Summary: The desire for FOOD generated by a sensation arising from the lack of food in the STOMACH.

Top Publications

  1. Muthayya S, Rah J, Sugimoto J, Roos F, Kraemer K, Black R. The global hidden hunger indices and maps: an advocacy tool for action. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e67860 pubmed publisher
    The unified global efforts to mitigate the high burden of vitamin and mineral deficiency, known as hidden hunger, in populations around the world are crucial to the achievement of most of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)...
  2. Maljaars P, Peters H, Kodde A, Geraedts M, Troost F, Haddeman E, et al. Length and site of the small intestine exposed to fat influences hunger and food intake. Br J Nutr. 2011;106:1609-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Satiety parameters (hunger and fullness) and cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY) secretion were measured ..
  3. Becker G, Macedo R, Cunha G, Martins J, Laitano O, Reischak Oliveira A. Combined effects of aerobic exercise and high-carbohydrate meal on plasma acylated ghrelin and levels of hunger. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2012;37:184-92 pubmed publisher aerobic exercise bout associated with a high-carbohydrate (CHO) meal on plasma levels of acylated ghrelin and hunger sensation. Eight healthy males performed an exercise (ET) and a control (CT) trial...
  4. Caudwell P, Finlayson G, Gibbons C, Hopkins M, King N, Naslund E, et al. Resting metabolic rate is associated with hunger, self-determined meal size, and daily energy intake and may represent a marker for appetite. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;97:7-14 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the relation has never been established, and it is not known why certain people experience hunger in the presence of large amounts of body energy...
  5. Nakayama S, Johnstone R, Manica A. Temperament and hunger interact to determine the emergence of leaders in pairs of foraging fish. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e43747 pubmed publisher
    ..Before satiation, when the fish had similar hunger levels, temperament was a good predictor of social roles, with the bolder member of a pair leading and the shyer ..
  6. Ott V, Friedrich M, Prilop S, Lehnert H, Jauch Chara K, Born J, et al. Food anticipation and subsequent food withdrawal increase serum cortisol in healthy men. Physiol Behav. 2011;103:594-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In both groups, hunger, mood and circulating concentrations of glucose, insulin, cortisol, ACTH, leptin and ghrelin were assessed...
  7. Koh K, Hoy J, O Connell J, Montgomery P. The hunger-obesity paradox: obesity in the homeless. J Urban Health. 2012;89:952-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Although underweight has been traditionally associated with homelessness, this study suggests that obesity may be the new malnutrition of the homeless in the United States. ..
  8. Lemmens S, Rutters F, Born J, Westerterp Plantenga M. Stress augments food 'wanting' and energy intake in visceral overweight subjects in the absence of hunger. Physiol Behav. 2011;103:157-63 pubmed publisher
    Stress may induce eating in the absence of hunger, possibly involving changes in food reward, i.e. 'liking' and 'wanting'...
  9. Bolhuis D, Lakemond C, de Wijk R, Luning P, Graaf C. Both longer oral sensory exposure to and higher intensity of saltiness decrease ad libitum food intake in healthy normal-weight men. J Nutr. 2011;141:2242-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Longer orosensory exposure and higher saltiness intensity both decreased food intake, although orosensory exposure had more impact than intensity. Prolonging the orosensory exposure per food unit may be helpful to reduce food intake. ..

More Information


  1. Martens M, Westerterp Plantenga M. Mode of consumption plays a role in alleviating hunger and thirst. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2012;20:517-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Only after drinking a meal most subjects (80%) wanted to consume more of the same meal, in order to alleviate hunger (63%) or quench thirst (37%). We conclude that mode of consumption plays a role in alleviating hunger and thirst...
  2. Carnell S, Gibson C, Benson L, Ochner C, Geliebter A. Neuroimaging and obesity: current knowledge and future directions. Obes Rev. 2012;13:43-56 pubmed publisher
    ..The dynamic distributed vulnerability model of eating behaviour in obesity that we propose has scientific and practical implications. ..
  3. Kaschula S. Using people to cope with the hunger: social networks and food transfers amongst HIV/AIDS afflicted households in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. AIDS Behav. 2011;15:1490-502 pubmed publisher
    ..Concerted action must be taken by government, non-government and community agents if social food transfer networks are to be transformed into coordinated community action. ..
