coma

Summary

Summary: A profound state of unconsciousness associated with depressed cerebral activity from which the individual cannot be aroused. Coma generally occurs when there is dysfunction or injury involving both cerebral hemispheres or the brain stem RETICULAR FORMATION.

Top Publications

  1. Daltrozzo J, Wioland N, Mutschler V, Kotchoubey B. Predicting coma and other low responsive patients outcome using event-related brain potentials: a meta-analysis. Clin Neurophysiol. 2007;118:606-14 pubmed
  2. Tzovara A, Rossetti A, Spierer L, Grivel J, Murray M, Oddo M, et al. Progression of auditory discrimination based on neural decoding predicts awakening from coma. Brain. 2013;136:81-9 pubmed publisher
    ..However, because auditory discrimination is assessed at various delays after coma onset, it is still unclear whether this impairment depends on the time of the recording...
  3. Manko G, Ziółkowski A, Mirski A, Kłosiński M. The effectiveness of selected Tai Chi exercises in a program of strategic rehabilitation aimed at improving the self-care skills of patients aroused from prolonged coma after severe TBI. Med Sci Monit. 2013;19:767-72 pubmed publisher
    Difficulties in self-care constitute a very common problem for patients recovering from prolonged coma after a severe TBI, and a major factor reducing their quality of life...
  4. Boccagni C, Bagnato S, Sant Angelo A, Prestandrea C, Galardi G. Usefulness of standard EEG in predicting the outcome of patients with disorders of consciousness after anoxic coma. J Clin Neurophysiol. 2011;28:489-92 pubmed publisher
    Although standard EEG is performed routinely in patients with disorders of consciousness after coma, its prognostic value is still debated...
  5. Ibekwe R, Ibekwe M, Onwe O, Nnebe Agumadu U, Ibe B. Non-traumatic childhood coma in Ebonyi State University Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, South Eastern Nigeria. Niger J Clin Pract. 2011;14:43-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Coma is a medical emergency, and optimal management, especially in a resource-poor setting, would depend on the knowledge of its etiology and predictors of outcome...
  6. Gosseries O, Schnakers C, Ledoux D, Vanhaudenhuyse A, Bruno M, Demertzi A, et al. Automated EEG entropy measurements in coma, vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome and minimally conscious state. Funct Neurol. 2011;26:25-30 pubmed
    ..to investigate the usefulness of electroencephalography (EEG) entropy measurements in differentiating unconscious (coma or vegetative) from minimally conscious patients...
  7. Lehembre R, Gosseries O, Lugo Z, Jedidi Z, Chatelle C, Sadzot B, et al. Electrophysiological investigations of brain function in coma, vegetative and minimally conscious patients. Arch Ital Biol. 2012;150:122-39 pubmed publisher
    ..This will allow the identification of specific patterns related to the diagnostic of consciousness. Standardized procedures in the use of BCIs will also be needed to find the most suited technique for each individual patient...
  8. Ong C, Gilmore E, Claassen J, Foreman B, Mayer S. Impact of prolonged periodic epileptiform discharges on coma prognosis. Neurocrit Care. 2012;17:39-44 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that frequent PED activity in comatose patients is associated with reduced likelihood of recovery of consciousness...
  9. Ahboucha S, Talani G, Fanutza T, Sanna E, Biggio G, Gamrani H, et al. Reduced brain levels of DHEAS in hepatic coma patients: significance for increased GABAergic tone in hepatic encephalopathy. Neurochem Int. 2012;61:48-53 pubmed publisher
    ..by radioimmunoassay in frontal cortex samples obtained at autopsy from 11 cirrhotic patients who died in hepatic coma and from an equal number of controls matched for age, gender, and autopsy delay intervals free from hepatic or ..

More Information

Publications62

  1. Pachalska M, Łukowicz M, Kropotov J, Herman Sucharska I, Talar J. Evaluation of differentiated neurotherapy programs for a patient after severe TBI and long term coma using event-related potentials. Med Sci Monit. 2011;17:CS120-8 pubmed
    ..of differentiated rehabilitation programs for a patient with frontal syndrome after severe TBI and long-term coma. We hypothesized that there would be a small response to relative beta training, and a good response to rTMS, ..
  2. Bouwes A, Binnekade J, Kuiper M, Bosch F, Zandstra D, Toornvliet A, et al. Prognosis of coma after therapeutic hypothermia: a prospective cohort study. Ann Neurol. 2012;71:206-12 pubmed publisher
  3. Heiss W. PET in coma and in vegetative state. Eur J Neurol. 2012;19:207-11 pubmed publisher
    ..These patients may remain in coma or in vegetative state...
