h hypertonic saline infusion combined with thirsting, and 3) a hypotonic saline infusion with iv ..
  4. Saito N, Ikegami H, Shimada K. Effect of water deprivation on aquaporin 4 (AQP4) mRNA expression in chickens (Gallus domesticus). Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2005;141:193-7 pubmed
    ..We studied the effect of water deprivation on AQP4 gene expression in chickens...
  5. Frenkel L, Maldonado H, Delorenzi A. Memory strengthening by a real-life episode during reconsolidation: an outcome of water deprivation via brain angiotensin II. Eur J Neurosci. 2005;22:1757-66 pubmed
    ..Previously we showed that angiotensin II facilitates memory consolidation. Moreover, water deprivation increases brain angiotensin and improves memory consolidation and retrieval through angiotensin II receptors...
  6. Choi H, Kang H, Chung H, Bae S, Shin K, Lee M. Effects of water deprivation on the pharmacokinetics of theophylline and one of its metabolites, 1,3-dimethyluric acid, after intravenous and oral administration of aminophylline to rats. Biopharm Drug Dispos. 2007;28:445-54 pubmed
    ..expressions of hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1/2, 2B1/2 and 3A1/2 were not changed in rats with water deprivation for 72 h (rat model of dehydration) compared with the controls...
  7. Fenske W, Quinkler M, Lorenz D, Zopf K, Haagen U, Papassotiriou J, et al. Copeptin in the differential diagnosis of the polydipsia-polyuria syndrome--revisiting the direct and indirect water deprivation tests. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96:1506-15 pubmed publisher
    The water deprivation test (WDT) with direct or indirect measurement of plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) is the method of choice for the differential diagnosis of the polydipsia-polyuria syndrome...
  8. van Vonderen I, Wolfswinkel J, Oosterlaken Dijksterhuis M, Rijnberk A, Kooistra H. Pulsatile secretion pattern of vasopressin under basal conditions, after water deprivation, and during osmotic stimulation in dogs. Domest Anim Endocrinol. 2004;27:1-12 pubmed
    ..the secretion pattern of VP, we measured VP at 2-min intervals for 2 h under basal conditions, after 12 h of water deprivation, and during osmotic stimulation with hypertonic saline (20%) in eight healthy dogs...
  9. Reaux Le Goazigo A, Morinville A, Burlet A, Llorens Cortes C, Beaudet A. Dehydration-induced cross-regulation of apelin and vasopressin immunoreactivity levels in magnocellular hypothalamic neurons. Endocrinology. 2004;145:4392-400 pubmed
    ..We also investigated the effects of water deprivation on the levels of apelin within these two nuclei by comparison with those of AVP...
  10. Combet S, Gouraud S, Gobin R, Berthonaud V, Geelen G, Corman B, et al. Aquaporin-2 downregulation in kidney medulla of aging rats is posttranscriptional and is abolished by water deprivation. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2008;294:F1408-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Since AQP2 can also be regulated by AVP-independent pathways in water deprivation (WD), we investigated AQP2 and phosphorylated AQP2 (p-AQP2) regulation in thirsted adult (10 mo old) and ..
  11. Szinnai G, Schachinger H, Arnaud M, Linder L, Keller U. Effect of water deprivation on cognitive-motor performance in healthy men and women. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2005;289:R275-80 pubmed
    Whether mental performance is affected by slowly progressive moderate dehydration induced by water deprivation has not been examined previously...
  12. Finnie J, Blumbergs P, Williamson M. Alzheimer type II astrocytes in the brains of pigs with salt poisoning (water deprivation/intoxication). Aust Vet J. 2010;88:405-7 pubmed publisher
    ..in addition to the pathognomonic combination of laminar cerebrocortical necrosis and eosinophil infiltration, in the brains of pigs is reported for the first time in cases of indirect salt poisoning following water deprivation.
  13. Gottlieb H, Ji L, Jones H, Penny M, Fleming T, Cunningham J. Differential effects of water and saline intake on water deprivation-induced c-Fos staining in the rat. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2006;290:R1251-61 pubmed
    We studied c-Fos staining in adult male rats after 48 h of water deprivation and after 46 h of water deprivation with 2 h of access to water or physiological saline...
  14. O Carroll A, Lolait S. Regulation of rat APJ receptor messenger ribonucleic acid expression in magnocellular neurones of the paraventricular and supraopric nuclei by osmotic stimuli. J Neuroendocrinol. 2003;15:661-6 pubmed
    ..Intake of 2% NaCl and water deprivation for 48 h induced expression of APJR mRNA in the mPVN and SON...