  4. Wiessing K, Xin L, McGill A, Budgett S, Strik C, Poppitt S. Sensitivity of ad libitum meals to detect changes in hunger. Restricted-item or multi-item testmeals in the design of preload appetite studies. Appetite. 2012;58:1076-82 pubmed publisher determine whether restricted single-item or multi-item testmeals are better able to detect prior changes in hunger and fullness when assessing ad libitum eating behaviour. Thirty male participants were given a low- (L(E), 0...
  5. Bernal J, Frongillo E, Herrera H, Rivera J. Children live, feel, and respond to experiences of food insecurity that compromise their development and weight status in peri-urban Venezuela. J Nutr. 2012;142:1343-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Children should have certain access to food that is dignified, timely, efficient, and adequate in harmonious social conditions to prevent and resolve situations that compromise their physical, cognitive, and socio-emotional well-being. ..
  6. Fram M, Frongillo E, Jones S, Williams R, Burke M, Deloach K, et al. Children are aware of food insecurity and take responsibility for managing food resources. J Nutr. 2011;141:1114-9 pubmed publisher
  7. Stengel A, TACHE Y. Interaction between gastric and upper small intestinal hormones in the regulation of hunger and satiety: ghrelin and cholecystokinin take the central stage. Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2011;12:293-304 pubmed
  8. Miller N, Saada R, Markovich S, Hurwitz I, Susswein A. L-arginine via nitric oxide is an inhibitory feedback modulator of Aplysia feeding. J Neurophysiol. 2011;105:1642-50 pubmed publisher
  9. Marjerrison S, Cummings E, Glanville N, Kirk S, Ledwell M. Prevalance and associations of food insecurity in children with diabetes mellitus. J Pediatr. 2011;158:607-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Risk factors identified in this study should be used to screen for this problem in families with a child with DM. ..
  10. Roosen L, Boesmans W, Dondeyne M, Depoortere I, Tack J, Vanden Berghe P. Specific hunger- and satiety-induced tuning of guinea pig enteric nerve activity. J Physiol. 2012;590:4321-33 pubmed publisher
    Although hunger and satiety are mainly centrally regulated, there is convincing evidence that also gastrointestinal motor activity and hormone fluctuations significantly contribute to appetite signalling...
  11. Kral T, Moore R, Stunkard A, Berkowitz R, Stettler N, Stallings V, et al. Adolescent eating in the absence of hunger and relation to discretionary calorie allowance. J Am Diet Assoc. 2010;110:1896-900 pubmed publisher
    Eating in the absence of hunger is a risk factor for overeating during childhood...
  12. Tapper K, Pothos E, Lawrence A. Feast your eyes: hunger and trait reward drive predict attentional bias for food cues. Emotion. 2010;10:949-54 pubmed publisher
    ..We used a modified visual probe task to examine the influence of hunger and trait reward drive on food-related attentional bias...
  13. Pieper J, Laugero K. Preschool children with lower executive function may be more vulnerable to emotional-based eating in the absence of hunger. Appetite. 2013;62:103-9 pubmed publisher
    ..conducted to examine the relationships between executive function, emotional arousal and eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) in 3-6year-old children...
  14. McIntyre L, Williams J, Lavorato D, Patten S. Depression and suicide ideation in late adolescence and early adulthood are an outcome of child hunger. J Affect Disord. 2013;150:123-9 pubmed publisher
    Child hunger represents an adverse experience that could contribute to mental health problems in later life...
  15. Wasse L, Sunderland C, King J, Miyashita M, Stensel D. The influence of vigorous running and cycling exercise on hunger perceptions and plasma acylated ghrelin concentrations in lean young men. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2013;38:1-6 pubmed publisher
    ..It is important from a research and applied perspective to determine whether acylated ghrelin and hunger responses are exercise-mode specific. This study sought to examine this...
  16. Krashes M, Shah B, Madara J, Olson D, Strochlic D, Garfield A, et al. An excitatory paraventricular nucleus to AgRP neuron circuit that drives hunger. Nature. 2014;507:238-42 pubmed publisher
    b>Hunger is a hard-wired motivational state essential for survival. Agouti-related peptide (AgRP)-expressing neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) at the base of the hypothalamus are crucial to the control of hunger...
