character

Summary

Summary: In current usage, approximately equivalent to personality. The sum of the relatively fixed personality traits and habitual modes of response of an individual.

Top Publications

  1. Parker G, Hadzi Pavlovic D, Parker K, Malhi G, Mitchell P, Wilhelm K, et al. An Australian validation study of the temperament and character inventory. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2003;108:359-66 pubmed
    To assess the validity of the temperament and character inventory (TCI) measure in an Australian sample...
  2. Josefsson K, Jokela M, Cloninger C, Hintsanen M, Salo J, Hintsa T, et al. Maturity and change in personality: developmental trends of temperament and character in adulthood. Dev Psychopathol. 2013;25:713-27 pubmed publisher
    We studied the developmental trends of temperament and character in a longitudinal population-based sample of Finnish men and women aged 20-45 years using the Temperament and Character Inventory model of personality...
  3. Van Schuerbeek P, Baeken C, De Raedt R, de Mey J, Luypaert R. Individual differences in local gray and white matter volumes reflect differences in temperament and character: a voxel-based morphometry study in healthy young females. Brain Res. 2011;1371:32-42 pubmed publisher
    ..traits (harm avoidance (HA), novelty seeking (NS), reward dependence (RD) and persistence (P)) and three character traits (self-directedness (SD), cooperativeness (CO) and self-transcendence (ST)) which develop during lifetime...
  4. Kampman O, Poutanen O. Can onset and recovery in depression be predicted by temperament? A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Affect Disord. 2011;135:20-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) by Cloninger et al. is the most widely used instrument in the assessment of temperament...
  5. Kerekes N, Brändström S, Stahlberg O, Larson T, Carlström E, Lichtenstein P, et al. The Swedish version of the parent-rated Junior Temperament and Character Inventory (J-TCI). Psychol Rep. 2010;107:715-25 pubmed
    To evaluate the psychometric characteristics of the Swedish version of the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory (J-TCI), it was sent to parents of 9- and 12-yr.-old twins in Sweden...
  6. van Dijk F, Lappenschaar M, Kan C, Verkes R, Buitelaar J. Symptomatic overlap between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and borderline personality disorder in women: the role of temperament and character traits. Compr Psychiatry. 2012;53:39-47 pubmed publisher
    ..The role of temperament and character traits in the differentiation of classes of patients with similar ADHD and BPD symptom profiles was examined and ..
  7. Margetić B, Jakovljevic M, Ivanec D, Margetic B. Temperament, character, and quality of life in patients with schizophrenia and their first-degree relatives. Compr Psychiatry. 2011;52:425-30 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between the temperament, character dimensions, and quality of life (QOL) of patients with schizophrenia; their first-degree, nonaffected relatives; and healthy control subjects...
  8. Abbate Daga G, Campisi S, Marzola E, Rocca G, Peris C, Campagnoli C, et al. Amenorrhea in eating disorders: poor stability of symptom after a one-year treatment. Eat Weight Disord. 2012;17:e78-85 pubmed
    ..To examine whether patients with Eating Disorders (ED) who restore menses differ from those who remain amenorrheic after treatment and to provide longitudinal data about this debated criterion of Anorexia Nervosa (AN)...
  9. Lee J, Min S, Kim K, Kim B, Cho S, Lee S, et al. Differences in temperament and character dimensions of personality between patients with Hwa-byung, an anger syndrome, and patients with major depressive disorder. J Affect Disord. 2012;138:110-6 pubmed publisher
    This study examined differences in temperament and character dimensions of personality between patients with Hwa-byung (HB) and those with major depressive disorder (MDD)...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Albayrak Y, Ekinci O, Caykoylu A. Temperament and character personality profile in relation to suicide attempts in patients with schizophrenia. Compr Psychiatry. 2012;53:1130-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Beside classic risk factors for suicidality, temperament and character traits have been researched and considered as risk factors for suicidal behavior in recent years...
  2. Milivojevic D, Milovanovic S, Jovanovic M, Svrakic D, Svrakic N, Svrakic S, et al. Temperament and character modify risk of drug addiction and influence choice of drugs. Am J Addict. 2012;21:462-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In this work, temperament and character features of individuals addicted to opiates or alcohol are compared with normal controls to study personality ..
  3. Mitsui N, Asakura S, Inoue T, Shimizu Y, Fujii Y, Kako Y, et al. Temperament and character profiles of Japanese university student suicide completers. Compr Psychiatry. 2013;54:556-61 pubmed publisher
    The aims of this study were to investigate the personality traits of suicide completers using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) scale...
