Summary: A state of internal activity of an organism that is a necessary condition before a given stimulus will elicit a class of responses; e.g., a certain level of hunger (drive) must be present before food will elicit an eating response.

Top Publications

  1. Paus T. Primate anterior cingulate cortex: where motor control, drive and cognition interface. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2001;2:417-24 pubmed
    ..issues: its involvement in motor control, its proposed role in cognition and its relationship with the arousal/drive state of the organism...
  2. Spresser C, Keune K, Filion D, Lundgren J. Self-report and startle-based measures of emotional reactions to body image cues as predictors of Drive for Thinness and Body Dissatisfaction in female college students. Body Image. 2012;9:298-301 pubmed publisher
    ..Response to the photos was assessed by self-report and the affect modulated startle paradigm. EDI-3 Drive for Thinness (DT) and Body Dissatisfaction (BD) scale scores were correlated with startled amplitude for the ..
  3. Nathan P, Bullmore E. From taste hedonics to motivational drive: central ?-opioid receptors and binge-eating behaviour. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2009;12:995-1008 pubmed publisher
  4. DiLeone R, Taylor J, Picciotto M. The drive to eat: comparisons and distinctions between mechanisms of food reward and drug addiction. Nat Neurosci. 2012;15:1330-5 pubmed publisher seeking, a more integrated model is needed to understand how food and drugs differ in their ability to drive behavior...
  5. Biancardi V, Bicego K, Almeida M, Gargaglioni L. Locus coeruleus noradrenergic neurons and CO2 drive to breathing. Pflugers Arch. 2008;455:1119-28 pubmed
    ..Thus, we conclude that LC noradrenergic neurons modulate hypercapnic ventilatory response but play no role in cardiovascular and thermal regulation under resting conditions. ..
  6. Oinonen K, Bird J. Age at menarche and digit ratio (2D:4D): relationships with body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, and bulimia symptoms in women. Body Image. 2012;9:302-6 pubmed publisher
    ..age at menarche (AAM) and 2D:4D (a marker of prenatal androgen exposure), and EDI-2-Body Dissatisfaction, EDI-2-Drive for Thinness, and EDI-2-Bulimia scores, were examined in women using correlations and regressions...
  7. Keski Rahkonen A, Bulik C, Neale B, Rose R, Rissanen A, Kaprio J. Body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness in young adult twins. Int J Eat Disord. 2005;37:188-99 pubmed
    We explored correlates of the Eating Disorder Inventory subscales Body Dissatisfaction (BD) and Drive for Thinness (DT) and genetic and environmental influences on these traits...
  8. Vansteelandt K, Rijmen F, Pieters G, Probst M, Vanderlinden J. Drive for thinness, affect regulation and physical activity in eating disorders: a daily life study. Behav Res Ther. 2007;45:1717-34 pubmed
    Using Ecological Momentary Assessment, the within patient associations between drive for thinness, emotional states, momentary urge to be physically active and physical activity were studied in 32 inpatients with an eating disorder...
  9. Bratland Sanda S, Sundgot Borgen J. Symptoms of eating disorders, drive for muscularity and physical activity among Norwegian adolescents. Eur Eat Disord Rev. 2012;20:287-93 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to examine symptoms of eating disorders (ED), drive for muscularity and physical activity in a Norwegian adolescent population...

More Information


  1. Van Boven L, Loewenstein G. Social projection of transient drive states. Pers Soc Psychol Bull. 2003;29:1159-68 pubmed
    ..Because people's predictions of their own feelings tend to be biased in the direction of their current drive states, we hypothesized that mentally trading places would lead to social projection of transient drive states...
  2. Anderson C, Bulik C. Gender differences in compensatory behaviors, weight and shape salience, and drive for thinness. Eat Behav. 2004;5:1-11 pubmed
    Gender differences in compensatory behaviors, weight and shape salience, and drive for thinness have rarely been examined in nonclinical samples...