  17. Alavi Y, Jumbe V, Hartley S, Smith S, Lamping D, Muhit M, et al. Indignity, exclusion, pain and hunger: the impact of musculoskeletal impairments in the lives of children in Malawi. Disabil Rehabil. 2012;34:1736-46 pubmed publisher
    ..The main themes that emerged were Indignity, Exclusion, Pain and Hunger. Indignity represents various affronts to children's sense of inherent equal worth as human beings, for example ..
  18. Brown A, Bohan Brown M, Onken K, Beitz D. Short-term consumption of sucralose, a nonnutritive sweetener, is similar to water with regard to select markers of hunger signaling and short-term glucose homeostasis in women. Nutr Res. 2011;31:882-8 pubmed publisher water but different from sucrose and sucrose combined with sucralose on subjective and hormonal indications of hunger and short-term glucose homeostasis. Eight female volunteers (body mass index, 22.16 ± 1.71 kg/m(2); age, 21...
  19. Scheer F, Morris C, Shea S. The internal circadian clock increases hunger and appetite in the evening independent of food intake and other behaviors. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2013;21:421-3 pubmed publisher
    ..There was a large endogenous circadian rhythm in hunger, with the trough in the biological morning (8 AM) and peak in the biological evening (8 PM; peak-to-trough ..
  20. Batra P, Das S, Salinardi T, Robinson L, Saltzman E, Scott T, et al. Relationship of cravings with weight loss and hunger. Results from a 6 month worksite weight loss intervention. Appetite. 2013;69:1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Food Craving Questionnaire for state and trait) and the eating behavior constructs restraint, disinhibition and hunger (Eating Inventory)...
  21. Dimitropoulos A, Tkach J, Ho A, Kennedy J. Greater corticolimbic activation to high-calorie food cues after eating in obese vs. normal-weight adults. Appetite. 2012;58:303-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, food cues did not elicit similar brain response after eating in the NW group suggesting that neural activity in response to food cues diminishes with reduced hunger for these individuals.
  22. Loeber S, Grosshans M, Herpertz S, Kiefer F, Herpertz S. Hunger modulates behavioral disinhibition and attention allocation to food-associated cues in normal-weight controls. Appetite. 2013;71:32-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, hunger might cause food-associated cues to be perceived as more salient and rewarding and might be associated with an ..
  23. Yang Y, Atasoy D, Su H, Sternson S. Hunger states switch a flip-flop memory circuit via a synaptic AMPK-dependent positive feedback loop. Cell. 2011;146:992-1003 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on these experiments, we propose a memory storage device for physiological state constructed from bistable synapses that are flipped between two sustained activity states by transient exposure to hormones signaling energy levels. ..
  24. Weaver L, Hadley C. Moving beyond hunger and nutrition: a systematic review of the evidence linking food insecurity and mental health in developing countries. Ecol Food Nutr. 2009;48:263-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Gaps in the literature, implications, and research priorities are discussed. ..
  25. Hollmann M, Hellrung L, Pleger B, Schlögl H, Kabisch S, Stumvoll M, et al. Neural correlates of the volitional regulation of the desire for food. Int J Obes (Lond). 2012;36:648-55 pubmed publisher
    ..This cognitive control might be necessary to counterbalance a lack of homeostatic mechanisms. ..
  26. Seligman H, Davis T, Schillinger D, Wolf M. Food insecurity is associated with hypoglycemia and poor diabetes self-management in a low-income sample with diabetes. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2010;21:1227-33 pubmed publisher
    ..2, p=.007). Mean hemoglobin A1c was 9.2% among FI and 7.7% among FS participants (p=.08). Food insecurity is a barrier to diabetes self-management and a risk factor for clinically significant hypoglycemia. ..
  27. Holsen L, Savage C, Martin L, Bruce A, Lepping R, Ko E, et al. Importance of reward and prefrontal circuitry in hunger and satiety: Prader-Willi syndrome vs simple obesity. Int J Obes (Lond). 2012;36:638-47 pubmed publisher
  28. van der Laan L, de Ridder D, Viergever M, Smeets P. The first taste is always with the eyes: a meta-analysis on the neural correlates of processing visual food cues. Neuroimage. 2011;55:296-303 pubmed publisher the brain regions activated in response to viewing pictures of food and to assess the modulating effects of hunger state and the food's energy content...