  4. Dalbudak E, Evren C, Aldemir S, Coskun K, Ugurlu H, Yildirim F. Relationship of internet addiction severity with depression, anxiety, and alexithymia, temperament and character in university students. Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw. 2013;16:272-8 pubmed publisher
    ..study was to investigate the relationship of Internet addiction (IA) severity with alexithymia, temperament, and character dimensions of personality in university students while controlling for the effect of depression and anxiety...
  5. Song Y, Kang J, Kim S, Lee M, Lee E, An S. Temperament and character in individuals at ultra-high risk for psychosis and with first-episode schizophrenia: associations with psychopathology, psychosocial functioning, and aspects of psychological health. Compr Psychiatry. 2013;54:1161-8 pubmed publisher
    The psychobiological model of temperament and character indicates that personality traits are heritable and, during development, constantly influence one's susceptibility to schizophrenia...
  6. Mertol S, Alkin T. Temperament and character dimensions of patients with adult separation anxiety disorder. J Affect Disord. 2012;139:199-203 pubmed publisher
    ..We aimed to determine temperament and character dimensions in patients with adult separation anxiety disorder (ASAD) compared to patients with panic disorder (..
  7. Goncalves D, Cloninger C. Validation and normative studies of the Brazilian Portuguese and American versions of the Temperament and Character Inventory - Revised (TCI-R). J Affect Disord. 2010;124:126-33 pubmed publisher
    The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) was first described in 1993. It was designed to measure the character and temperament dimensions of Cloninger's model of personality using a true-false response format...
  8. Purper Ouakil D, Cortese S, Wohl M, Aubron V, Orejarena S, Michel G, et al. Temperament and character dimensions associated with clinical characteristics and treatment outcome in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder boys. Compr Psychiatry. 2010;51:286-92 pubmed publisher
    Although differential patterns of temperament and character have been documented in subjects with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), few studies have investigated relations between these dimensions, clinical features of ..
  9. Abbate Daga G, Gramaglia C, Amianto F, Marzola E, Fassino S. Attachment insecurity, personality, and body dissatisfaction in eating disorders. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2010;198:520-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Participants completed Temperament and Character Inventory, Body Shape Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, and Attachment Style Questionnaire...
  10. Gana K, K Delant P. The effects of temperament, character, and defense mechanisms on grief severity among the elderly. J Affect Disord. 2011;128:128-34 pubmed publisher
    ..model of personality, defense styles, and severity of grief, and to identify the influential temperament and character dimensions that differentiate subjects with prolonged grief from those without prolonged grief...
  11. Moran J, Lee S, Gabrieli J. Dissociable neural systems supporting knowledge about human character and appearance in ourselves and others. J Cogn Neurosci. 2011;23:2222-30 pubmed publisher
    ..In an fMRI study, we compared brain responses for evaluation of character (e.g., honest) versus appearance (e.g...
  12. Lövdahl H, Bøen E, Falkum E, Hynnekleiv T, Malt U. Temperament and character in patients with bipolar II disorder and recurrent brief depression. Compr Psychiatry. 2010;51:607-17 pubmed publisher
    We compared the temperament and character profiles of 21 patients with bipolar II disorder, 40 patients with recurrent brief depression (RBD; at least monthly depressive episodes meeting the diagnostic criteria for major depressive ..
  13. Takeuchi M, Miyaoka H, Tomoda A, Suzuki M, Lu X, Kitamura T. Validity and reliability of the Japanese version of the Temperament and Character Inventory: a study of university and college students. Compr Psychiatry. 2011;52:109-17 pubmed publisher
    The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) is a widely used self-report measure of adult personality. We studied 586 Japanese university and college students with the 125-item version of the Japanese TCI...
  14. Jylhä P, Mantere O, Melartin T, Suominen K, Vuorilehto M, Arvilommi P, et al. Differences in temperament and character dimensions in patients with bipolar I or II or major depressive disorder and general population subjects. Psychol Med. 2011;41:1579-91 pubmed publisher
    Whether temperament and character differ between bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) patients and general population subjects, or between BD I and BD II patients, remains unclear...
  15. Sasayama D, Hori H, Teraishi T, Hattori K, Ota M, Matsuo J, et al. Difference in Temperament and Character Inventory scores between depressed patients with bipolar II and unipolar major depressive disorders. J Affect Disord. 2011;132:319-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) was employed to assess the personality of 36 depressed patients with bipolar II disorder (BPII), ..
