amnesia

Summary

Summary: Pathologic partial or complete loss of the ability to recall past experiences (AMNESIA, RETROGRADE) or to form new memories (AMNESIA, ANTEROGRADE). This condition may be of organic or psychologic origin. Organic forms of amnesia are usually associated with dysfunction of the DIENCEPHALON or HIPPOCAMPUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp426-7)

Top Publications

  1. Fedotova J, Soultanov V, Nikitina T, Roschin V, Ordayn N. Ropren(®) is a polyprenol preparation from coniferous plants that ameliorates cognitive deficiency in a rat model of beta-amyloid peptide-(25-35)-induced amnesia. Phytomedicine. 2012;19:451-6 pubmed publisher
    ..fraction of an extract of spruce needles) on cognitive impairment in rats with ?-amyloid peptide-(25-35)-induced amnesia. Ropren(®) was administered at a dose of 8...
  2. Butler C, van Erp W, Bhaduri A, Hammers A, Heckemann R, Zeman A. Magnetic resonance volumetry reveals focal brain atrophy in transient epileptic amnesia. Epilepsy Behav. 2013;28:363-9 pubmed publisher
    Transient epileptic amnesia (TEA) is a recently described epilepsy syndrome characterized by recurrent episodes of isolated memory loss...
  3. Malek Ahmadi M, Small B, Raj A. The diagnostic value of controlled oral word association test-FAS and category fluency in single-domain amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2011;32:235-40 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the clinical utility of these fluency measures is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine what, if any, diagnostic value letter and category fluency provide in differentiating single-domain aMCI from normal cognition...
  4. Rosenbaum R, Carson N, Abraham N, Bowles B, Kwan D, Kohler S, et al. Impaired event memory and recollection in a case of developmental amnesia. Neurocase. 2011;17:394-409 pubmed publisher
    ..Strikingly, H.C.'s recognition did not benefit from a levels-of-processing manipulation. Thus, not all types of declarative memory and related processes can exist independently of the hippocampus even if it is damaged early in life...
  5. Addante R, Ranganath C, Olichney J, Yonelinas A. Neurophysiological evidence for a recollection impairment in amnesia patients that leaves familiarity intact. Neuropsychologia. 2012;50:3004-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The results show that recollection can be severely impaired in amnesia even when familiarity-related processing is relatively spared, and they also provide further evidence that ERPs ..
  6. Butler C, Kapur N, Zeman A, Weller R, Connelly A. Epilepsy-related long-term amnesia: anatomical perspectives. Neuropsychologia. 2012;50:2973-80 pubmed publisher
    There are few clues as to the neural basis of selective long-term amnesia. We report group and single-case data to shed light on this issue...
  7. Zhuang L, Sachdev P, Trollor J, Kochan N, Reppermund S, Brodaty H, et al. Microstructural white matter changes in cognitively normal individuals at risk of amnestic MCI. Neurology. 2012;79:748-54 pubmed publisher
  8. Simon S, Yokomizo J, Bottino C. Cognitive intervention in amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment: a systematic review. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2012;36:1163-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, fMRI reveals changes in the patterns of brain activation and increase of connectivity...
  9. Han Y, Lui S, Kuang W, Lang Q, Zou L, Jia J. Anatomical and functional deficits in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e28664 pubmed publisher
    ..However, it is unclear whether and how the anatomical deficits are related to the functional alterations. Present study aims to characterize the association between anatomical and functional deficits in MCI patients...

Scientific Experts

More Information

Publications62

  1. Zeman A, Beschin N, Dewar M, Della Sala S. Imagining the present: amnesia may impair descriptions of the present as well as of the future and the past. Cortex. 2013;49:637-45 pubmed publisher
    Recent evidence suggests that in some patients with amnesia the capacity to imagine the future is impaired in parallel with the capacity to remember the past. This paper asks whether descriptions of the present may be similarly affected...
  2. Barense M, Groen I, Lee A, Yeung L, Brady S, Gregori M, et al. Intact memory for irrelevant information impairs perception in amnesia. Neuron. 2012;75:157-67 pubmed publisher
    Memory and perception have long been considered separate cognitive processes, and amnesia resulting from medial temporal lobe (MTL) damage is thought to reflect damage to a dedicated memory system...
  3. Sevenster D, Beckers T, Kindt M. Prediction error governs pharmacologically induced amnesia for learned fear. Science. 2013;339:830-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Insight into the process of memory updating is crucial for understanding the optimal and boundary conditions on reconsolidation and provides a clear guide for the development of reconsolidation-based treatments...