  15. Stocker S, Simmons J, Stornetta R, Toney G, Guyenet P. Water deprivation activates a glutamatergic projection from the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus to the rostral ventrolateral medulla. J Comp Neurol. 2006;494:673-85 pubmed
    ..We sought to determine whether the PVH-RVLM projection activated by water deprivation is glutamatergic and/or contains vasopressin- or oxytocin-neurophysins...
  16. De Luca L, Vendramini R, Pereira D, Colombari D, David R, de Paula P, et al. Water deprivation and the double- depletion hypothesis: common neural mechanisms underlie thirst and salt appetite. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2007;40:707-12 pubmed
    b>Water deprivation-induced thirst is explained by the double-depletion hypothesis, which predicts that dehydration of the two major body fluid compartments, the extracellular and intracellular compartments, activates signals that combine ..
  17. Kim J, Kim Y, Lee M, Kwon J, Yoo M. Effects of water deprivation on the pharmacokinetics of DA-8159, a new erectogenic, in rats. J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2006;9:10-21 pubmed
    To test the effect of 72 h water deprivation on the non-renal clearance (CL) of DA-8159 in a rat model of dehydration...
  18. Reis W, Biancardi V, Son S, Antunes Rodrigues J, Stern J. Enhanced expression of heme oxygenase-1 and carbon monoxide excitatory effects in oxytocin and vasopressin neurones during water deprivation. J Neuroendocrinol. 2012;24:653-63 pubmed publisher
  19. De Luca L, Pereira Derderian D, Vendramini R, David R, Menani J. Water deprivation-induced sodium appetite. Physiol Behav. 2010;100:535-44 pubmed publisher
    ..However, separation between thirst and sodium appetite is necessary to use water deprivation as a method to understand the mechanisms subserving sodium appetite...
  20. Stocker S, Cunningham J, Toney G. Water deprivation increases Fos immunoreactivity in PVN autonomic neurons with projections to the spinal cord and rostral ventrolateral medulla. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2004;287:R1172-83 pubmed
    The present study sought to determine whether water deprivation increases Fos immunoreactivity, a neuronal marker related to synaptic activation, in sympathetic-regulatory neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN)...
  21. Turner J, Sazonova O, Wang H, Pozzi A, Wagner G. Induction of the renal stanniocalcin-1 gene in rodents by water deprivation. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2010;328:8-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Alternatively, STC-1 could have a role in salt and water balance as dehydration necessitates water conservation as well as controlled natriuresis and kaliuresis. ..
  22. Blatteis C. Thermoregulation in complex situations: combined heat exposure, infectious fever and water deprivation. Int J Biometeorol. 2000;44:31-43 pubmed
    Heat exposure, infectious fever and water deprivation are stressors that, individually, produce disturbances in more than one regulated system, calling for diverse compensatory responses...
  23. Oliverio M, Delnomdedieu M, Best C, Li P, Morris M, Callahan M, et al. Abnormal water metabolism in mice lacking the type 1A receptor for ANG II. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2000;278:F75-82 pubmed
    ..This defect results in extreme serum hypertonicity during water deprivation. In the basal state, plasma vasopressin levels are similar in wild-type controls and Agtr1a -/- mice...
  24. Janus K, Antoszek J, Suszycki S. The effect of short-term starvation or water deprivation on caffeine pharmacokinetics in calves. Res Vet Sci. 2001;70:109-13 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of short-term starvation or water deprivation on the pharmacokinetics of caffeine in calves...
  25. Reaux A, De Mota N, Skultetyova I, Lenkei Z, El Messari S, Gallatz K, et al. Physiological role of a novel neuropeptide, apelin, and its receptor in the rat brain. J Neurochem. 2001;77:1085-96 pubmed
    ..Together, these results suggest that neuronal apelin plays an important role in the central control of body fluid homeostasis. ..
  26. Pedersen R, Bentzen H, Bech J, Pedersen E. Effect of water deprivation and hypertonic saline infusion on urinary AQP2 excretion in healthy humans. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2001;280:F860-7 pubmed
    ..that urinary excretion of AQP2 (u-AQP2) reflects the effect of AVP on the renal collecting ducts during water deprivation and hypertonic saline infusion in healthy subjects...
  27. Stegelmeier B, James L, Hall J, Mattix M. Neurologic disease in range goats associated with Oxytropis sericea (Locoweed) poisoning and water deprivation. Vet Hum Toxicol. 2001;43:302-4 pubmed
    ..Locoweed-induced depression and inhibition of neuromuscular function coupled with water deprivation due to predation pressure allowed development of neurologic disease and hypernatremia.
  28. Bradshaw S, Morris K, Bradshaw F. Water and electrolyte homeostasis and kidney function of desert-dwelling marsupial wallabies in Western Australia. J Comp Physiol B. 2001;171:22-32 pubmed
    ..of two species of marsupial wallabies to maintain water and electrolyte balance during periods of extreme water deprivation in the arid Pilbara region of Western Australia...