  16. Abou Jamra R, Philippe O, Raas Rothschild A, Eck S, Graf E, Buchert R, et al. Adaptor protein complex 4 deficiency causes severe autosomal-recessive intellectual disability, progressive spastic paraplegia, shy character, and short stature. Am J Hum Genet. 2011;88:788-795 pubmed publisher
    ..were from three consanguineous families and presented with severe intellectual disability, absent speech, shy character, stereotypic laughter, muscular hypotonia that progressed to spastic paraplegia, microcephaly, foot deformity, ..
  17. Moreira P, Oliveira J, Cloninger K, Azevedo C, Sousa A, Castro J, et al. The psychometrics and validity of the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory in Portuguese adolescents. Compr Psychiatry. 2012;53:1227-36 pubmed publisher
    ..The aims of this study were, first, to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory (JTCI) in adolescents in Portugal, and second, to evaluate the comparative validity of age-appropriate ..
  18. Aukst Margetic B, Jakovljevic M, Ivanec D, Marcinko D, Margetic B, Jakšić N. Current suicidality and previous suicidal attempts in patients with schizophrenia are associated with different dimensions of temperament and character. Psychiatry Res. 2012;200:120-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We used the Temperament and Character Inventory to assess personality differences between patients who had previously attempted and had not previously ..
  19. Griego J, Stewart S, Coolidge F. A convergent validity study of Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory with the Coolidge Axis II Inventory. J Pers Disord. 1999;13:257-67 pubmed
    This study examined the convergent validity of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), a measure of four biosocial temperaments and three character dimensions with the Coolidge Axis II Inventory (CATI), a measure of 14 personality ..
  20. Celikel F, Kose S, Erkorkmaz U, Sayar K, Cumurcu B, Cloninger C. Alexithymia and temperament and character model of personality in patients with major depressive disorder. Compr Psychiatry. 2010;51:64-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Turkish version of the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), the Turkish version of the Temperament and Character Inventory, and the 21-item Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were administered to 81 depressed patients and 51 ..
  21. Kose S, Sayar K, Kalelioglu U, Aydin N, Celikel F, Gulec H, et al. Normative data and factorial structure of the Turkish version of the Temperament and Character Inventory. Compr Psychiatry. 2009;50:361-8 pubmed publisher
    ..personality accounts for both normal and abnormal variation in 2 major personality components: temperament and character. Here, we examined the psychometric properties of the Turkish version of the Temperament and Character Inventory ..
  22. Hansenne M, Reggers J, Pinto E, Kjiri K, Ajamier A, Ansseau M. Temperament and character inventory (TCI) and depression. J Psychiatr Res. 1999;33:31-6 pubmed
    ..dimensions of the Cloninger model of personality and depression, little is known about the role played by the character dimensions proposed by the seven-factor model of Cloninger in depression...
  23. Lyoo I, Lee D, Kim Y, Kong S, Kwon J. Patterns of temperament and character in subjects with obsessive-compulsive disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2001;62:637-41 pubmed
    The purpose of this study was to assess the temperament and character patterns of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients and to investigate the relationship between patterns of temperament and character and the severity of ..
  24. Lukasiewicz M, Neveu X, Blecha L, Falissard B, Reynaud M, Gasquet I. Pathways to substance-related disorder: a structural model approach exploring the influence of temperament, character, and childhood adversity in a national cohort of prisoners. Alcohol Alcohol. 2008;43:287-95 pubmed publisher
    ..we aimed to specify the relative influence of the more biologically determined variables, temperament and character and more environmentally driven influence, childhood adversity in the development of addiction; and to compare ..
  25. Pelissolo A, Mallet L, Baleyte J, Michel G, Cloninger C, Allilaire J, et al. The Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R): psychometric characteristics of the French version. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2005;112:126-33 pubmed
    ..characteristics of a modified version of the Cloninger's personality questionnaire, the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R)...
  26. Yoo H, Kim M, Ha J, Chung A, Sim M, Kim S, et al. Biogenetic temperament and character and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Korean children. Psychopathology. 2006;39:25-31 pubmed
    ..deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and biogenetic temperament, as assessed by the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory (JTCI) in Korean elementary school children...
  27. Terracciano A, Abdel Khalek A, Adam N, Adamovová L, Ahn C, Ahn H, et al. National character does not reflect mean personality trait levels in 49 cultures. Science. 2005;310:96-100 pubmed
    ..These perceptions of national character may be generalizations from personal experience, stereotypes with a "kernel of truth," or inaccurate ..