  29. Renwick N. Millennium Development Goal 1: poverty, hunger and decent work in Southeast Asia. Third World Q. 2011;32:65-89 pubmed
    ..The article outlines key concepts; identifies the main characteristics of Southeast Asian poverty; outlines what more needs to be done; and concludes by reprising the article's findings and weighing the prospects for 2010-15 and beyond. ..
  30. Nalty C, Sharkey J, Dean W. Children's reporting of food insecurity in predominately food insecure households in Texas border colonias. Nutr J. 2013;12:15 pubmed publisher
    ..13, p?=?0.15). Poor agreement was observed on the child hunger construct (??=?-0.06, p?=?0.66) with fair agreement in children not eating for a full day (??=?0.26, p?<?0...
  31. Gibbons C, Caudwell P, Finlayson G, Webb D, Hellstrom P, Naslund E, et al. Comparison of postprandial profiles of ghrelin, active GLP-1, and total PYY to meals varying in fat and carbohydrate and their association with hunger and the phases of satiety. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013;98:E847-55 pubmed publisher fat and carbohydrate content and second to examine the relationships between ghrelin, GLP-1, and PYY with hunger, fullness, and energy intake...
  32. Dhurandhar E, Allison D, van Groen T, Kadish I. Hunger in the absence of caloric restriction improves cognition and attenuates Alzheimer's disease pathology in a mouse model. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e60437 pubmed publisher
    ..We determined that hunger alone, induced by a ghrelin agonist, reduces AD pathology and improves cognition in the APP-SwDI mouse model of AD...
  33. Mhurchu C, Gorton D, Turley M, Jiang Y, Michie J, Maddison R, et al. Effects of a free school breakfast programme on children's attendance, academic achievement and short-term hunger: results from a stepped-wedge, cluster randomised controlled trial. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2013;67:257-64 pubmed publisher
    ..outcomes were academic achievement, self-reported grades, sense of belonging at school, behaviour, short-term hunger, breakfast habits and food security...
  34. Atasoy D, Betley J, Su H, Sternson S. Deconstruction of a neural circuit for hunger. Nature. 2012;488:172-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Hunger is a complex behavioural state that elicits intense food seeking and consumption...
  35. Brunstrom J, Brown S, Hinton E, Rogers P, Fay S. 'Expected satiety' changes hunger and fullness in the inter-meal interval. Appetite. 2011;56:310-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, and consistent with our hypothesis, participants reported significantly less hunger and significantly greater fullness in the large-portion condition...
  36. Thomson J, Watts P, Pottinger T, Sneddon L. Plasticity of boldness in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss: do hunger and predation influence risk-taking behaviour?. Horm Behav. 2012;61:750-7 pubmed publisher
  37. Lenard L, Karadi Z. Regulatory processes of hunger motivated behavior. Acta Biol Hung. 2012;63 Suppl 1:80-8 pubmed publisher
    ..receiving neurochemical information from the periphery and from the local brain milieu are important controlling hunger motivation, and brain gut peptides have a modulatory role on this function...
  38. Guerin Deremaux L, Li S, Pochat M, Wils D, Mubasher M, Reifer C, et al. Effects of NUTRIOSE® dietary fiber supplementation on body weight, body composition, energy intake, and hunger in overweight men. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2011;62:628-35 pubmed publisher
    ..the effectiveness of a soluble dietary fiber, NUTRIOSE(®), on body weight, body composition, energy intake and hunger in overweight Chinese men...
  39. Makris A, Borradaile K, Oliver T, Cassim N, Rosenbaum D, Boden G, et al. The individual and combined effects of glycemic index and protein on glycemic response, hunger, and energy intake. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2011;19:2365-73 pubmed publisher
    ..foods are thought to promote satiety, little is known about the effects of GI, protein, and their interaction on hunger and energy intake several hours following a mixed meal...
  40. Fanzo J, Pronyk P. A review of global progress toward the Millennium Development Goal 1 Hunger Target. Food Nutr Bull. 2011;32:144-58 pubmed
    The hunger component of the first Millennium Development Goal (MDG) aims to reduce the proportion of people who suffer from hunger by half between 1990 and 2015...
  41. Regassa N, Stoecker B. Household food insecurity and hunger among households in Sidama district, southern Ethiopia. Public Health Nutr. 2012;15:1276-83 pubmed publisher
    To examine household food insecurity and hunger in Sidama Zone, one of the most populous zones in southern Ethiopia. Cross-sectional survey administered individually by trained interviewers...