  29. de Souza Villa P, Menani J, de Arruda Camargo G, de Arruda Camargo L, Saad W. Activation of the serotonergic 5-HT1A receptor in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus inhibits water intake and increases urinary excretion in water-deprived rats. Regul Pept. 2008;150:14-20 pubmed publisher
    ..lateral-medial posterior magnocellular region of the PVN in the water intake and diuresis induced by 24 h of water deprivation. Cannulae were implanted in the PVN of rats...
  30. Böselt I, Römpler H, Hermsdorf T, Thor D, Busch W, Schulz A, et al. Involvement of the V2 vasopressin receptor in adaptation to limited water supply. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5573 pubmed publisher
    ..The gain of basal V2R function in several marsupials may contribute to the increased urine concentration abilities and, therefore, provide an advantage to maintain water and electrolyte homeostasis under limited water supply conditions. ..
  31. Hall N, Isaza R, Hall J, Wiedner E, Conrad B, Wamsley H. Serum osmolality and effects of water deprivation in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). J Vet Diagn Invest. 2012;24:688-95 pubmed publisher
    ..A 16-hr water deprivation test in 16 Asian elephants induced a small, subclinical, but statistically significant increase in measured ..
  32. Kennedy P, Shapiro M. Motivational states activate distinct hippocampal representations to guide goal-directed behaviors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:10805-10 pubmed publisher
  33. Saadoun A, Cabrera M. Effect of the 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT on food and water intake in chickens. Physiol Behav. 2002;75:271-5 pubmed
  34. Espinet A, Caramés J, Chamizo V. Order effects after blocked preexposure to two compound flavors. Behav Processes. 2011;88:94-100 pubmed publisher
    ..A fourth experiment provided evidence that the A?X association was preserved until the end of the preexposure phase in this group, which is a requisite for the formation of these inhibitory associations. ..
  35. Breiderhoff T, Himmerkus N, Stuiver M, Mutig K, Will C, Meij I, et al. Deletion of claudin-10 (Cldn10) in the thick ascending limb impairs paracellular sodium permeability and leads to hypermagnesemia and nephrocalcinosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:14241-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These data identify claudin-10 as a key factor in control of cation selectivity and transport in the TAL, and deficiency in this pathway as a cause of nephrocalcinosis...
  36. Brewer A, Langel U, Robinson J. Intracerebroventricular administration of galanin decreases free water intake and operant water reinforcer efficacy in water-restricted rats. Neuropeptides. 2005;39:117-24 pubmed
    ..However, the present data also suggest that DNMTP choice accuracy deficits observed previously cannot be attributed to a galanin-induced change in reinforcer efficacy. ..
  37. Knight W, Ji L, Little J, Cunningham J. Dehydration followed by sham rehydration contributes to reduced neuronal activation in vasopressinergic supraoptic neurons after water deprivation. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2010;299:R1232-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Compared with CON, water deprivation increased and water rehydration decreased plasma osmolality, while sham rehydration had no effect...
  38. Ostrowski S, Williams J, Mesochina P, Sauerwein H. Physiological acclimation of a desert antelope, Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx), to long-term food and water restriction. J Comp Physiol B. 2006;176:191-201 pubmed
    ..Oryx have an unusually low TEWL compared with other arid-zone ungulates; both hydrated and water-deprived individuals have TEWL values, 51.7 and 39.3%, respectively, of allometric predictions for arid-zone ungulates. ..
  39. Heimeier R, Donald J. The response of the natriuretic peptide system to water deprivation in the desert rodent, Notomys alexis. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2006;143:193-201 pubmed
    ..This study investigated the response of the natriuretic peptide (NP) system to varying periods of water deprivation (WD) in the Australian desert rodent species, Notomys alexis...
  40. Pross N, Demazières A, Girard N, Barnouin R, Santoro F, Chevillotte E, et al. Influence of progressive fluid restriction on mood and physiological markers of dehydration in women. Br J Nutr. 2013;109:313-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Urine specific gravity appears to be the best physiological measure of hydration status in subjects with a normal level of activity; saliva osmolality is another reliable and non-invasive method for assessing hydration status. ..
  41. Tahon K, Wijnants M, De Schutter E. The RAT-ROTADRUM: a reaction time task depending on a continuous stream of tactile sensory information to the rat. J Neurosci Methods. 2011;200:153-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Extracellular neuronal activity was recorded during task performance in the final paradigm. Together with this behavioral test box we present a flexible, easy to build and affordable modular stimulus control system. ..