  3. Sewards T, Sewards M. Fear and power-dominance drive motivation: neural representations and pathways mediating sensory and mnemonic inputs, and outputs to premotor structures. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2002;26:553-79 pubmed
    ..We examine potential contributions of neuronal activities in these representations to the subjective awareness of fear and anger. ..
  4. Hale B, Roth A, DeLong R, Briggs M. Exercise dependence and the drive for muscularity in male bodybuilders, power lifters, and fitness lifters. Body Image. 2010;7:234-9 pubmed publisher
    Researchers have hypothesized differences in exercise dependence and drive for muscularity between bodybuilders and power lifters, while others have not found the predicted differences...
  5. Beck T, Defreitas J, Stock M, Dillon M. Effects of resistance training on force steadiness and common drive. Muscle Nerve. 2011;43:245-50 pubmed publisher was to investigate the influence of an 8-week resistance training program on force steadiness and common drive for the vastus lateralis muscle. Eight untrained men performed a resistance training program...
  6. Smolak L, Murnen S. Drive for leanness: assessment and relationship to gender, gender role and objectification. Body Image. 2008;5:251-60 pubmed publisher
    Three components of body image - drive for thinness (DT), drive for muscularity (DM), and drive for leanness (DL) - were assessed in 232 college students. A new measure of DL was developed...
  7. Litt D, Dodge T. A longitudinal investigation of the Drive for Muscularity Scale: predicting use of performance enhancing substances and weightlifting among males. Body Image. 2008;5:346-51 pubmed publisher
    The present study was designed to examine the predictive validity of the Drive for Muscularity Scale (DMS; McCreary & Sasse, 2000)...
  8. McCrimmon D, Alheid G. Reflexively inhibiting respiratory drive. J Physiol. 2007;580:3 pubmed
  9. Daniel S, Bridges S. The drive for muscularity in men: media influences and objectification theory. Body Image. 2010;7:32-8 pubmed publisher survey assessing internalization of media ideals, self-objectification, body surveillance, body shame, the drive for muscularity, and body mass index (BMI) was completed by 244 predominantly college-aged males...
  10. Libert S, Pointer K, Bell E, Das A, Cohen D, Asara J, et al. SIRT1 activates MAO-A in the brain to mediate anxiety and exploratory drive. Cell. 2011;147:1459-72 pubmed publisher
    ..we used mice with increased or decreased brain SIRT1 to show that this sirtuin regulates anxiety and exploratory drive by activating transcription of the gene encoding the monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) to reduce serotonin levels in the ..
  11. Kelley C, Neufeld J, Musher Eizenman D. Drive for thinness and drive for muscularity: opposite ends of the continuum or separate constructs?. Body Image. 2010;7:74-7 pubmed publisher
    The goal of this study was to examine whether the drive for thinness and the drive for muscularity occur concurrently among late adolescents and to understand the body attitudes associated with desiring a thinner and/or a more muscular ..
  12. Bailer U, Price J, Meltzer C, Mathis C, Frank G, Weissfeld L, et al. Altered 5-HT(2A) receptor binding after recovery from bulimia-type anorexia nervosa: relationships to harm avoidance and drive for thinness. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2004;29:1143-55 pubmed
    ..In addition, REC AN-BN had negative relationships between [18F]altanserin binding potential and drive for thinness in several cortical regions...
  13. Soukhova G, Wang Y, Ahmed M, Walker J, Yu J. Bradykinin stimulates respiratory drive by activating pulmonary sympathetic afferents in the rabbit. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2003;95:241-9 pubmed
    ..bradykinin may activate extravagal pathways to stimulate breathing by assessing its reflex effects on respiratory drive. Bradykinin (1 microg/kg in 0...
  14. Barch D, Dowd E. Goal representations and motivational drive in schizophrenia: the role of prefrontal-striatal interactions. Schizophr Bull. 2010;36:919-34 pubmed publisher
    ..difficulties using internal representations of emotional experiences, previous rewards, and motivational goals to drive current and future behavior in a way that would allow them to obtain desired outcomes, a deficit that has major ..