  4. Sadowski R, Canal C, Gold P. Lidocaine attenuates anisomycin-induced amnesia and release of norepinephrine in the amygdala. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2011;96:136-42 pubmed publisher
    ..large increases in neurotransmitter release after injections of anisomycin may be responsible for producing amnesia. In the present study, a local anesthetic was administered prior to anisomycin injections in an attempt to ..
  5. Mullally S, Vargha Khadem F, Maguire E. Scene construction in developmental amnesia: an fMRI study. Neuropsychologia. 2014;52:1-10 pubmed publisher
    ..By contrast, patients with developmental amnesia (DA), where hippocampal damage was acquired early in life, have preserved performance on this task, although the ..
  6. Illman N, Rathbone C, Kemp S, Moulin C. Autobiographical memory and the self in a case of transient epileptic amnesia. Epilepsy Behav. 2011;21:36-41 pubmed publisher
    Transient epileptic amnesia (TEA) is characterized by deficits in autobiographical memory (AM)...
  7. Meneses A, Perez Garcia G, Ponce Lopez T, Castillo C. 5-HT6 receptor memory and amnesia: behavioral pharmacology--learning and memory processes. Int Rev Neurobiol. 2011;96:27-47 pubmed publisher
    ..indicates that antagonists of the 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor6 (5-HT6) improve memory and reverse amnesia, although the mechanisms involved are poorly understood...
  8. Vetreno R, Hall J, Savage L. Alcohol-related amnesia and dementia: animal models have revealed the contributions of different etiological factors on neuropathology, neurochemical dysfunction and cognitive impairment. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2011;96:596-608 pubmed publisher
    ..the relative contributions of ethanol toxicity and thiamine deficiency to the development of dementia and amnesia. What is observed in these models--from repeated and chronic ethanol exposure to thiamine deficiency--is a ..
  9. Cooper J, Vargha Khadem F, Gadian D, Maguire E. The effect of hippocampal damage in children on recalling the past and imagining new experiences. Neuropsychologia. 2011;49:1843-50 pubmed publisher
    ..We speculate that the paediatric patients' relatively intact semantic memory and/or some functionality in their residual hippocampi may underpin their scene construction ability...
  10. Kurczek J, Brown Schmidt S, DUFF M. Hippocampal contributions to language: evidence of referential processing deficits in amnesia. J Exp Psychol Gen. 2013;142:1346-54 pubmed publisher
    ..These observed disruptions in referential processing demonstrate how promiscuously the hallmark processing features of the hippocampus are used in service of a variety of cognitive domains including language...
  11. Barense M, Ngo J, Hung L, Peterson M. Interactions of memory and perception in amnesia: the figure-ground perspective. Cereb Cortex. 2012;22:2680-91 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal that complex object representations in the PRC subserve both perception and memory...
  12. Yoo D, Woo Y, Kim W, Nam S, Lee B, Yeun G, et al. Effects of a new synthetic butyrylcholinesterase inhibitor, HBU-39, on cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus in a scopolamine-induced amnesia animal model. Neurochem Int. 2011;59:722-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Ki67 and doublecortin (DCX), respectively, in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of a rat model of scopolamine-induced amnesia. For this, scopolamine was subcutaneously administered for 28 days by an ALzet osmotic minipump (44 mg/mL ..
  13. Verfaelllie M, Larocque K, Keane M. Intact implicit verbal relational memory in medial temporal lobe amnesia. Neuropsychologia. 2012;50:2100-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Instead, it suggests that unaware memory for within-domain associations does not require MTL mediation...
  14. Hanish Singh J, Alagarsamy V, Diwan P, Sathesh Kumar S, Nisha J, Narsimha Reddy Y. Neuroprotective effect of Alpinia galanga (L.) fractions on A?(25-35) induced amnesia in mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011;138:85-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The rhizomes of Alpinia galanga (L.) Willd (Zingiberaceae), a ginger substitute for flavouring food was traditionally used as nervine tonic and stimulant...
  15. Konishi K, Hori K, Tomioka H, Minegishi G, Tani M, Tanaka H, et al. Donepezil abolishes anticholinergic activity in a patient with amnesia. Pharmacology. 2013;91:86-91 pubmed publisher
    We report the case of a 74-year-old woman who presented with amnesia and positive serum anticholinergic activity (SAA), which disappeared after treatment with the cholinesterase inhibitor donepezil for 1 year...