  42. Dupoué A, Angelier F, Lourdais O, Bonnet X, Brischoux F. Effect of water deprivation on baseline and stress-induced corticosterone levels in the Children's python (Antaresia childreni). Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2014;168:11-6 pubmed publisher
    ..g., physiological status) and environmental stressors (e.g., ambient temperature). Heretofore, the impact of water deprivation on CORT plasma levels has not been thoroughly investigated...
  43. Frenkel L, Suárez L, Maldonado H, Delorenzi A. Angiotensin modulates long-term memory expression but not long-term memory storage in the crab Chasmagnathus. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2010;94:509-20 pubmed publisher
    ..animals cannot reveal long-term memory (LTM) except when an episode of noticeable ethological meaning, water deprivation, is contingent upon reconsolidation...
  44. Frenkel L, Dimant B, Portiansky E, Imboden H, Maldonado H, Delorenzi A. Neuroanatomical distribution of angiotensin-II-like neuropeptide within the central nervous system of the crab Chasmagnathus; physiological changes triggered by water deprivation. Cell Tissue Res. 2010;341:181-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Previously, we have shown that, in the euryhaline and semiterrestrial crab Chasmagnathus granulatus, water deprivation correlates with an increased level of brain angiotensin-II-like neuropeptide/s (ANGII-like) and improves ..
  45. Kim Y, Kim Y, Kim E, Cho M, Kim S, Lee M. Pharmacokinetics of intravenous chlorzoxazone in rats with dehydration and rehydration: effects of food intakes. Biopharm Drug Dispos. 2003;24:53-61 pubmed
    The following results were obtained recently from our laboratories; in rats with 72-h water deprivation (rats with dehydration), the hepatic cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) was three-fold induced with an increase in the mRNA...
  46. Zhu L, Mao C, Wu J, Guan J, Wan Z, Liu Y, et al. Ovine fetal hormonal and hypothalamic neuroendocrine responses to maternal water deprivation at late gestation. Int J Dev Neurosci. 2009;27:385-91 pubmed publisher
    ..It is still not clear about effects and mechanisms of maternal water deprivation on fetal neuroendocrine and hormonal responses...
  47. Tucci V, Hardy A, Nolan P. A comparison of physiological and behavioural parameters in C57BL/6J mice undergoing food or water restriction regimes. Behav Brain Res. 2006;173:22-9 pubmed
    ..Finally, both water- and food-restricted mice tended to be more offensive than control mice when paired with an opponent in a social dominance test condition. ..
  48. Roberts E, Newson M, Pope G, Landgraf R, Lolait S, O Carroll A. Abnormal fluid homeostasis in apelin receptor knockout mice. J Endocrinol. 2009;202:453-62 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Water deprivation for 24 h significantly reduced urine volume and increased osmolality in wild-type but not in APJ(-/-) mice...
  49. Johnson A, Le I, Andresen B, Stodola J, Dewey G, Dean S, et al. VACM-1/cul5 expression in vascular tissue in vivo is induced by water deprivation and its expression in vitro regulates aquaporin-1 concentrations. Cell Tissue Res. 2012;349:527-39 pubmed publisher
    ..may be regulated by conditions that compromise water homeostasis in vivo, we determined if 24 h of water deprivation affects VACM-1/cul5 levels or the effect of VACM-1/cul5 on AQP1...
  50. Tanaka Y, Makino S, Noguchi T, Tamura K, Kaneda T, Hashimoto K. Effect of stress and adrenalectomy on urocortin II mRNA expression in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of the rat. Neuroendocrinology. 2003;78:1-11 pubmed
    ..We examined expression of Ucn II mRNA in the PVN and LC following immobilization stress, water deprivation, and adrenalectomy...
  51. Favaroni Mendes L, Rocha P, Ribeiro M, Perry S, Spinelli Oliveira E. Differences in ingestive balance of two populations of neotropical Thrichomys apereoides (Rodentia, Echimyidae). Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2004;138:327-32 pubmed
    ..Under short-term water deprivation, both populations presented similar body mass loss...
  52. Yi L, Liu B, Li J, Luo L, Liu Q, Geng D, et al. BDNF signaling is necessary for the antidepressant-like effect of naringenin. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2014;48:135-41 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our findings suggest that the antidepressant-like effect of naringenin may be mediated, at least in part, by the activation of BDNF signaling in the hippocampus. ..
  53. Aaron S, Alexander M, Maya T, Mathew V, Goel M, Nair S, et al. Underlying prothrombotic states in pregnancy associated cerebral venous thrombosis. Neurol India. 2010;58:555-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Deep venous system involvement, presence of midline shift and diffuse cerebral edema increased mortality. Peuperial water restriction may be a modifiable risk factor. ..