  15. Kaelin Lang A, Sawaki L, Cohen L. Role of voluntary drive in encoding an elementary motor memory. J Neurophysiol. 2005;93:1099-103 pubmed
    ..These results support a pivotal role for voluntary motor drive in coding motor memories in the primary motor cortex.
  16. Kassed C, Herkenham M. NF-kappaB p50-deficient mice show reduced anxiety-like behaviors in tests of exploratory drive and anxiety. Behav Brain Res. 2004;154:577-84 pubmed
    ..The p50 subunit appears to play a role in normal expression of certain forms of anxiety. ..
  17. Brunet J, Sabiston C, Dorsch K, McCreary D. Exploring a model linking social physique anxiety, drive for muscularity, drive for thinness and self-esteem among adolescent boys and girls. Body Image. 2010;7:137-42 pubmed publisher
    ..measures, and tested a model where self-esteem influences social physique anxiety (SPA), which in turn influences drive for muscularity and drive for thinness in a sample of adolescents (N=329; 58% boys)...
  18. Houtveen J, Rietveld S, de Geus E. Contribution of tonic vagal modulation of heart rate, central respiratory drive, respiratory depth, and respiratory frequency to respiratory sinus arrhythmia during mental stress and physical exercise. Psychophysiology. 2002;39:427-36 pubmed changes in RSA were found for changes in tonic vagal modulation of heart rate, central respiratory drive (i.e., PaCO2), respiratory depth, and respiratory frequency...
  19. Leipälä J, Bhat R, Rafferty G, Hannam S, Greenough A. Effect of posture on respiratory function and drive in preterm infants prior to discharge. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2003;36:295-300 pubmed
    Our objective was to determine the effect of posture on respiratory function and drive in prematurely born infants immediately prior to discharge...
  20. Wansink B, Payne C, Shimizu M. "Is this a meal or snack?" Situational cues that drive perceptions. Appetite. 2010;54:214-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Implications for dieters and for health professionals are provided. ..
  21. Malaspina D, Coleman E. Olfaction and social drive in schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2003;60:578-84 pubmed
    ..a number of other neuropsychological measures, or whether they might show a more specific relationship with social drive. Smell Identification Test scores, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised IQ, symptomatology assessed with the ..
  22. Loxton N, Dawe S, Cahill A. Does negative mood drive the urge to eat? The contribution of negative mood, exposure to food cues and eating style. Appetite. 2011;56:368-74 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that negative mood plays a role in the tendency to overeat, but only in the context of personally desirable food cues and for a subgroup of women with a history of disinhibited eating. ..
  23. Neto O, Baweja H, Christou E. Increased voluntary drive is associated with changes in common oscillations from 13 to 60 Hz of interference but not rectified electromyography. Muscle Nerve. 2010;42:348-54 pubmed publisher
    ..4). Although rectified EMG is used in many clinical studies to identify changes in the oscillatory drive to the muscle, our findings suggest that only interference EMG can accurately capture the increase in oscillatory ..
  24. Sugawara K, Tanabe S, Higashi T, Tsurumi T, Kasai T. Changes of excitability in M1 induced by neuromuscular electrical stimulation differ between presence and absence of voluntary drive. Int J Rehabil Res. 2011;34:100-9 pubmed publisher the human motor cortex induced by variable therapeutic electrical stimulations (TESs) with or without voluntary drive. We recorded motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) from extensor and flexor carpi radialis (FCR) muscles at rest and ..
  25. Rodgers R, Ganchou C, Franko D, Chabrol H. Drive for muscularity and disordered eating among French adolescent boys: a sociocultural model. Body Image. 2012;9:318-23 pubmed publisher
    ..This study explored a sociocultural model of disordered eating in which drive for thinness and pursuit of muscularity were both pathways to disordered eating among French adolescent boys...
  26. Fernandez S, Pritchard M. Relationships between self-esteem, media influence and drive for thinness. Eat Behav. 2012;13:321-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study examined the relationships between drive for thinness, self-esteem, and media influence among men and women...
  27. Wise R. Dual roles of dopamine in food and drug seeking: the drive-reward paradox. Biol Psychiatry. 2013;73:819-26 pubmed publisher
    ..That stimulation of the same brain region should be both reinforcing and drive inducing is paradoxical; why should an animal work to induce a drive-like state such as hunger? This is known as ..