  4. Lundbye J, Rai M, Ramu B, Hosseini Khalili A, Li D, Slim H, et al. Therapeutic hypothermia is associated with improved neurologic outcome and survival in cardiac arrest survivors of non-shockable rhythms. Resuscitation. 2012;83:202-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that therapeutic hypothermia favorably impacts neurologic outcome and survival in patients resuscitated from cardiac arrest due to non-shockable rhythms...
  5. Lampah D, Yeo T, Hardianto S, Tjitra E, Kenangalem E, Sugiarto P, et al. Coma associated with microscopy-diagnosed Plasmodium vivax: a prospective study in Papua, Indonesia. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e1032 pubmed publisher
    b>Coma complicates Plasmodium falciparum infection but is uncommonly associated with P. vivax. Most series of vivax coma have been retrospective and have not utilized molecular methods to exclude mixed infections with P. falciparum.
  6. Rittenberger J, Popescu A, Brenner R, Guyette F, Callaway C. Frequency and timing of nonconvulsive status epilepticus in comatose post-cardiac arrest subjects treated with hypothermia. Neurocrit Care. 2012;16:114-22 pubmed publisher
    ..However, nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) may cause persistent coma. The frequency and timing of NCSE after cardiac arrest is unknown.
  7. Gwer S, Idro R, Fegan G, Chengo E, Garrashi H, White S, et al. Continuous EEG monitoring in Kenyan children with non-traumatic coma. Arch Dis Child. 2012;97:343-9 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to describe the EEG and clinical profile of seizures in children with non-traumatic coma, compare seizure detection by clinical observations with that by continuous EEG, and relate EEG features to outcome...
  8. Taftachi F, Sanaei Zadeh H, Sepehrian B, Zamani N. Lipid emulsion improves Glasgow coma scale and decreases blood glucose level in the setting of acute non-local anesthetic drug poisoning--a randomized controlled trial. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2012;16 Suppl 1:38-42 pubmed
    ..To date, no study has been performed to evaluate the antidotal effect of intravenous lipid emulsion on the poisoned patients' level of consciousness and routine metabolic profile tests in non-local anesthetic drug overdose...
  9. Girard T. Brain dysfunction in patients with chronic critical illness. Respir Care. 2012;57:947-55; discussion 955-7 pubmed publisher
    Critically ill patients frequently experience acute brain dysfunction in the form of coma or delirium, both of which are common during acute and chronic critical illness (CCI)...
  10. Eikermann Haerter K, Yuzawa I, Qin T, Wang Y, Baek K, Kim Y, et al. Enhanced subcortical spreading depression in familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 mutant mice. J Neurosci. 2011;31:5755-63 pubmed publisher
    ..S218L mutation causes severe channel dysfunction, and paroxysmal migraine attacks can be accompanied by seizures, coma, and hemiplegia; patients expressing the R192Q mutation exhibit hemiplegia only...
  11. Berling I, Whyte I, Isbister G. Oxycodone overdose causes naloxone responsive coma and QT prolongation. QJM. 2013;106:35-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Given the high prescription rate and increasing use of oxycodone, an understanding of its effects and treatment in overdose is necessary...
  12. Janusonis T, Maciulaitis R, Sveikata A, Milasius A, Kregzdyte R. Rationality of administered gentamicin dose in cerebral coma patients treated in an intensive care unit. Medicina (Kaunas). 2011;47:79-84 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to determine Cmax and Cmin in serum of cerebral coma ICU patients when a dosage of gentamicin of 5 mg/kg body weight was administered once daily; to evaluate the ..
  13. Godano U, Ferrai R, Meleddu V, Bellinzona M. Hemorrhagic colloid cyst with sudden coma. Minim Invasive Neurosurg. 2010;53:273-4 pubmed publisher
    ..This, in turn, may be the result of acute cyst swelling, which can exceptionally be due to an intralesional hemorrhage...
  14. Laureys S, Schiff N. Coma and consciousness: paradigms (re)framed by neuroimaging. Neuroimage. 2012;61:478-91 pubmed publisher
    ..We here review these advances in measurement and the scientific and broader implications of this rapidly progressing field of research...
  15. Medana I, Day N, Sachanonta N, Mai N, Dondorp A, Pongponratn E, et al. Coma in fatal adult human malaria is not caused by cerebral oedema. Malar J. 2011;10:267 pubmed publisher
    The role of brain oedema in the pathophysiology of cerebral malaria is controversial. Coma associated with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria is multifactorial, but associated with histological evidence of parasitized erythrocyte ..