  28. Fassino S, Daga G, Piero A, Leombruni P, Rovera G. Anger and personality in eating disorders. J Psychosom Res. 2001;51:757-64 pubmed
    This study was designed to examine how anger, temperament and character profiles differ across subtypes of eating disorders (EDs) in comparison to healthy controls and to analyze the relationship between anger expression, eating ..
  29. Guillem F, Bicu M, Semkovska M, Debruille J. The dimensional symptom structure of schizophrenia and its association with temperament and character. Schizophr Res. 2002;56:137-47 pubmed
    ..Fifty-two schizophrenia patients and 25 five healthy subjects were assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI)...
  30. Hirano S, Sato T, Narita T, Kusunoki K, Ozaki N, Kimura S, et al. Evaluating the state dependency of the Temperament and Character Inventory dimensions in patients with major depression: a methodological contribution. J Affect Disord. 2002;69:31-8 pubmed
    ..is known as to whether or not the seven personality dimensions of Cloninger's theory, particularly the three character dimensions newly included in the theory, are independent of the states of depression...
  31. Bergdahl M, Bergdahl J. Temperament and character personality dimensions in patients with dental anxiety. Eur J Oral Sci. 2003;111:93-8 pubmed
    The aim of the present study was to investigate character and temperament dimensions of personality in six men and 31 women (aged 20-57 yr) with severe dental anxiety, and to evaluate whether these dimensions were associated with the ..
  32. Vandamme M, Nandrino J. Temperament and character inventory in homicidal, nonaddicted paranoid schizophrenic patients: a preliminary study. Psychol Rep. 2004;95:393-406 pubmed
    This study assessed the personalities of 13 murderer schizophrenics using Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory, controlling different factors such as institution, treatment, detention or loss of liberty, and can discriminate ..
  33. Winblad S, Lindberg C, Hansen S. Temperament and character in patients with classical myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM-1). Neuromuscul Disord. 2005;15:287-92 pubmed
    ..atrophy, facioscapulohumeral dystrophy and limb girdle muscular dystrophy), completed the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) (Cloninger, 1994)...
  34. Jylhä P, Isometsä E. Temperament, character and symptoms of anxiety and depression in the general population. Eur Psychiatry. 2006;21:389-95 pubmed
    Few studies have investigated the relationship of temperament and character, as conceptualized in the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R), to symptoms of depression and anxiety in the general population...
  35. Hueg A, Resch F, Haffner J, Poustka L, Parzer P, Brunner R. [Temperament and character profiles of female adolescent patients with anorexia and bulimia nervosa]. Z Kinder Jugendpsychiatr Psychother. 2006;34:127-37 pubmed
    ..The German version of the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory (JTCI) was administered to 29 patients with anorexia nervosa, restricting type (AN-R), to 16 patients ..
  36. Rothenhäusler H, Stepan A, Kapfhammer H. Soluble interleukin 2 receptor levels, temperament and character in formerly depressed suicide attempters compared with normal controls. Suicide Life Threat Behav. 2006;36:455-66 pubmed
    ..we measured soluble interleukin-2 receptor concentrations in plasma (sIL-2R) and investigated temperament and character profile and their potential correlation in formerly depressed patients with a history of suicide attempt...
  37. Nery F, Hatch J, Nicoletti M, Monkul E, Najt P, Matsuo K, et al. Temperament and character traits in major depressive disorder: influence of mood state and recurrence of episodes. Depress Anxiety. 2009;26:382-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Sixty MDD patients (45 depressed, 15 remitted) were compared to 60 HC using the Temperament and Character Inventory...
  38. Borkowska A, Pulkowska J, Pulkowski G, Rybakowski F. [Association of temperament, character and depressive symptoms with clinical features of the ischaemic heart disease]. Wiad Lek. 2007;60:209-14 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to assess the associations between temperament and character, depressive symptoms and the intensity and the course of ischaemic heart disease...
  39. Conrad R, Wegener I, Imbierowicz K, Liedtke R, Geiser F. Alexithymia, temperament and character as predictors of psychopathology in patients with major depression. Psychiatry Res. 2009;165:137-44 pubmed publisher
    The study investigated the capacity of alexithymic personality features, in combination with temperament and character traits, age and gender, to predict psychopathological symptoms in patients with major depression...