  28. Wheeler R, Aragona B, Fuhrmann K, JONES J, Day J, Cacciapaglia F, et al. Cocaine cues drive opposing context-dependent shifts in reward processing and emotional state. Biol Psychiatry. 2011;69:1067-74 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings show rapid, bivalent contextual control over brain reward processing, affect, and motivated behavior and have implications for mechanisms mediating substance abuse. ..
  29. Bergeron D, Tylka T. Support for the uniqueness of body dissatisfaction from drive for muscularity among men. Body Image. 2007;4:288-95 pubmed
    ..whether three dimensions of men's body dissatisfaction (muscularity, body fat, and height) are distinct from drive for muscularity (body image, behaviors, and attitudes) in a sample of 368 college men...
  30. Ahnaou A, Drinkenburg W. Neuropeptide-S evoked arousal with electroencephalogram slow-wave compensatory drive in rats. Neuropsychobiology. 2012;65:195-205 pubmed publisher
    ..that NPS enhanced a consolidated waking associated with a subsequent compensatory EEG slow-wave homeostatic drive rather than rebound sleep duration...
  31. Flaherty A. Frontotemporal and dopaminergic control of idea generation and creative drive. J Comp Neurol. 2005;493:147-53 pubmed
    This article presents a three-factor anatomical model of human idea generation and creative drive, focusing on interactions between the temporal lobes, frontal lobes, and limbic system...
  32. McPherson K, McCarthy P, McCreary D, McMillan S. Psychometric evaluation of the Drive for Muscularity Scale in a community-based sample of Scottish men participating in an organized sporting event. Body Image. 2010;7:368-71 pubmed publisher
    As the drive for muscularity is an important construct for researchers involved in understanding men's body image, having reliable and valid measures of the construct is essential...
  33. Denton D, McKinley M, Farrell M, Egan G. The role of primordial emotions in the evolutionary origin of consciousness. Conscious Cogn. 2009;18:500-14 pubmed publisher
    ..amp; Koch, C. (2003). A framework for consciousness. NatureNeuroscience,6, 119-126]. ..
  34. Pierce B, Hemsworth P, Rivalland E, Wagenmaker E, Morrissey A, Papargiris M, et al. Psychosocial stress suppresses attractivity, proceptivity and pulsatile LH secretion in the ewe. Horm Behav. 2008;54:424-34 pubmed publisher
  35. Bes F, Jobert M, Schulz H. Modeling napping, post-lunch dip, and other variations in human sleep propensity. Sleep. 2009;32:392-8 pubmed
    ..1) The circadian threshold process was replaced by sleep drive R, derived from REM sleep propensity, which shows a strong circadian modulation...
  36. Edwards C, Tod D, Molnar G, Markland D. Perceived social pressures and the internalization of the mesomorphic ideal: The role of drive for muscularity and autonomy in physically active men. Body Image. 2016;16:63-9 pubmed publisher
    We examined if there were both direct and indirect relationships (via the drive for muscularity) between the perceived pressure to be muscular and internalization of the mesomorphic ideal, and if autonomy moderates these relationships in ..
  37. Habermeyer E, Kamps I, Kawohl W. A case of bipolar psychosis and transsexualism. Psychopathology. 2003;36:168-70 pubmed
    ..If there is a true comorbidity of these disorders, a subtly differentiated process to guide medical expert opinion and therapy is necessary. ..
  38. Kayser J, Mansi O. ["Health without smoking": for better clarification]. Perspect Infirm. 2004;1:43-4 pubmed
  39. Tod D, Morrison T, Edwards C. Psychometric properties of Yelland and Tiggemann's Drive for Muscularity Scale. Body Image. 2012;9:421-4 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of the current study was to examine the dimensionality and validity of Yelland and Tiggemann's Drive for Muscularity Scale (YT-DMS). Participants were college students (305 women, M(AGE)=20.15 years, SD=4...