  16. Jia X, Yan J, Xia J, Xiong J, Wang T, Chen Y, et al. Arousal effects of orexin A on acute alcohol intoxication-induced coma in rats. Neuropharmacology. 2012;62:775-83 pubmed publisher
    ..in normal mammalian animals, but whether orexins exert arousal effects under pathological condition such as coma was little studied...
  17. Yorulmaz H, Seker F, Oztas B. The effects of hypoglycemic and alcoholic coma on the blood-brain barrier permeability. Bosn J Basic Med Sci. 2011;11:108-12 pubmed
    In this investigation, the effects of hypoglycemic coma and alcoholic coma on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability have been compared...
  18. De Georgia M, Raad B. Prognosis of coma after cardiac arrest in the era of hypothermia. Continuum (Minneap Minn). 2012;18:515-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Outcome prediction is more difficult in comatose survivors of cardiac arrest who are treated with hypothermia than in those who are kept normothermic. This article compares prognostication measures in these two groups of patients...
  19. Gwer S, Idro R, Fegan G, Chengo E, Mpoya A, Kivaya E, et al. Fosphenytoin for seizure prevention in childhood coma in Africa: a randomized clinical trial. J Crit Care. 2013;28:1086-92 pubmed publisher
    ..a single intramuscular injection of fosphenytoin prevents seizures and neurologic sequelae in children with acute coma. We conducted this study at Kilifi District Hospital in coastal Kenya and Kondele Children's Hospital in western ..
  20. Mani R, Schmitt S, Mazer M, Putt M, Gaieski D. The frequency and timing of epileptiform activity on continuous electroencephalogram in comatose post-cardiac arrest syndrome patients treated with therapeutic hypothermia. Resuscitation. 2012;83:840-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that onset most frequently occurs within the first 24 h post-arrest and is associated with poor neurologic outcome...
  21. Skrobik Y, Leger C, Cossette M, Michaud V, Turgeon J. Factors predisposing to coma and delirium: fentanyl and midazolam exposure; CYP3A5, ABCB1, and ABCG2 genetic polymorphisms; and inflammatory factors. Crit Care Med. 2013;41:999-1008 pubmed publisher
    Delirium and sedative-induced coma are described as incremental manifestations of cerebral dysfunction...
  22. Zanatta P, Messerotti Benvenuti S, Baldanzi F, Bosco E. Pain-related middle-latency somatosensory evoked potentials in the prognosis of post anoxic coma: a preliminary report. Minerva Anestesiol. 2012;78:749-56 pubmed
    ..The main aim of the present study was to investigate whether painful electrical stimulation might be considered a provocative test in producing MLCEPs and predictor of patient's outcomes after cardiac arrest...
  23. Ponsford M, Medana I, Prapansilp P, Hien T, Lee S, Dondorp A, et al. Sequestration and microvascular congestion are associated with coma in human cerebral malaria. J Infect Dis. 2012;205:663-71 pubmed publisher
    The pathogenesis of coma in severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria remains poorly understood...
  24. Armstrong G, Rodríguez E, Meldrum Robertson R. Cold hardening modulates K+ homeostasis in the brain of Drosophila melanogaster during chill coma. J Insect Physiol. 2012;58:1511-6 pubmed publisher
    ..At both low and high temperature extremes insects enter a coma during which individuals do not display behaviour and are unresponsive to stimulation...
  25. Bouwes A, Binnekade J, Verbaan B, Zandbergen E, Koelman J, Weinstein H, et al. Predictive value of neurological examination for early cortical responses to somatosensory evoked potentials in patients with postanoxic coma. J Neurol. 2012;259:537-41 pubmed publisher
    ..responses of median nerve somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) predicts poor neurological outcome in postanoxic coma after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)...
  26. Mohanty S, Mishra S, Patnaik R, Dutt A, Pradhan S, Das B, et al. Brain swelling and mannitol therapy in adult cerebral malaria: a randomized trial. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;53:349-55 pubmed publisher
    b>Coma is a frequent presentation of severe malaria in adults and an important cause of death. The role of cerebral swelling in its pathogenesis, and the possible benefit of intravenous mannitol therapy to treat this, is uncertain.
  27. Oddo M, Schaller M, Feihl F, Ribordy V, Liaudet L. From evidence to clinical practice: effective implementation of therapeutic hypothermia to improve patient outcome after cardiac arrest. Crit Care Med. 2006;34:1865-73 pubmed
    Therapeutic hypothermia has been recommended for postcardiac arrest coma due to ventricular fibrillation...