  16. Duff M, Gupta R, Hengst J, Tranel D, Cohen N. The use of definite references signals declarative memory: evidence from patients with hippocampal amnesia. Psychol Sci. 2011;22:666-73 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of definite references seems to be critically dependent on declarative memory, and the engagement of such memory is signaled by language...
  17. Hurley N, Maguire E, Vargha Khadem F. Patient HC with developmental amnesia can construct future scenarios. Neuropsychologia. 2011;49:3620-8 pubmed publisher
    ..past and imagining fictitious and future scenarios have been documented in patients with hippocampal damage and amnesia that was acquired in adulthood...
  18. van Geldorp B, Bergmann H, Robertson J, Wester A, Kessels R. The interaction of working memory performance and episodic memory formation in patients with Korsakoff's amnesia. Brain Res. 2012;1433:98-103 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we compared patients with amnesia due to Korsakoff's syndrome (n=19) with healthy controls (n=18) on an associative working memory task followed by ..
  19. Zoladz P, Park C, Halonen J, Salim S, Alzoubi K, Srivareerat M, et al. Differential expression of molecular markers of synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and amygdala in response to spatial learning, predator exposure, and stress-induced amnesia. Hippocampus. 2012;22:577-89 pubmed publisher
    We have studied the effects of spatial learning and predator stress-induced amnesia on the expression of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and calcineurin in the hippocampus,..
  20. Carlesimo G, Lombardi M, Caltagirone C. Vascular thalamic amnesia: a reappraisal. Neuropsychologia. 2011;49:777-789 pubmed publisher
    ..We aimed to find answers to the following questions concerning the vascular thalamic amnesia syndrome: (i) Which qualitative pattern of memory impairment (and associated cognitive and behavioral deficits) ..
  21. Race E, Keane M, Verfaellie M. Medial temporal lobe damage causes deficits in episodic memory and episodic future thinking not attributable to deficits in narrative construction. J Neurosci. 2011;31:10262-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that the ability to generate and maintain a detailed narrative is preserved in amnesia and suggest that a common MTL mechanism supports both episodic memory and episodic future thinking.
  22. Doi T, Shimada H, Makizako H, Yoshida D, Shimokata H, Ito K, et al. Characteristics of cognitive function in early and late stages of amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Geriatr Gerontol Int. 2013;13:83-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The current study sought to investigate differences in cognitive function between control subjects with no memory loss (control), and subjects in the early stage of aMCI (EMCI) and late stage of aMCI (LMCI)...
  23. Tellez R, Gómez Viquez L, Meneses A. GABA, glutamate, dopamine and serotonin transporters expression on memory formation and amnesia. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2012;97:189-201 pubmed publisher
    Notwithstanding several neurotransmission systems are frequently related to memory formation, amnesia and/or therapeutic targets for memory alterations, the role of transporters ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA, GAT1), glutamate (neuronal ..
  24. Gautam A, Wadhwa R, Thakur M. Involvement of hippocampal Arc in amnesia and its recovery by alcoholic extract of Ashwagandha leaves. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2013;106:177-84 pubmed publisher
    ..leaves (i-Extract) was recently shown to have preventive and therapeutic potential for scopolamine-induced amnesia and glutamate-induced excitotoxicity...
  25. Higashida H, Yokoyama S, Huang J, Liu L, Ma W, Akther S, et al. Social memory, amnesia, and autism: brain oxytocin secretion is regulated by NAD+ metabolites and single nucleotide polymorphisms of CD38. Neurochem Int. 2012;61:828-38 pubmed publisher
    ..When CD38 was disrupted, social amnesia was observed in Cd38 knockout mice...
  26. Mullally S, Intraub H, Maguire E. Attenuated boundary extension produces a paradoxical memory advantage in amnesic patients. Curr Biol. 2012;22:261-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that seven patients with selective bilateral hippocampal damage and amnesia, who cannot imagine spatially coherent scenes, displayed attenuated levels of boundary extension on three ..
  27. Kemp S, Illman N, Moulin C, Baddeley A. Accelerated long-term forgetting (ALF) and transient epileptic amnesia (TEA): two cases of epilepsy-related memory disorder. Epilepsy Behav. 2012;24:382-8 pubmed publisher
    ..complaint in this population have been identified: accelerated long-term forgetting (ALF) and transient epileptic amnesia (TEA)...