  40. Niethammer R, Taubert E, Breitmaier J. [A patient who for one year shared his apartment with his dead lady-friend's corpse]. Psychiatr Prax. 2005;32:39-41 pubmed
    ..When admitted to our hospital, loss of drive, initiative, interest, psychomotor activity and emotional response as well as poverty of speech were the main ..
  41. Schmidt Hellerau C. Surviving in absence--on the preservative and death drives and their clinical utility. Psychoanal Q. 2006;75:1057-95 pubmed
    This paper offers a new theoretical and clinical look at the death drive in connection with the preservative drive...
  42. Braun C. Evolution of hemispheric specialisation of antagonistic systems of management of the body's energy resources. Laterality. 2007;12:397-427 pubmed
    ..This energy resource management model, extended to human neuropsychology, is termed here the "psychic tonus" model of hemispheric specialisation. ..
  43. Akkermann K, Paaver M, Nordquist N, Oreland L, Harro J. Association of 5-HTT gene polymorphism, platelet MAO activity, and drive for thinness in a population-based sample of adolescent girls. Int J Eat Disord. 2008;41:399-404 pubmed publisher
    ..EDI-2 subscales--Drive for Thinness and Bulimia--were used to determine eating attitudes and behaviors...
  44. Terao T. Aggression, suicide, and lithium treatment. Am J Psychiatry. 2008;165:1356-7; author reply 1357 pubmed publisher
  45. Holm Denoma J, Richey J, Joiner T. The latent structure of dietary restraint, body dissatisfaction, and drive for thinness: a series of taxometric analyses. Psychol Assess. 2010;22:788-97 pubmed publisher
    ..The current study examined 3 such variables (dietary restraint, body dissatisfaction, and drive for thinness) among undergraduate women using the taxometric method...
  46. Nordgren L, Chou E. The push and pull of temptation: the bidirectional influence of temptation on self-control. Psychol Sci. 2011;22:1386-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Study 3 tested the boundaries of the interaction between visceral state and temptation. ..
  47. Monterosso J, Ainslie G. The behavioral economics of will in recovery from addiction. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2007;90 Suppl 1:S100-11 pubmed
    ..We suggest that the bundling effect can also be discerned in the advice of 12-step programs. ..
  48. Blass R. A psychoanalytic understanding of the desire for knowledge as reflected in Freud's Leonardo da Vinci and a memory of his childhood. Int J Psychoanal. 2006;87:1259-76 pubmed
    ..necessary involvement of passion, rather than detachment, in the search for knowledge and views the psychoanalytic aim of self-knowledge as a derivative, and most immediate expression, of a broader and more basic human drive to know.
  49. Holmes D, O Byrne P, Gastaldo D. Setting the space for sex: architecture, desire and health issues in gay bathhouses. Int J Nurs Stud. 2007;44:273-84 pubmed
  50. Alberti A, Gallo F, Fongaro A, Valenti S, Rossi A. P0.1 is a useful parameter in setting the level of pressure support ventilation. Intensive Care Med. 1995;21:547-53 pubmed
    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether changes in breathing pattern, neuromuscular drive (P0...
  51. Berridge K. Motivation concepts in behavioral neuroscience. Physiol Behav. 2004;81:179-209 pubmed
    ..These concepts include homeostasis, setpoints and settling points, intervening variables, hydraulic drives, drive reduction, appetitive and consummatory behavior, opponent processes, hedonic reactions, incentive motivation, ..
  52. Damasio A, Carvalho G. The nature of feelings: evolutionary and neurobiological origins. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2013;14:143-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Their neural substrates can be found at all levels of the nervous system, from individual neurons to subcortical nuclei and cortical regions. ..
  53. Bisol L, Soldado F, Albuquerque C, Lorenzi T, Lara D. Emotional and affective temperaments and cigarette smoking in a large sample. J Affect Disord. 2010;127:89-95 pubmed publisher
    ..completed the Combined Emotional and Affective Temperament Scale (CEATS), which assesses emotional (fear, drive, anger, and control) and affective temperaments (e.g. cyclothymic, irritable), and questions about smoking...