  28. Wijdicks E. Clinical scales for comatose patients: the Glasgow Coma Scale in historical context and the new FOUR Score. Rev Neurol Dis. 2006;3:109-17 pubmed
    The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) has been the gold standard for assessing the level of consciousness in patients with significant brain injury...
  29. Knafelj R, Radsel P, Ploj T, Noc M. Primary percutaneous coronary intervention and mild induced hypothermia in comatose survivors of ventricular fibrillation with ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction. Resuscitation. 2007;74:227-34 pubmed
    ..Such a strategy may improve survival with good neurological recovery...
  30. Al Thenayan E, Savard M, Sharpe M, Norton L, Young B. Predictors of poor neurologic outcome after induced mild hypothermia following cardiac arrest. Neurology. 2008;71:1535-7 pubmed publisher
    ..However, these studies preceded the advent of therapeutic induced mild hypothermia (TIMH), which may alter their validity. The objective of this study is to reassess the validity of these predictors in post-CA patients treated with TIMH...
  31. Idro R, Otieno G, White S, Kahindi A, Fegan G, Ogutu B, et al. Decorticate, decerebrate and opisthotonic posturing and seizures in Kenyan children with cerebral malaria. Malar J. 2005;4:57 pubmed
    ..Abnormal motor posturing is often observed in children with cerebral malaria, but the aetiology and pathogenesis is poorly understood. This study examined the risk factors and outcome of posturing in Kenyan children with cerebral malaria...
  32. Schnakers C, Majerus S, Laureys S. Bispectral analysis of electroencephalogram signals during recovery from coma: preliminary findings. Neuropsychol Rehabil. 2005;15:381-8 pubmed
    ..An empirically defined BIS cut-off value of 50 differentiated unconscious patients (coma or vegetative state) from conscious patients (minimally conscious state or emergence from minimally conscious state)..
  33. Su Y, Yang Q, Pang Y, Lv X. Evaluation of coma patients after cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Chin Med J (Engl). 2005;118:1808-11 pubmed
    b>Coma after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is commonly seen in daily clinical practice. How to objectively evaluate brain function after CPR is essential to the following treatment...
  34. Tshibanda L, Vanhaudenhuyse A, Boly M, Soddu A, Bruno M, Moonen G, et al. Neuroimaging after coma. Neuroradiology. 2010;52:15-24 pubmed publisher
    Following coma, some patients will recover wakefulness without signs of consciousness (only showing reflex movements, i.e., the vegetative state) or may show non-reflex movements but remain without functional communication (i.e...
  35. Luaute J, Fischer C, Adeleine P, Morlet D, Tell L, Boisson D. Late auditory and event-related potentials can be useful to predict good functional outcome after coma. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2005;86:917-23 pubmed
    ..To investigate whether late auditory and event-related potentials, and in particular N100 and mismatch negativity, together with clinical parameters, can help to predict good functional outcome in comatose patients...
  36. Cuturic M, Abramson R. Acute hyperammonemic coma with chronic valproic acid therapy. Ann Pharmacother. 2005;39:2119-23 pubmed
    To report a case of dose-related hyperammonemic coma without liver failure in a patient receiving chronic valproate therapy.
  37. Rundgren M, Rosen I, Friberg H. Amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG) predicts outcome after cardiac arrest and induced hypothermia. Intensive Care Med. 2006;32:836-42 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the use of continuous amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG) as a prognostic tool for survival and neurological outcome in cardiac arrest patients treated with hypothermia...
  38. Seule M, Muroi C, Mink S, Yonekawa Y, Keller E. Therapeutic hypothermia in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, refractory intracranial hypertension, or cerebral vasospasm. Neurosurgery. 2009;64:86-92; discussion 92-3 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the feasibility and safety of mild hypothermia treatment in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) who are experiencing intracranial hypertension and/or cerebral vasospasm (CVS)...
  39. Kalmar K, Giacino J. The JFK Coma Recovery Scale--Revised. Neuropsychol Rehabil. 2005;15:454-60 pubmed
    The JFK Coma Recovery Scale (CRS) was developed to help characterise and monitor patients functioning at Rancho Levels I-IV and has been used widely in both clinical and research settings within the US and Europe...
  40. Gunja N, Varshney K. Brainstem anaesthesia after retrobulbar block: a rare cause of coma presenting to the emergency department. Emerg Med Australas. 2006;18:83-5 pubmed
    ..This case highlights the need for trained personnel, with suitable monitoring and adequate resuscitation facilities in order to perform this technique...