  42. Page K, Seo D, Belfort DeAguiar R, Lacadie C, Dzuira J, Naik S, et al. Circulating glucose levels modulate neural control of desire for high-calorie foods in humans. J Clin Invest. 2011;121:4161-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Strategies that temper postprandial reductions in glucose levels might reduce the risk of overeating, particularly in environments inundated with visual cues of high-calorie foods. ..
  43. Dietrich M, Horvath T. Limitations in anti-obesity drug development: the critical role of hunger-promoting neurons. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2012;11:675-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Targeting the molecular pathways that mediate the beneficial effects of calorie restriction and exercise may represent an alternative therapeutic approach for the treatment of chronic metabolic disorders such as obesity. ..
  44. Ohkawara K, Cornier M, Kohrt W, Melanson E. Effects of increased meal frequency on fat oxidation and perceived hunger. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2013;21:336-43 pubmed publisher
    ..six meals (6M) per day on 24-h fat oxidation and subjective ratings of hunger. Lean (body mass index <25 kg/m(2) ) subjects (7M, 8F) were studied in a whole-room calorimeter on two ..
  45. Gilbert J, Drapeau V, Astrup A, Tremblay A. Relationship between diet-induced changes in body fat and appetite sensations in women. Appetite. 2009;52:809-812 pubmed publisher
    ..Visual analogue scales (VAS) were used to measure desire to eat, hunger, fullness and prospective food consumption...
  46. de Wijk R, Zijlstra N, Mars M, de Graaf C, Prinz J. The effects of food viscosity on bite size, bite effort and food intake. Physiol Behav. 2008;95:527-32 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, semi-solids resulted in smaller bite sizes and lower intake than liquids, but these differences disappeared when differences in bite effort were eliminated. ..
  47. Brondel L, Romer M, Van Wymelbeke V, Pineau N, Jiang T, Hanus C, et al. Variety enhances food intake in humans: role of sensory-specific satiety. Physiol Behav. 2009;97:44-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The mechanism by which food consumption is increased after the addition of condiments is introduced is at least partly related to the attenuation of sensory-satiety for a given food. ..
  48. Potier M, Fromentin G, Calvez J, Benamouzig R, Martin Rouas C, Pichon L, et al. A high-protein, moderate-energy, regular cheesy snack is energetically compensated in human subjects. Br J Nutr. 2009;102:625-31 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the repeated consumption of a high-protein, moderate-energy, regular cheesy snack should not promote overweight because energy intake appears to be regulated during subsequent meals on the same day. ..
  49. Isaksson H, Fredriksson H, Andersson R, Olsson J, Aman P. Effect of rye bread breakfasts on subjective hunger and satiety: a randomized controlled trial. Nutr J. 2009;8:39 pubmed publisher
    Several studies report that dietary fibre from different sources promotes the feeling of satiety and suppresses hunger. However, results for cereal fibre from rye are essentially lacking...
  50. den Hoed M, Westerterp Plantenga M, Bouwman F, Mariman E, Westerterp K. Postprandial responses in hunger and satiety are associated with the rs9939609 single nucleotide polymorphism in FTO. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;90:1426-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective was to determine whether postprandial responses in hunger and satiety are associated with rs9939609, taking interactions with other relevant candidate genes into account...
  51. Hoefling A, Likowski K, Deutsch R, Hafner M, Seibt B, Mühlberger A, et al. When hunger finds no fault with moldy corn: food deprivation reduces food-related disgust. Emotion. 2009;9:50-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Results indicate that the modulation of facial expressions might play an important role in lowering the threshold for food intake. ..
  52. Rodríguez Rodríguez E, Aparicio A, Bermejo L, López Sobaler A, Ortega R. Changes in the sensation of hunger and well-being before and after meals in overweight/obese women following two types of hypoenergetic diet. Public Health Nutr. 2009;12:44-50 pubmed publisher
    To analyse changes in the sensation of hunger and the sensation of well-being of young overweight/obese women following two hypoenergetic diets...
  53. Hatcher N, Zhang X, Stuart J, Moroz L, Sweedler J, Gillette R. 5-HT and 5-HT-SO4, but not tryptophan or 5-HIAA levels in single feeding neurons track animal hunger state. J Neurochem. 2008;104:1358-63 pubmed
    ..Intracellular levels of 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid and of free tryptophan did not differ significantly with hunger state...