  40. Pelissolo A, Lepine J. Normative data and factor structure of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) in the French version. Psychiatry Res. 2000;94:67-76 pubmed
    We explored the psychometric features of the French Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) in a 602-subject community sample (263 men and 339 women), representative of the French population...
  41. Gutierrez F, Torrens M, Boget T, Martin Santos R, Sangorrín J, Perez G, et al. Psychometric properties of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) questionnaire in a Spanish psychiatric population. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2001;103:143-7 pubmed
    The psychometric properties of the Spanish version of Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) were examined in a psychiatric population...
  42. Comings D, Gonzales N, Saucier G, Johnson J, MacMurray J. The DRD4 gene and the spiritual transcendence scale of the character temperament index. Psychiatr Genet. 2000;10:185-9 pubmed
    ..81 college students and 119 subjects from an addiction treatment unit) were administered the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and genotyped at the 48 base pair repeat polymorphism of the DRD4 gene...
  43. Richter J, Brändström S. Personality disorder diagnosis by means of the Temperament and Character Inventory. Compr Psychiatry. 2009;50:347-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the study was to explore the relationships between extreme expressions on temperament and an immature character according to Cloninger's assumptions...
  44. Hori H, Noguchi H, Hashimoto R, Nakabayashi T, Saitoh O, Murray R, et al. Personality in schizophrenia assessed with the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Psychiatry Res. 2008;160:175-83 pubmed publisher
    The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) is a well-established self-report questionnaire measuring four temperament and three character dimensions...
  45. Tanski S, Stoolmiller M, Dal Cin S, Worth K, Gibson J, Sargent J. Movie character smoking and adolescent smoking: who matters more, good guys or bad guys?. Pediatrics. 2009;124:135-43 pubmed publisher
    To assess the association between smoking onset and exposure to movie smoking according to character type...
  46. Soderstrom H, Rastam M, Gillberg C. Temperament and character in adults with Asperger syndrome. Autism. 2002;6:287-97 pubmed
    ..syndrome, and investigate the value of self-rating personality inventories, we administered the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) to 31 outpatients with Asperger syndrome...
  47. Nery F, Hatch J, Glahn D, Nicoletti M, Monkul E, Najt P, et al. Temperament and character traits in patients with bipolar disorder and associations with comorbid alcoholism or anxiety disorders. J Psychiatr Res. 2008;42:569-77 pubmed
    Temperament and character traits may determine differences in clinical presentations and outcome of bipolar disorder...
  48. Mitra S, Sinha P, Gombar K, Basu D. Comparison of temperament and character profiles of anesthesiologists and surgeons: a preliminary study. Indian J Med Sci. 2003;57:431-6 pubmed
    ..The self-report Temperament and Character Inventory, 125-item version (TCI-125) was mailed out to an incidental sample of surgeons and anesthesiologists ..
  49. Nordin C, Nylander P. Temperament and character in pathological gambling. J Gambl Stud. 2007;23:113-20 pubmed
    We have studied temperament and character in pathological gambling (PG). Thirty-eight DSM-IV verified pathological gamblers (31 males and 7 females; mean age 35.4 +/- 10...
  50. Farmer R, Goldberg L. A psychometric evaluation of the revised Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI-R) and the TCI-140. Psychol Assess. 2008;20:281-91 pubmed publisher
    The psychometric properties of the newest version of the Temperament and Character Inventory (the TCI-R) were evaluated in a large (n = 727) community sample, as was the TCI-140, a short inventory derivative...
  51. Janiri L, Martinotti G, Dario T, Schifano F, Bria P. The Gamblers' Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) personality profile. Subst Use Misuse. 2007;42:975-84 pubmed
    In a cross-comparison study, the Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) personality profile was administered to 28 probable pathological gamblers (PPGs), 32 nonpathological gamblers (non-PGs), and 65 controls...
  52. Lynn D, Lubke G, Yang M, McCracken J, McGough J, Ishii J, et al. Temperament and character profiles and the dopamine D4 receptor gene in ADHD. Am J Psychiatry. 2005;162:906-13 pubmed
    ..Latent variable modeling was used to test whether the DRD4 gene variant or Temperament and Character Inventory factors could predict ADHD...
  53. Carless D, Douglas K, Fox K, McKenna J. An alternative view of psychological well-being in cardiac rehabilitation: Considering temperament and character. Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2006;5:237-43 pubmed
    ..theory of personality has potential in this regard, but, to date, no research has investigated temperament and character in cardiac settings...