  41. Shahwan A, Bailey C, Shekerdemian L, Harvey A. The prevalence of seizures in comatose children in the pediatric intensive care unit: a prospective video-EEG study. Epilepsia. 2010;51:1198-204 pubmed publisher
    ..We aimed to determine prospectively the prevalence of epileptic seizures (clinical and subclinical) in comatose children in the pediatric ICU using continuous video-EEG (v-EEG) monitoring...
  42. Wijdicks E, Hijdra A, Young G, Bassetti C, Wiebe S. Practice parameter: prediction of outcome in comatose survivors after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (an evidence-based review): report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology. 2006;67:203-10 pubmed
    ..To systematically review outcomes in comatose survivors after cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)...
  43. Bansal A, Singhi S, Singhi P, Khandelwal N, Ramesh S. Non traumatic coma. Indian J Pediatr. 2005;72:467-73 pubmed
    To study the etiology and clinical profile of non-traumatic coma in children and to determine the clinical signs predictive of outcome.
  44. Hekmatpanah J. Cerebral microvessel perfusion and pathologic alteration of the brain during drowsiness and coma caused by brain tumor: a laboratory study on rats. Surg Neurol. 2007;67:564-71; discussion 571 pubmed
    In cerebral compression, deterioration of consciousness and coma are traditionally thought to be caused by compression, shift, hemorrhage, or herniation of the brain stem...
  45. Prohl J, Rother J, Kluge S, de Heer G, Liepert J, Bodenburg S, et al. Prediction of short-term and long-term outcomes after cardiac arrest: a prospective multivariate approach combining biochemical, clinical, electrophysiological, and neuropsychological investigations. Crit Care Med. 2007;35:1230-7 pubmed
    ..To determine the prognostic accuracy of biochemical, clinical, electrophysiological, and neuropsychological investigations in predicting outcomes after cardiac arrest...
  46. Schefold J, Storm C, Krüger A, Ploner C, Hasper D. The Glasgow Coma Score is a predictor of good outcome in cardiac arrest patients treated with therapeutic hypothermia. Resuscitation. 2009;80:658-61 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore analysed the usefulness of the Glasgow coma score (GCS) for outcome prediction in survivors of cardiac arrest treated with therapeutic hypothermia.
  47. Hayes G. Severe seizures associated with traumatic brain injury managed by controlled hypothermia, pharmacologic coma, and mechanical ventilation in a dog. J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio). 2009;19:629-34 pubmed publisher
    ..To describe the management and outcome of a dog presenting with intractable seizures associated with traumatic brain injury...
  48. Forsyth R, Wolny S, Rodrigues B. Routine intracranial pressure monitoring in acute coma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;:CD002043 pubmed publisher
    ..Detection of raised ICP could be useful in alerting clinicians to the need to improve cerebral perfusion, with consequent reductions in brain injury...
  49. Poplas Susic T, Klemenc Ketis Z, Komericki Grzinic M, Kersnik J. Glasgow Coma Scale in acute poisonings before and after use of antidote in patients with history of use of psychotropic agents. Srp Arh Celok Lek. 2010;138:210-3 pubmed
    ..Data on emergency interventions in poisonings are scarce. Objective To determine the effectiveness of antidote therapy in acute poisoning-related emergency medical services (EMS) interventions...
  50. Fischer C, Luaute J, Nemoz C, Morlet D, Kirkorian G, Mauguiere F. Improved prediction of awakening or nonawakening from severe anoxic coma using tree-based classification analysis. Crit Care Med. 2006;34:1520-4 pubmed
    To evaluate the utility of sensory and event-related evoked potentials for the prediction of awakening/nonawakening in severe anoxic coma and to design a decision tree helping decision for any patient in this condition.
  51. Veris van Dieren J, Valk L, van Geijlswijk I, Tjan D, van Zanten A. Coma with ECG abnormalities: consider tricyclic antidepressant intoxication. Neth J Med. 2007;65:142-6 pubmed
    ..Although initially not suspected, the coma was caused by tricyclic antidepressant intoxication (TCA)...
  52. Hoesch R, Koenig M, Geocadin R. Coma after global ischemic brain injury: pathophysiology and emerging therapies. Crit Care Clin. 2008;24:25-44, vii-viii pubmed publisher
    ..Neurological complications associated with global cerebral ischemia include disorders of responsiveness, such as coma and the vegetative state, seizures, motor deficits, and brain death...
  53. Kornbluth J, Bhardwaj A. Evaluation of coma: a critical appraisal of popular scoring systems. Neurocrit Care. 2011;14:134-43 pubmed publisher
    Numerous scoring scales have been proposed and validated to evaluate coma for rapid pre-hospital assessment and triage, disease severity, and prognosis for morbidity and mortality...