  28. Picard L, Mayor Dubois C, Maeder P, Kalenzaga S, Abram M, Duval C, et al. Functional independence within the self-memory system: new insights from two cases of developmental amnesia. Cortex. 2013;49:1463-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, they highlight developmental episodic and semantic functional independence within the self-memory system suggesting that SAM and CS may be acquired without episodic memories...
  29. Meares S, Shores E, Taylor A, Lammel A, Batchelor J. Validation of the Abbreviated Westmead Post-traumatic Amnesia Scale: a brief measure to identify acute cognitive impairment in mild traumatic brain injury. Brain Inj. 2011;25:1198-205 pubmed publisher
    To validate the use of the Abbreviated Westmead Post-traumatic Amnesia Scale (A-WPTAS) in the assessment of acute cognitive impairment in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI).
  30. Hanseeuw B, Dricot L, Kavec M, Grandin C, Seron X, Ivanoiu A. Associative encoding deficits in amnestic mild cognitive impairment: a volumetric and functional MRI study. Neuroimage. 2011;56:1743-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent behavioral studies suggested that associative memory could be more impaired than item memory in aMCI. So far, associative encoding has not been evaluated separately from item encoding in functional MRI studies...
  31. Mundy M, Downing P, Dwyer D, Honey R, Graham K. A critical role for the hippocampus and perirhinal cortex in perceptual learning of scenes and faces: complementary findings from amnesia and FMRI. J Neurosci. 2013;33:10490-502 pubmed publisher
  32. Warren D, Duff M, Magnotta V, Capizzano A, Cassell M, Tranel D. Long-term neuropsychological, neuroanatomical, and life outcome in hippocampal amnesia. Clin Neuropsychol. 2012;26:335-69 pubmed publisher
    Focal bilateral hippocampal damage typically causes severe and selective amnesia for new declarative information (facts and events), a cognitive deficit that greatly impacts the ability to live a normal, fully independent life...
  33. Josselyn S, Frankland P. Infantile amnesia: a neurogenic hypothesis. Learn Mem. 2012;19:423-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Freud described the phenomenon in which people are unable to recall events from early childhood as infantile amnesia. Although universally observed, infantile amnesia is a paradox; adults have surprisingly few memories of early ..
  34. Rose N, Olsen R, Craik F, Rosenbaum R. Working memory and amnesia: the role of stimulus novelty. Neuropsychologia. 2012;50:11-8 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the types of tasks that have demonstrated WM impairments in amnesia tend to have involved novel stimuli...
  35. Vaisman N, Pelled D. n-3 phosphatidylserine attenuated scopolamine-induced amnesia in middle-aged rats. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2009;33:952-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the n-3 LC-PUFA carrier may play a role in these fatty acids bioavailability and their impact on specific cognitive processes...
  36. Traykov L, Raoux N, Latour F, Gallo L, Hanon O, Baudic S, et al. Executive functions deficit in mild cognitive impairment. Cogn Behav Neurol. 2007;20:219-24 pubmed
  37. Storozheva Z, Proshin A, Sherstnev V, Storozhevykh T, Senilova Y, Persiyantseva N, et al. Dicholine salt of succinic acid, a neuronal insulin sensitizer, ameliorates cognitive deficits in rodent models of normal aging, chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, and beta-amyloid peptide-(25-35)-induced amnesia. BMC Pharmacol. 2008;8:1 pubmed publisher
  38. Dubrovina N, Zinovyev D, Zinovyeva D. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and amnesia in mice with depression-like state. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2007;144:647-9 pubmed
    ..and blockade (dizocilpine and 7-chlorokynurenic acid) of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors on the development of amnesia in intact and depressive mice under conditions of conditioned passive avoidance response...
  39. van de Pol L, Verhey F, Frisoni G, Tsolaki M, Papapostolou P, Nobili F, et al. White matter hyperintensities and medial temporal lobe atrophy in clinical subtypes of mild cognitive impairment: the DESCRIPA study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2009;80:1069-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinical subtypes of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) may represent different underlying aetiologies...
  40. Qi Z, Wu X, Wang Z, Zhang N, Dong H, Yao L, et al. Impairment and compensation coexist in amnestic MCI default mode network. Neuroimage. 2010;50:48-55 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that abnormal DMN activity could be useful as an imaging-based biomarker for the diagnosis and monitoring of aMCI patients...
  41. Qi Z, Gold P. Intrahippocampal infusions of anisomycin produce amnesia: contribution of increased release of norepinephrine, dopamine, and acetylcholine. Learn Mem. 2009;16:308-14 pubmed publisher
    ..intra-amygdala injections of the beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol attenuates anisomycin-induced amnesia without reversing the inhibition of protein synthesis, and injections of NE alone produce amnesia...
  42. Ren Y, Zhang F, Xue Q, Zhao X, Yu B. Bilateral inhibition of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor function within the basolateral amygdala blocked propofol-induced amnesia and activity-regulated cytoskeletal protein expression inhibition in the hippocampus. Anesthesiology. 2008;109:775-81 pubmed publisher
    It has been reported that bilateral lesions of the basolateral amygdala complex (BLA) blocked propofol-induced amnesia of inhibitory avoidance (IA) training...
  43. Alkire M, Guzowski J. Hypothesis: suppression of memory protein formation underlies anesthetic-induced amnesia. Anesthesiology. 2008;109:768-70 pubmed publisher
  44. Cacciari C, Moraschi M, Di Paola M, Cherubini A, Orfei M, Giove F, et al. White matter microstructure and apathy level in amnestic mild cognitive impairment. J Alzheimers Dis. 2010;20:501-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support the view that alterations in the neural mechanisms underlying apathy level occur in the early phase of degenerative dementias...
  45. Gardiner J, Brandt K, Baddeley A, Vargha Khadem F, Mishkin M. Charting the acquisition of semantic knowledge in a case of developmental amnesia. Neuropsychologia. 2008;46:2865-8 pubmed publisher
    We report the acquisition and recall of novel facts by Jon, a young adult with early onset developmental amnesia whose episodic memory is gravely impaired due to selective bilateral hippocampal damage...
  46. Amaral O, Osan R, Roesler R, Tort A. A synaptic reinforcement-based model for transient amnesia following disruptions of memory consolidation and reconsolidation. Hippocampus. 2008;18:584-601 pubmed publisher
    ..Similarly, recent demonstrations of transient amnesia caused by interventions following memory reactivation have been used to question the existence of a retrieval-..
  47. Vann S. Gudden's ventral tegmental nucleus is vital for memory: re-evaluating diencephalic inputs for amnesia. Brain. 2009;132:2372-84 pubmed publisher
    ..While most accounts of diencephalic amnesia emphasize the functional importance of the hippocampal projections to the mammillary bodies, the present study ..
  48. Bryant R, Creamer M, O Donnell M, Silove D, Clark C, McFarlane A. Post-traumatic amnesia and the nature of post-traumatic stress disorder after mild traumatic brain injury. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2009;15:862-7 pubmed publisher
    ..1167 survivors of traumatic injury (MTBI: 459, No TBI: 708) were assessed for PTSD symptoms and post-traumatic amnesia during hospitalization, and were subsequently assessed for PTSD 3 months later (N = 920)...
  49. Arzy S, Bick A, Blanke O. Mental time in amnesia: evidence from bilateral medial temporal damage before and after recovery. Cogn Neuropsychol. 2009;26:503-10 pubmed publisher
    ..a novel behavioural paradigm, in a patient with subacute bilateral medial-temporal damage during a period of amnesia as well as after recovery...
  50. Teipel S, Pogarell O, Meindl T, Dietrich O, Sydykova D, Hunklinger U, et al. Regional networks underlying interhemispheric connectivity: an EEG and DTI study in healthy ageing and amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Hum Brain Mapp. 2009;30:2098-119 pubmed publisher
    ..05). The study provides a methodology to access specific networks of subcortical fiber tracts subserving the maintenance of interhemispheric resting state coherence in the human brain...
  51. Tustin K, Hayne H. Defining the boundary: age-related changes in childhood amnesia. Dev Psychol. 2010;46:1049-61 pubmed publisher
    Childhood amnesia refers to the inability of adults to recall events that occurred during their infancy and early childhood...
  52. Zarrindast M, Hoghooghi V, Rezayof A. Inhibition of morphine-induced amnesia in morphine-sensitized mice: involvement of dorsal hippocampal GABAergic receptors. Neuropharmacology. 2008;54:569-76 pubmed
    ..of the GABAergic receptor agents into the dorsal hippocampal CA1 regions (intra-CA1) on morphine-induced amnesia were examined in morphine sensitized-mice. Pre-training subcutaneous (s.c...
  53. Aly M, Knight R, Yonelinas A. Faces are special but not too special: spared face recognition in amnesia is based on familiarity. Neuropsychologia. 2010;48:3941-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent studies of amnesia have challenged the material-general assumption by suggesting that the MTL may be necessary for remembering words,..